• Title/Summary/Keyword: 고혈압

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Effects of Glue Sniffing on Weight Increase or Central Nervous System of Young Rat (반복된 본드 흡입이 백서의 정상발육에 의한 체중증가와 중추신경계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Heon;Kim, Sun-Min;Cho, Soo-Hun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.222-230
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    • 1993
  • Industrial glues, known as 'Bonds' in Korea, contain many kinds of organic solvents, and glue sniffing of youths became one of the social problems in Korea. Mixed exposures to solvents by glue sniffing may induce chronic toxicities different from those by exposures to solvents of single component. To test effects of the glue sniffing on weight gain or central nervous system, two groups of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to air(control group) or vapors of the glues to narcotic status(exposed group), and weight check, tail flick test, hot plate test, rotarod treadmill test were done on the 14th,24th, 36th, 45th, 53rd, 86th, 102nd, 117th, 134th and 151st days after the first exposure. On the 188th day, their brains were excised and examined by a pathologist. Weight gain, controlled against time change, showed significant difference between the groups, but response times in tail flick test, hot plate tests, and rotarod treadmill test didn't. In pathological examination with blind method, no macroscopic or microscopic differences were found between the two groups. These results suggests that organic lesion in central nervous system may not ensue glue sniffing, but, before firm conclusion, more studies in various exposure conditions should be followed.

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A Study on Effects of the Transient Compression by Tightly Tied Necktie on Blood Flow in the Internal Jugular Veins Using 2D-PC MRA (2D-PC MRA를 이용한 넥타이의 순간적인 압박(壓迫)이 내경정맥의 혈류에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Keung-Sik;Chung, Tae-Sub;Park, In-Kook;Lee, Bum-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Yoo, Beong-Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 2008
  • The 25 healthy male volunteers aged from 20 to 50years old have been employed in this study. 2D-PC MRA was performed to measure the velocity of the blood flow in the internal carotid artery and internal jugular veins using 3.0T MRI Whole body (signa VH/i GE). ECTRICKS-CEMRA was performed to evaluate the pattern of blood circulation from internal carotid artery to internal jugular vein. Using 2D-PC MRA, the cross-section of the 4th and 5th cervical discs was scanned with 24cm FOV. Then the speed of blood flow was measured for internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein when the subject wears a necktie tightly and no tie. The average of maximum velocity of internal carotid arteries without a necktie was 72.13cm/sec in the right side and 74.96cm/sec in the left side(average 73.54cm/sec in both sides) while the average of maximum velocity of internal jugular veins without a necktie was -34.45cm/sec in the right side and -24.99cm/sec in the left side (-29.72cm/sec in both sides). However, when wearing a necktie tightly, the average of maximum velocity of internal carotid arteries was 61.35cm/sec in the right side and 65.19cm/sec in the left side(average 63.27cm/sec in both sides) while the average of maximum velocity of internal jugular veins was -22.14cm/sec in the right side and -17.93cm/sec in the left side(-20.03cm/sec in both sides). With the necktie tightly knotted, the average blood flow speed of both internal carotid arteries slightly decreased to 86% (63.27/73.54cm/sec) compared to no tie case in which both internal jugularveins significantly went down to 67% (-20.03/-29.72 cm/sec). Thus it is suggested that wearing a necktie affects the circulation of internal jugular veins(33% decrease in blood flow speed) more significantly than that of internal carotid artery(14% decrease in blood flow speed). Without a necktie, ECTRICKS-CEMRA showed natural blood circulation patterns of internal carotid arteries and internal jugular veins without any disturbances or compressions. However, when wearing a necktie tightly, ECTRICKS-CEMRA showed severe compression onto both internal jugular veins in all 25 volunteers. In conclusion, the result of the study showed that the tightly worn necktie instantly presses more internal jugular veins than internal carotid arteries, thereby significantly reducing the blood flow speed and leading to the temporary occlusion. Thus, the defecation or washing the face under the tightly tied necktie situations can cause the unexpected and temporary compression or occlusion of the internal jugular veins, subsequently leading to the occurrences of the stroke due to the secondary intracranial venous hypertension.

