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A Study on the Knowledge and Use of Essential Oil by People of Different Age -Focused on women in Zhejiang, China-

  • Ying, Qiaomeng;Kim, Kyeong-Ran
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 2021
  • With the advent of the age of"untact" modern people are pursuing a healthy body and mind. In order to achieve well-being, LOHAS and Wellness,people prefer to use natural affinity alternative therapies, Aromatherapy. This study focuses on women in their 20s~50s in Zhejiang Province, with the aim of investigating their knowledge and use of essential oils.The questionnaire was divided into four parts: 3 questions for general question, 11 questions for knowledge, 13 questions for use and 9 questions for satisfaction. In addition, the study was conducted using the WeChat and the Wenjuanxing Program from July 5 to August 30, 2019. Finally, a total of 617 questionnaires were analyzed. In this study, SPSS WIN 21.0 program is used for frequency analysis. The level of knowledge and satisfaction is verified by Cronbach's α. And the following analysis results were obtained by frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test(χ2), one-way ANOVA on the understanding level and usege of essential oils according to age. The results were as follows. The most common characteristics of subjects were the 20s, university students, essential oil recognition was high in having experience. There is no great difference in knowledge or satisfaction depending on age. knowledge and satisfaction was moderate. The results of experience in the use of essential oils were higher among all age groups, those who in their 30s did not think that the use of essential oils would be effective. However, people in their 20s and 40s and older have unclear answers, indicating that results showed a difference. The results of the survey on usage showed that there were significant differences in period of use, place of purchase, method of purchase, purpose of use, place of use, number of use, frequency of use, body parts of use. According to the study, awareness and knowledge of essential oils vary according to age, and those in their 20s use essential oils for facial skin, and those in their 30s and older use essential oils for stress relief and body management. This study provides basic information on marketing related to diversified essential oil products according to age.

Development of 3D Viewer for Tree Cavity using Pulse Ultrasound (펄스 초음파를 이용한 수목 공동부 3D 구현 프로그램 제작)

  • Son, Jungmin;Kang, Sunghoon;Moon, Jongwook;Yoon, Seokkyu;Park, Jikoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2021
  • The pattern of the tree's internal swelling depends on many causes. Since it is difficult to detect these various causes of swelling with a general method, if the state of swelling for a long time cannot be confirmed, serious damage to the trees may occur due to enlargement of the swelling area. In the method of acquiring a tree tomography image, an impulse passing through the tree is generated by tapping the sensor with a rubber mallet, and the moving speed is recorded. In this paper, to measure cracks, cavities, and swelling due to physical damage, we developed a 3D viewer that can know the internal state of a tree using a tree cross-section image acquired from Arbotom to determine the degree of swelling inside the tree. Based on this, we tried to present data that can be referred to when surgical operation of trees is required. In order to acquire a tomographic image of a tree, 6 sensors were attached to the three Yangpala and Maple trees, and a 1 m-long tree was measured using the Arbotom program, and a 3D image was implemented through the 3D Viewer created using MATLAB. In addition to simply acquiring images, the cross-sectional length and volume of the tree were measured. In the actually produced 3D Viewer, the length of the part where the swelling of the maple tree occurred was 33.12 cm, and the swelling of the yangpala tree was measured as 21.41 cm. The volume of the maple tree was measured to be 78.832 ㎤. As a result of comparing the cross-sectional image of the Arbotom and the 3D image, the same result as the real aspect of the tree was obtained, so it can be judged that the reliability of the manufactured software is also secured, and data to be applied to the surgical tree operation through the created Viewer is provided. It is believed that the damage will be minimized.