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Changes of Neutrophil Count in Peripheral Blood of the Neonate with Periventricular Leukomalacia (신생아 백질연화증 환아 말초혈의 중성구 변화)

  • Lee, Hwan Seok;Park, Kyung Pil;Kim, Heng Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.10
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    • pp.966-971
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : It is now well established that infection and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain damage. The loss of neutrophils from systemic circulation is an associated finding in injury mediated by granulocyte. Periventricular leukomalacia(PVL) caused by ischemia is the principal form of brain injury in premature infants. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the low neutrophil count is associated with periventricular leukomalacia(PVL) in premature infants. Methods : Retrospective review of medical records was undertaken. Subjects were premature infants with a birth weight of less than 1,500 gm, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Kyungpook University Hospital. A complete blood count of peripheral blood was done within the 1st hour of life. Neutropenia was defined as absolute neutrophil count < $1,500/mm^3$, PVL as increased periventricular echodensities followed by cyst formation on ultrasonography or corresponding signs on brain MRI. Results : Thirteen infants out of a total population of 37 revealed neutropenia. Respiratory distress syndrome and requirement for respiratory support were not different between infants with neutropenia( neutropenia group) and infants without neutropenia(control group). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and grade 3 and 4 IVH were more frequent in neutropenia group(P<0.05). There was no statistically significant increase of PVL in neutropenia group. The neutrophil count was $18,760.0{\pm}10,266.1/mm^3$, $7,272.0{\pm}7,435.0/mm^3$ infants with PVL and $11,131.7{\pm}3,386.5/mm^3$, $2,407.5{\pm}1,933.1/mm^3$ in infants without PVL, respectively. The frequency of mechanical ventilation and artificial surfactant therapy was higher in infants with PVL compared with infants without PVL, but statistical analysis was not performed due to small number of subjects. Conclusion : A low number of neutrophils in the systemic circulation was not associated with an increased risk of PVL in premature infants.

The Effect of Platelets on Endothelin Production in Bovine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (혈소판이 소 폐동백 내피세포의 Endothelin 생산에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Do;Shim, Tae-Sun;Kwon, Seog-Woon;Ryu, Jin-Sook;Lee, Jae-Dam;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.1114-1124
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    • 1997
  • Background : Endothelin(ET) is a very potent vasoconstrictive peptide produced by endothelial cells of pulmonary artery. The endothelin level was increased in plasma of primary pulmonary hypertension and acute pulmonary thromboembolism and it was suggested that the endothelin might do a critical role in the cardiopulmonary dysfunction in these two conditions. But the exact mechanism of increase of ET has not been known. In these two conditions, platelet activation and thrombosis are the main pathophysiologic findings. So there is a possibility that the platelet might stimulate endothelin secretion from endothelial cells. Therefore, we performed this study to evaluate the role of platelet and its mediators on endothelin production in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial(BPAE) cells. Method : Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells, ATCC certified cell line 209, were cultured and treated with human platelets($10^6{\sim}10^8/ml$), thrombin (0.1~10u/ml), TGF-${\beta}1$(1~100uM), serotonin(1~100uM), and endotoxin(1ug/ml) in a final volume of 500ul for 18 hours. Levels of ir(immunoreactive)-ET in each conditioned medium were measured by a radioimmunoassay specific for ET. Result : The increase of ir-ET levels was platelet number and time dependent over 18 hours. When washed human platelets were added($10^8/ml$), the ir-ET levels were significantly higher than that of control(p<0.05) at 8 and 18 hours after culture. Subthreshold concentration of platelets($10^7/ml$) coincubated with endotoxin(1ug/ml) or subthreshold dose of thrombin(0.1u/ml) stimulated ir-ET secretion from BPAE cells significantly(p<0.05) compared with control. Thrombin(1ug/ml, 10ug/ml) and TGF-${\beta}1$(100pM, 1000pM) significantly increased ir-ET secretion from BP AE cells(p<0.05) compared with control, but serotoin(1~100uM) and endotoxin(1ug/ml) did not stimulate the ir-ET secretion. Conclusions : Platelets stimulate endothelin secretion from bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. The mechanism of increase of endothelin secretion seems to be a stimulation by platelet itself or by mediators, such as TGF-${\beta}1$, secreted from activated platelets. And, in this study, the priming effect of platelets on endothelin secretion from BPAE cells could be another possibility.

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Prognosis Factors of Tricuspid Regurgitation after the Operation for Left-sided Valvular Heart Disease (좌심실 판막질환 수술 후 동반된 삼첨판패쇄부전증의 경과에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Jin, Ung;Kim, Hwan-Wook;Lee, Jong-Ho;Kweon, Jong-Bum;Jo, Min-Seop;Yoon, Jeong-Seob;Moon, Seok-Whan;Sim, Sung-Bo;Park, Kuhn;Kim, Chi-Kyung;Cho, Keon-Hyun;Wang, Young-Pil;Lee, Sun-He;Kwack, Moon-Sub
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2003
  • Tricuspid regurgitation has been considered as a secondary lesion when it is combined with left valvular heart diseases. However, there have been some reports which show that tricuspid regurgitation keeps going and results in congestive heart failure even after a successful operation for left valvular heart disease. So far, there are no definite operation indications and predictive factors for the tricuspid re-gurgitation which is resulted from the left sided valvular heart disease. We designed this study to evaluate the effects of pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction on the prognosis of tricuspid regurgitation, and to make an operation indication for the patients with secondary tricuspid regurgitation. Material and Method: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgery for the left sided valvular heart disease with tricuspid regurgitation and were followed for more than 1 year with echocardiograms. There was a total of 114 cases. We compared the grades of tricuspid regurgitations and pulmonary artery pressures and left ventricular ejection fractions on the basis of echocardiograms which were checked preoperatively and on the last follow up. Result: There were 43 cases of tricuspid an-nuloplasty. In these patients, the grades of tricuspid regurgitations were improved in 42 cases (97.7%). But in 71 cases without annuloplasty, 29 cases (41%) were improved, 32 cases (45%) had no change, and 29 cases (14%) were aggravated. This finding shows significant differences in the prognoses of tricuspid regur-gitations between the two groups (p<0.05). There was no difference in pulmonary artery pressures and ejection fractions between the patients who showed progression of tricuspid regurgitations and those who didn't (p > 0.05). The improvements of tricuspid regurgitations are not statistically related to the changes of pulmonary artery pressures or left ventricular ejection fractions. Conclusion: This study shows that it is impossible to predict the prognoses of tricuspid regurgitations with preoperative pulmonary artery pressures or left ventricular ejection fractions. Also, the excellent results of tricuspid annuloplasty is proven in controlling the secondary tricuspid regurgitations. Therefore, when tricuspid regurgitation is detected preoperatively, the procedures to correct the tricuspid regurgitation at the time of the operation for the left-sided valvular heart disease must be considered positively, regardless of the grades of tricuspid regurgitations, to prevent sig-nificant tricuspid regurgitation that may develop later.

A Comparative Study on the Pattern of Outpatient Department Utilization at a Tertiary Level Hospital before and after Implementation of the Patient Referral System (의료전달체계 실시 전후의 3차 진료기관 외래환자 이용양상 비교)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Kang, Pock-Soo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.88-100
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to assess the effects of implementation of the patient referral system started July 1st, 1989. A comparison on the pattern of outpatient services of the Departments of Internal Medicine, General Surgery, and Pediatrics at the Yeungnam University Hospital was conducted for each one year period before and after implementation of the patient referral system. The pre-implementation period was from July 1, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and the post-implementation period was from July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The information used for this study was obtained from official forms, prepared by the Yeungnam University Hospital, and submitted to the Korean Medical Insurance Cooperatives. After implementation of the patient referral system, the number of outpatient cases in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased 36.1% from 9,669 cases to 6,181 cases a year. Cases in the Department of General Surgery decreased 23.7% from 1,864 cases to 1,422 cases a year. The number of cases in the Department of Pediatrics decreased 36.9% from 3,372 cases to 2,128 cases a year. After implementation of the patient referral system, the average age of cases in the Departments of Internal Medicine and General Surgery was 52.5 and 49.7 years old, respectively. This was a significant increase in comparison with the pre-implementation period. After implementation of patient referral system, the proportion of new outpatients in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased from 24.1% to 14.6%, the Department of General Surgery from 36.0% to 23.4%, and the Department of Pediatrics from 15.5% to 8.3%. The number of visits per case decreased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine(from 1.74 to 1.61), but there was no significant change in the Departments of General Surgery and Pediatrics. The length of treatment per case increased significantly in all three departments(from 16.1 days to 19.3 days in the Department of Internal Medicine, from 12.0 days to 15.2 days in the Department General Surgery, and 8.9 days to 11.2 days in the Department of Pediatrics). The number of clinical tests per case increased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine (from 2.2 to 2.5), in the Department of Pediatrics(from 0.8 to 1.1) and increased in the Department of General Surgery(from 6.4 to 6.6). The average medical cost per case decreased from 43,900 Won to 42,500 Won in the Department of Internal Medicine, while the cost increased from 75,900 Won to 78,500 Won in the Department of General Surgery and from 12,700 Won to 13,500 Won in the Department of Pediatrics. In case-mix, the chronic degenerative disease(i. e. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, malignant neoplasm, and pulmonary tuberculosis) ranked higher and acute infectious diseases and simple cases(i. e. gastritis and duodenitis, haemorrhoids, anal fissure, carbuncle, acute URI, and bronchitis) ranked lower after implementation of the patient referral system compared to before implementation.