Determination of the Optimum Sampling Area for the Benthic Community Study of the Songdo Tidal Flat and Youngil Bay Subtidal Sediment (송도 갯벌과 영일만 조하대 저서동물의 군집조사를 위한 적정 채집면적의 결정)

  • Koh, Chul-Hwan;Kang, Seong-Gil;Lee, Chang-Bok
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 1999
  • The optimum sampling area which can be applied to the benthic community study is estimated from large survey data in the Songdo tidal flat and subtidal zone of Youngil Bay, Korea. A total of 250 samples by 0.02 $m^2$ box corer for the benthic fauna in Songdo tidal flat and 50 samples by 0.1 $m^2$ van Veen grab in Youngil Bay were taken from the total sampling area of 5 $m^2$. It was assumed that the sampling area could contain sufficient information on sediment fauna, if cumulative number of species, ecological indices, and similarity index by cluster analysis reflect the similarity level of 75% to those found at total sampling area (5 $m^2$). A total of 56 and 60 species occurred from Songdo tidal flat and Youngil Bay, respectively. The cumulative curve of the species number ($N_{sp}$) as a function of the sampling area (A in $m^2$ ) was fitted as $N_{sp}=37.379A^{0.257}$ ($r^2=0.99$) for intertidal fauna and $N_{sp}=40.895A^{0.257}$ ($r^2=0.98$) for subtidal fauna. Based on these curves and 75% of similarity to the total sampling area (5 $m^2$), the optimum sampling area was proposed as 1.6 $m^2$ for the intertidal and 1.5 $m^2$ for the subtidal fauna. Ecological indices (species diversity, richness, evenness and dominance indices) were again calculated on the basis of species composition in differently simulated sample sizes. Changes in ecological indices with these sample sizes indicated that samplings could be done by collecting fauna from < 0.5 $m^2$-1.5 $m^2$ on the Songdo tidal flat and from < 0.5 $m^2$-1.2 $m^2$ in Youngil Bay. Changes in similarity level of all units of each simulated sample size showed that sampling area of 0.3 $m^2$ (Songdo tidal flat) and 0.6 $m^2$ (Youngil Bay) should be taken to obtain a similarity level of 75%. In conclusion, sampling area which was determined by cumulative number of species, ecological indices and similarity index by cluster analysis could be determined as 1.5 $m^2$ (0.02 $m^2$ box corer, n=75) for Songdo tidal flat and 1.2 $m^2$ (0.1 $m^2$ van Veen grab, n=12) for Youngil Bay. If these sampling areas could be covered in the field survey, population densities of seven dominant species comprising 68% of the total faunal abundance occurring on Songdo tidal flat and six species comprising 90% in Youngil Bay can be estimated at the precision level of P=0.2.

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The Health Behavior Patterns of Some Rural Residents in Korea and Their Association with Health Status and Health Management Practice (일부 농촌주민의 건강행위유형과 건강상태 및 건강관련실태와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Young-Gab;Kang, Myung-Guen;Ryu, So-Yeon;Kim, Ki-Soon;Kang, Sung-Deuk
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-63
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to classify the patterns of health behaviors of some rural residents in Korea by sub-grouping them into populations with similar patterns of diet quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, and then to investigate the relationship between these health behavior patterns and health status or health management of them. Methods: The study subjects were 722 rural residents above 20 years old on a typical rural district in Korea, and the data used in this study was from the survey data for health planning of a health center. Study questionnaire for this survey was developed from modifying the questionnaire for 'National Nutrition and Health Study' conducted in 1998. To classify health behavior patterns, cluster analysis was conducted. And to test the association of health behavior patterns with health status or health management, multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: The results and their implications of this study were as follows: 1. We identified six health behavior typologies : 67.8% of the sample had a good diet quality but showed sedentary activity level(good diet lifestyle) and 10.9% had heavy smoking behavior(smoking lifestyle). Individuals included in fitness lifestyle cluster(6.2%) had high physical activity level and those in drinking life style(2.6%) had had mainly large amount of alcohol. Zero point six percent of sample were included in hedonic lifestyle cluster, who showed poor health behaviors in all. Those included in passive lifestyle(11.9%) had no active health promoting activities but tended to avoid risk taking health behavior such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. 2. As a result of logistic regression analysis, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the prevalence of chronic diseases of those in fitness lifestyle showed higher and that of those in smoking lifestyle, drinking lifestyle, hedonic lifestyle, passive lifestyle showed lower than them, retrospectively. 3. Adjusting with general characteristics and health status, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the proportion of those who had good health management practices in fitness lifestyle was higher, and the proportion of those who had health check in past 2 years was lower than them, retrospectively. Conclusions: There were some differences in health behavior patterns between rural population and national population, which influenced significantly on health status and health management practice of them. We suggested that the health promotion program for them be developed with considering these points.