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The Clinical Application and Results of Palliative Damus-Kaye-Stansel Procedure (고식적 Damus-Kaye-Stansel 술식의 임상적 적용 및 결과)

  • Lim, Hong-Gook;Kim, Soo-Jin;Kim, Woong-Han;Hwang, Seong-Wook;Lee, Cheul;Shinn, Sung-Ho;Yie, Kil-Soo;Lee, Jae-Woong;Lee, Chang-Ha
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2008
  • Background: The Damus-Kaye-Stansel (DKS) procedure is a proximal MPA-ascending aorta anastomosis used to relieve systemic ventricular outflow tract obstructions (SVOTO) and pulmonary hypertension. The purpose of this study was to review the indications and outcomes of the DKS procedure, including the DKS pathway and semilunar valve function. Material and Method: A retrospective review of 28 patients who underwent a DKS procedure between May 1994 and April 2006 was performed. The median age at operation was 5.3 months ($13\;days{\sim}38.1\;months$) and body weight was 5.0 kg ($2.9{\sim}13.5\;kg$). Preoperative pressure gradients were $25.3{\pm}15.7\;mmHg$ ($10{\sim}60\;mmHg$). Eighteen patients underwent a preliminary pulmonary artery banding as an initial palliation. Preoperative main diagnoses were double outlet right ventricle in 9 patients, double inlet left ventricle with ventriculoarterial discordance in 6,. another functional univentricular heart in 5, Criss-cross heart in 4, complete atrioventricular septal defect in 3, and hypoplastic left heart variant in 1. DKS techniques included end-to-side anastomosis with patch augmentation in 14 patients, classical end-to-side anastomosis in 6, Lamberti method (double-barrel) in 3, and others in 5. The bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and Fontan procedure were concomitantly performed in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. Result: There were 4 hospital deaths (14.3%), and 3 late deaths (12.5%) with a follow-up duration of $62.7{\pm}38.9$ months ($3.3{\sim}128.1$ months). Kaplan-Meier estimated actuarial survival was $71.9%{\pm}9.3%$ at 10 years. Multivariate analysis showed right ventricle type single ventricle (hazard ratio=13.960, p=0.004) and the DKS procedure as initial operation (hazard ratio=6.767, p=0.042) as significant mortality risk factors. Four patients underwent staged biventricular repair and 13 received Fontan completion. No SVOTO was detected after the procedure by either cardiac catheterization or echocardiography except in one patient. There was no semiulnar valve regurgitation (>Gr II) or semilunar valve-related reoperation, but one patient (3.6%) who underwent classical end-to-side anastomosis needed reoperation for pulmonary artery stenosis caused by compression of the enlarged DKS pathway. The freedom from reoperation for the DKS pathway and semilunar valve was 87.5% at 10 years after operation. Conclusion: The DKS procedure can improve the management of SVOTO, and facilitate the selected patients who are high risk for biventricular repair just after birth to undergo successful staged biventricular repair. Preliminary pulmonary artery banding is a safe and effective procedure that improves the likelihood of successful DKS by decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance. The long-term outcome of the DKS procedure for semilunar valve function, DKS pathway, and relief of SVOTO is satisfactory.