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An Empirical Study on Perceived Value and Continuous Intention to Use of Smart Phone, and the Moderating Effect of Personal Innovativeness (스마트폰의 지각된 가치와 지속적 사용의도, 그리고 개인 혁신성의 조절효과)

  • Han, Joonhyoung;Kang, Sungbae;Moon, Taesoo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.53-84
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    • 2013
  • With rapid development of ICT (Information and Communications Technology), new services by the convergence of mobile network and application technology began to appear. Today, smart phone with new ICT convergence network capabilities is exceedingly popular and very useful as a new tool for the development of business opportunities. Previous studies based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) suggested critical factors, which should be considered for acquiring new customers and maintaining existing users in smart phone market. However, they had a limitation to focus on technology acceptance, not value based approach. Prior studies on customer's adoption of electronic utilities like smart phone product showed that the antecedents such as the perceived benefit and the perceived sacrifice could explain the causality between what is perceived and what is acquired over diverse contexts. So, this research conceptualizes perceived value as a trade-off between perceived benefit and perceived sacrifice, and we need to research the perceived value to grasp user's continuous intention to use of smart phone. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structured relationship between benefit (quality, usefulness, playfulness) and sacrifice (technicality, cost, security risk) of smart phone users, perceived value, and continuous intention to use. In addition, this study intends to analyze the differences between two subgroups of smart phone users by the degree of personal innovativeness. Personal innovativeness could help us to understand the moderating effect between how perceptions are formed and continuous intention to use smart phone. This study conducted survey through e-mail, direct mail, and interview with smart phone users. Empirical analysis based on 330 respondents was conducted in order to test the hypotheses. First, the result of hypotheses testing showed that perceived usefulness among three factors of perceived benefit has the highest positive impact on perceived value, and then followed by perceived playfulness and perceived quality. Second, the result of hypotheses testing showed that perceived cost among three factors of perceived sacrifice has significantly negative impact on perceived value, however, technicality and security risk have no significant impact on perceived value. Also, the result of hypotheses testing showed that perceived value has significant direct impact on continuous intention to use of smart phone. In this regard, marketing managers of smart phone company should pay more attention to improve task efficiency and performance of smart phone, including rate systems of smart phone. Additionally, to test the moderating effect of personal innovativeness, this research conducted multi-group analysis by the degree of personal innovativeness of smart phone users. In a group with high level of innovativeness, perceived usefulness has the highest positive influence on perceived value than other factors. Instead, the analysis for a group with low level of innovativeness showed that perceived playfulness was the highest positive factor to influence perceived value than others. This result of the group with high level of innovativeness explains that innovators and early adopters are able to cope with higher level of cost and risk, and they expect to develop more positive intentions toward higher performance through the use of an innovation. Also, hedonic behavior in the case of the group with low level of innovativeness aims to provide self-fulfilling value to the users, in contrast to utilitarian perspective, which aims to provide instrumental value to the users. However, with regard to perceived sacrifice, both groups in general showed negative impact on perceived value. Also, the group with high level of innovativeness had less overall negative impact on perceived value compared to the group with low level of innovativeness across all factors. In both group with high level of innovativeness and with low level of innovativeness, perceived cost has the highest negative influence on perceived value than other factors. Instead, the analysis for a group with high level of innovativeness showed that perceived technicality was the positive factor to influence perceived value than others. However, the analysis for a group with low level of innovativeness showed that perceived security risk was the second high negative factor to influence perceived value than others. Unlike previous studies, this study focuses on influencing factors on continuous intention to use of smart phone, rather than considering initial purchase and adoption of smart phone. First, perceived value, which was used to identify user's adoption behavior, has a mediating effect among perceived benefit, perceived sacrifice, and continuous intention to use smart phone. Second, perceived usefulness has the highest positive influence on perceived value, while perceived cost has significant negative influence on perceived value. Third, perceived value, like prior studies, has high level of positive influence on continuous intention to use smart phone. Fourth, in multi-group analysis by the degree of personal innovativeness of smart phone users, perceived usefulness, in a group with high level of innovativeness, has the highest positive influence on perceived value than other factors. Instead, perceived playfulness, in a group with low level of innovativeness, has the highest positive factor to influence perceived value than others. This result shows that early adopters intend to adopt smart phone as a tool to make their job useful, instead market followers intend to adopt smart phone as a tool to make their time enjoyable. In terms of marketing strategy for smart phone company, marketing managers should pay more attention to identify their customers' lifetime value by the phase of smart phone adoption, as well as to understand their behavior intention to accept the risk and uncertainty positively. The academic contribution of this study primarily is to employ the VAM (Value-based Adoption Model) as a conceptual foundation, compared to TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) used widely by previous studies. VAM is useful for understanding continuous intention to use smart phone in comparison with TAM as a new IT utility by individual adoption. Perceived value dominantly influences continuous intention to use smart phone. The results of this study justify our research model adoption on each antecedent of perceived value as a benefit and a sacrifice component. While TAM could be widely used in user acceptance of new technology, it has a limitation to explain the new IT adoption like smart phone, because of customer behavior intention to choose the value of the object. In terms of theoretical approach, this study provides theoretical contribution to the development, design, and marketing of smart phone. The practical contribution of this study is to suggest useful decision alternatives concerned to marketing strategy formulation for acquiring and retaining long-term customers related to smart phone business. Since potential customers are interested in both benefit and sacrifice when evaluating the value of smart phone, marketing managers in smart phone company has to put more effort into creating customer's value of low sacrifice and high benefit so that customers will continuously have higher adoption on smart phone. Especially, this study shows that innovators and early adopters with high level of innovativeness have higher adoption than market followers with low level of innovativeness, in terms of perceived usefulness and perceived cost. To formulate marketing strategy for smart phone diffusion, marketing managers have to pay more attention to identify not only their customers' benefit and sacrifice components but also their customers' lifetime value to adopt smart phone.

Treatment Outcome and Analysis of the Prognostic Factors of Ductal Carcinoma in situ Treated with Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy (유방 관상피내암의 유방 보존술 후 방사선 치료의 성적과 예후 인자 분석)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ju;Huh, Seung-Jae;Park, Won;Yang, Jeong-Hyeon;Nam, Seog-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Han;Lee, Sung-Kong;Lee, Jee-Hyun;Kang, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Kang, Min-Kyu;Park, Young-Je;Nam, Hee-Rim
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: To evaluate the survival rate, local failure rate and patterns of failure, and analyze the prognostic factors affecting local relapse of ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy Materials and Methods: From June 1995 to December 2001, 96 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The operations were either local or wide excision in all patients, with an axillary lymph node dissection performed in some patients. Radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy, over 5 weeks, with 1.8 Gy daily fractions, with additional doses ($10\~14$ Gy) administered to the primary tumor bed in some patients with close ($\leq$2 mm) or positive resection margin. The median follow-up period was 43 months (range $10\~102$ months). Results: The 5-year local relapse free survival and overall survival rates were 91 and $100\%$ respectively. Local relapse occurred in 6 patients ($6.3\%$). Of the 6 recurrences, one was invasive ductal cell carcinoma. With the exception of one, all patients recurred 2 years after surgery. There was no regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Five patients with local recurrence were salvaged with total mastectomy, and are alive with no evidence of disease. One patient with recurrent invasive ductal cell carcinoma will receive salvage treatment. On analysis of the prognostic factors affecting local relapse, none of the factors among the age, status of resection margin, comedo type and nuclear grade affected local relapse. Operation extent also did not affect local control (p=0.30). In the patients with close resection margin, boost irradiation to the primary tumor bed did not affect local control (p=1.0). Conclusions: The survival rate and local control of the patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy were excellent. Close resection margin and boost irradiation to the primary tumor bed did not affect local relapse, but further follow-up with much more patients is needed.

Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Benthic Polychaetous Communities in Seomjin River Estuary (섬진강 하구역 저서다모류군집의 시·공간 분포)

  • Kang, Sung Hyo;Lee, Jung Ho;Park, Sung Wan;Shin, Hyun Chool
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.243-255
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    • 2014
  • This study was investigated to estimate the relations between benthic environments and benthic polychaetous community from April 2012 to February 2013. Twenty four stations were selected sequentially with Seomjin River Estuary from the northern part of Gwangyang Bay. The study area could be divided into three characteristic zones based on salinity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH such as Saline Water Zone (SWZ), Brackish Water Zone (BWZ), and Fresh Water Zone (FWZ). Salinity was above 30.0 psu in SWZ, drastically decreased toward inland in BWZ, and nearly zero psu in FWZ. SWZ showed its specific environmental characters like that water temperature fluctuated with little seasonal change and DO showed the lowest values among three zones, and pH maintained as consistent value without seasonal fluctuation. In FWZ, on the other hand, water temperature showed high seasonal fluctuation, DO showed the highest values among three zones, and pH fluctuated greatly. In sedimentary environment, mud, sand and sand/gravel were found as dominant sedimentary deposits in SWZ, BWZ and FWZ, respectively. Organic matter content and AVS in surface sediment were high in SWZ, while Chl-a content high in FWZ. This study area showed a marked environmental difference between FWZ and SWZ as follows: FWZ has coarse sediment and low salinity, low organic matter content, low AVS in FWZ but SWZ has fine sediment and high salinity, high organic matter content and AVS. Species number and mean density of benthic polychaete community was highest in Saline Water Zone (SWZ), drastically decreased in Brackish Water Zone (BWZ), and lowest in Fresh Water Zone (FWZ). Dominant polychates above 5.0% of individual numbers were 6 taxa. Lumbrineris longifolia, Prionospio cirrifera, Tharyx sp. occurred as main dominant species of all study periods, and Hediste sp., Praxillella affinis, Tylorrhynchus sp. dominantly occurred at some seasons. Inhabiting areas of dominant species were separated characteristically. Representative species in SWZ were Lumbrineris longifolia, Tharyx sp., Mediomastus sp.. Wide-appearing species between SWZ and BWZ were Prionospio cirrifera, Heteromastus filiformis, Aricidea sp.. Characteristic species in FWZ were Tylorrhynchus sp. and Hediste sp.. As the results of cluster analysis and nMDS based on the species composition of polychaetous community, unique station groups were established in SWZ and FWZ. Stations in BWZ were sub-divided into several groups with season. Pearson's correlation analysis and PCA between benthic environments and ecological characteristics of polychaetous community showed that salinity, sediment composition, organic content and dissolved oxygen played a role to determine the temporal and spatial distribution of the ecological characteristics as species number, mean density, abundance of main species, and ecological indices.

An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Supply Chain Management Systems Success from Vendor's Perspective (참여자관점에서 공급사슬관리 시스템의 성공에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 실증연구)

  • Kang, Sung-Bae;Moon, Tae-Soo;Chung, Yoon
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.139-166
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    • 2010
  • The supply chain management (SCM) systems have emerged as strong managerial tools for manufacturing firms in enhancing competitive strength. Despite of large investments in the SCM systems, many companies are not fully realizing the promised benefits from the systems. A review of literature on adoption, implementation and success factor of IOS (inter-organization systems), EDI (electronic data interchange) systems, shows that this issue has been examined from multiple theoretic perspectives. And many researchers have attempted to identify the factors which influence the success of system implementation. However, the existing studies have two drawbacks in revealing the determinants of systems implementation success. First, previous researches raise questions as to the appropriateness of research subjects selected. Most SCM systems are operating in the form of private industrial networks, where the participants of the systems consist of two distinct groups: focus companies and vendors. The focus companies are the primary actors in developing and operating the systems, while vendors are passive participants which are connected to the system in order to supply raw materials and parts to the focus companies. Under the circumstance, there are three ways in selecting the research subjects; focus companies only, vendors only, or two parties grouped together. It is hard to find researches that use the focus companies exclusively as the subjects probably due to the insufficient sample size for statistic analysis. Most researches have been conducted using the data collected from both groups. We argue that the SCM success factors cannot be correctly indentified in this case. The focus companies and the vendors are in different positions in many areas regarding the system implementation: firm size, managerial resources, bargaining power, organizational maturity, and etc. There are no obvious reasons to believe that the success factors of the two groups are identical. Grouping the two groups also raises questions on measuring the system success. The benefits from utilizing the systems may not be commonly distributed to the two groups. One group's benefits might be realized at the expenses of the other group considering the situation where vendors participating in SCM systems are under continuous pressures from the focus companies with respect to prices, quality, and delivery time. Therefore, by combining the system outcomes of both groups we cannot measure the system benefits obtained by each group correctly. Second, the measures of system success adopted in the previous researches have shortcoming in measuring the SCM success. User satisfaction, system utilization, and user attitudes toward the systems are most commonly used success measures in the existing studies. These measures have been developed as proxy variables in the studies of decision support systems (DSS) where the contribution of the systems to the organization performance is very difficult to measure. Unlike the DSS, the SCM systems have more specific goals, such as cost saving, inventory reduction, quality improvement, rapid time, and higher customer service. We maintain that more specific measures can be developed instead of proxy variables in order to measure the system benefits correctly. The purpose of this study is to find the determinants of SCM systems success in the perspective of vendor companies. In developing the research model, we have focused on selecting the success factors appropriate for the vendors through reviewing past researches and on developing more accurate success measures. The variables can be classified into following: technological, organizational, and environmental factors on the basis of TOE (Technology-Organization-Environment) framework. The model consists of three independent variables (competition intensity, top management support, and information system maturity), one mediating variable (collaboration), one moderating variable (government support), and a dependent variable (system success). The systems success measures have been developed to reflect the operational benefits of the SCM systems; improvement in planning and analysis capabilities, faster throughput, cost reduction, task integration, and improved product and customer service. The model has been validated using the survey data collected from 122 vendors participating in the SCM systems in Korea. To test for mediation, one should estimate the hierarchical regression analysis on the collaboration. And moderating effect analysis should estimate the moderated multiple regression, examines the effect of the government support. The result shows that information system maturity and top management support are the most important determinants of SCM system success. Supply chain technologies that standardize data formats and enhance information sharing may be adopted by supply chain leader organization because of the influence of focal company in the private industrial networks in order to streamline transactions and improve inter-organization communication. Specially, the need to develop and sustain an information system maturity will provide the focus and purpose to successfully overcome information system obstacles and resistance to innovation diffusion within the supply chain network organization. The support of top management will help focus efforts toward the realization of inter-organizational benefits and lend credibility to functional managers responsible for its implementation. The active involvement, vision, and direction of high level executives provide the impetus needed to sustain the implementation of SCM. The quality of collaboration relationships also is positively related to outcome variable. Collaboration variable is found to have a mediation effect between on influencing factors and implementation success. Higher levels of inter-organizational collaboration behaviors such as shared planning and flexibility in coordinating activities were found to be strongly linked to the vendors trust in the supply chain network. Government support moderates the effect of the IS maturity, competitive intensity, top management support on collaboration and implementation success of SCM. In general, the vendor companies face substantially greater risks in SCM implementation than the larger companies do because of severe constraints on financial and human resources and limited education on SCM systems. Besides resources, Vendors generally lack computer experience and do not have sufficient internal SCM expertise. For these reasons, government supports may establish requirements for firms doing business with the government or provide incentives to adopt, implementation SCM or practices. Government support provides significant improvements in implementation success of SCM when IS maturity, competitive intensity, top management support and collaboration are low. The environmental characteristic of competition intensity has no direct effect on vendor perspective of SCM system success. But, vendors facing above average competition intensity will have a greater need for changing technology. This suggests that companies trying to implement SCM systems should set up compatible supply chain networks and a high-quality collaboration relationship for implementation and performance.

Mitral Valvuloplasty using New Mitral Strip (Mitracon^{(R)}$) (새로운 Strip (Mitracon^{(R)}$)을 이용한 승모판막 성형술)

  • Kang, Seong-Sik;Kim, Sang-Pil;Song, Meong-Gum
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.320-328
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    • 2008
  • Background: Numerous surgical devices for mitral repair have been used in the past with good results. In this study we describe a simple annuloplasty technique with using a new device ($Mitracon^{(R)}$). The aim of this study was to assess its efficacy and surgical results with using $Mitracon^{(R)}$. Material and Method: From May 2003 to October 2005, 46 patients (21 women and 25 men (mean age of $51.4{\pm}17.8$ years) with mitral regurgitation from various causes were treated with either the $Mitracon^{(R)}$ (the $Mitracon^{(R)}$ group) or the Capentier Edward rigid ring (the CE group). The median follow-up duration was 18.9 months. Result: The mean grade of mitral regurgitation before and immediately after surgery in the $Mitracon^{(R)}$ group and the CE group decreased from $3.2{\pm}0.8$ to $0.6{\pm}0.7$ and $3.4{\pm}0.7$ to $0.3{\pm}0.5$, respectively. There were no significant changes in the ejection fraction either between the two groups or before and immediately after surgery. No deaths were seen in either group. Early postoperative echocardiography of all 46 patients showed only trivial mitral regurgitation or none at all. Echocardiography at a median of 18.9 months also showed no progression in mitral regurgitation. The mean grade of mitral regurgitation in the $Mitracon^{(R)}$ group at this time point decreased from $3.2{\pm}0.8$ to $0.8{\pm}0.7$ (p<0.05). The CE group also showed a similar degree of decrease from $3.4{\pm}0.7$ to $0.3{\pm}0.6$ (p<0.05). The mitral valve area in the $Mitracon^{(R)}$ group at 1 year follow-up was $3.3{\pm}0.9cm^2$. The mitral valve area in the CE group was $2.7{\pm}0.6cm^2$. The mean mitral pressure gradient in the $Mitracon^{(R)}$ group at 1 year follow-up was $3.1{\pm}1.3$ mmHg. The mean pressure gradient in the CE group was $4.5{\pm}2.1$ mmHg, although any statistical significant difference for this between the groups was not reached. Conclusion: The present study showed the described technique to be safe and effective in the intermediate term. Because long term results are unavailable, a more extensive prospective randomized multicenter trial may be warranted to determine whether this procedure should be generally applied for repair of mitral valve disease.

Analysis of Modality and Procedures for CCS as CDM Project and Its Countmeasures (CCS 기술의 CDM 사업화 수용에 대한 방식과 절차 분석 및 대응방안 고찰)

  • Noh, Hyon-Jeong;Huh, Cheol;Kang, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.263-272
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    • 2012
  • Carbon dioxide, emitted by human activities since the industrial revolution, is regarded as a major contributor of global warming. There are many efforts to mitigate climate change, and carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is recognized as one of key technologies because it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as a power station or other industrial installation. The inclusion of CCS as clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities has been considered at UNFCCC as financial incentive mechanisms for those developing countries that may wish to deploy the CCS. Although the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol (CMP), at Cancun in December 2010, decided that CCS is eligible as CDM project activities, the issues identified in decision 2/CMP.5 should be addressed and resolved in a satisfactory manner. Major issues regarding modalities and procedure are 1) Site selection, 2) Monitoring, 3) Modeling, 4) Boundaries, 5) Seepage Measuring and Accounting, 6) Trans-Boundary Effects, 7) Accounting of Associated Project Emissions (Leakage), 8) Risk and Safety Assessment, and 9) Liability Under the CDM Scheme. The CMP, by its decision 7/CMP.6, invited Parties to submit their views to the secretariat of Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), SBSTA prepared a draft modalities and procedure by exchanging views of Parties through workshop held in Abu Dhabi, UAE (September 2011). The 7th CMP (Durban, December 2011) finally adopted the modalities and procedures for CCS as CDM project activities (CMP[2011], Decision-/CMP.7). The inclusion of CCS as CDM project activities means that CCS is officially accredited as one of $CO_2$ reducing technologies in global carbon market. Consequently, it will affect relevant technologies and industry as well as law and policy in Korea and aboard countries. This paper presents a progress made on discussion and challenges regarding the issue, and aims to suggest some considerations to policy makers in Korea in order to demonstrate and deploy the CCS project in the near future. According to the adopted modalities and procedures for CCS as CDM project activities, it is possible to implement relevant CCS projects in Non-Annex I countries, including Korea, as long as legal and regulatory frameworks are established. Though Korea enacted 'Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth', the details are too inadequate to content the requirements of modalities and procedures for CCS as CDM project. Therefore, it is required not only to amend the existing laws related with capture, transport, and storage of $CO_2$ for paving the way of an prompt deployment of CCS CDM activities in Korea as a short-term approach, but also to establish the united framework as a long-term approach.