• Title/Summary/Keyword: 기술윤리

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Relationship Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Using Ultrasonography and Diagnostic Indices of Metabolic Syndrome (초음파를 이용한 경동맥 내-중막 두께와 대사증후군 진단지표의 연관성)

  • Ko, Kyung-Sun;Heo, Kyung-Hwa;Won, Yong-Lim;Lee, Sung-Kook;Kim, Ki-Woong
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2009
  • The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the association between diagnostic indices of metabolic syndrome(MetS) with carotid intima-media thickness using ultrasonography. The participants in the study were 315 male employees without carotid atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular disease. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical characteristics were done using each specific equipments and the NCEP-ATP III criteria were used to define MetS. They were examined by B-mode ultrasound to measure the carotid intima-media thickness(carotid IMT) at the near and far walls of common carotid and bifurcation(bulb). The mean carotid IMT was $0.739{\pm}0.137\;mm$ and it's thickness significantly increased with the increase in age. Also, amounts of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting glucose were significantly increased with the increase in age. Carotid IMT were significantly correlated with BMI(r=0.170, p=0.004), systolic(r=0.148, p=0.011) and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.123, p=0.036) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-0.164, p=0.005). On multiple logistic regression analysis for the diagnostic indices of MetS, carotid IMT were significantly associated with blood pressure(OR=4.220, p<0.01) and MetS(OR=1.301, p<0.05). The results indicate that blood pressure and MetS are important risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis.

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The Photography as Technological Aesthetics (데크놀로지 미학으로서의 사진)

  • Jin, Dong-Sun
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.11
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    • pp.221-249
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    • 2007
  • Today, photography is facing to the crisis of identity and dilemma of ontology from the digital imaging process in the new technology form. It is very important points to say rethinking of the traditional photographic medium, that has changed the way we view the world and ourselves is perhaps an understatement and that photography has transformed our essential understanding of reality. Now, no longer are photographic images regarded as the true automatic recording, innocent evidence and the mirror to the reality. Rather, photography constructs the world for our entertainment, helping to create the comforting illusions by which we live. The recognition that photographs are not constructions and reflections of reality, is the basis for the actual presence within the contemporary photographic world. It is shock. This thesis's aim is to look for the problems of photographic identity and ontological crisis that is controlling and regulating digital photographic imagery, allowing the reproduction of the electronic simulations era. Photography loses its special aesthetic status and becomes no more true information and, exclusively evidence by traditional film and paper that appeared both as a technological accuracy and as a medium-specific aesthetic. The result, photography is facing two crises, one is the photographic ontology(the introduction of computerized digital images) and the other is photographic epistemology(having to do broader changes in ethics, knowledge and culture). Taken together, these crises apparently threaten us with the death of photography, with the 'end' of photography and the culture it sustains. The thesis's meaning is to look into the dilemma of photography's ontology and epistemology, especially, automatical index and digital codes from its origin, meaning, and identity as the technological medium. Thus, in particular, thesis focuses on the analog imagery presence, from the nature in the material world, and the digital imagery presence from the cultural situations in our society. And also thesis's aim is to examine the main issues of the history of photography has been concentrated on the ontological arguments since the discovery of photography in 1839. Photography has never been only one static technology form. Rather, its nearly two centuries of technological development have been marked by numerous, competing of technological innovation and self revolution from the dual aspects. This thesis examines recent account of photography by the analysis of the medium's concept, meaning, identity between film base image and digital base image from the aspects of photographic ontology and epistemology. Thus, the structure of thesis is fairy straightforward to examine what appear to be two opposing view of photographic conditions and ontological situations. Thesis' view contrasts that figure out the value of photography according to its fundamental characteristic as a medium. Also, it seeks a possible solution to the dilemma of photographic ontology through the medium's origin from the early years of the nineteenth century to the raising questions about the different meaning(analog/digital) of photography, now. Finally, this thesis emphasizes and concludes that the photographic ontological crisis reflects to the paradoxical dynamic structure, that unsolved the origins of the medium, itself. Moreover, even photography is not single identity of the photographic ontology, and also can not be understood as having a static identity or singular status from the dynamic field of technologies, practices, and images.

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The Effects of Leader's Attitude and Job Characteristics on Subordinate's Creative Performance (상사의 태도와 직무 특성이 창의적 성과를 일으키는 과정에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Jeong-Ran
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.129-154
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    • 2014
  • We are making products and services that we didn't easily think or even imagine when young and living using them. Consumer needs become more diversified, markets and technologies are being constantly changed, and corporate global competitiveness is getting intensified. Now, companies that don't change nor create new values cannot survive. The cycle of new products is faster, and therefore corporations should improve previous products continuously or create new values according to such a trend. This era requires 'creativity' for companies to overcome uncertainty and survive. Corporate creativity is not easily activated as financial and physical compensation unlike the work ability or performance. When there is an environment that people with various abilities, experiences and backgrounds can express their opinions freely, it becomes possible. Despite the importance, the studies have focused on creativity education so far instead of the viewpoint of corporate business administration. In addition, most studies have dealt with job characteristics and employees' personality factors rather than the process that is connected to actual performance. In other words, the studies on environmental factors that can lead motivation as situational characteristics of the employee's company in a current non-monetary and non-physical way are very insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to comprehensively examine the process of creating creative performance in the environment inside the company that the employee could approach most closely from the corporate deinstitutional perspective. As the major variables, job characteristics and supervisor's ethical leadership were selected, and the process that is connected to the creative performance was explained by means of motivation necessary to understand creativity of the organization and creative process engagement(CPE). The summary of the verification results is following. First, job characteristics and supervisor's attitude(ethical leadership) had positive effects on intrinsic motivation and creativity process engagement. Second, intrinsic motivation and creativity process engagement had positive effects on creative performance. Third, intrinsic motivation and creativity process engagement had mediated the relationship between job characteristics, supervisor's attitude and intrinsic motivation, creativity process engagement

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Ethical Justification of Capital Punishment - Retributive Argument against the Death Penalty - (사형제도의 윤리적 정당성 - 사형에 대한 응보론적 논증을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Yun-bok
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.145
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    • pp.351-380
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    • 2018
  • In every society, citizens must decide how to punish criminals, uphold the virtue of justice, and preserve the security of the community. In doing so, the members of society must ask themselves how they will punish those who carry out the most abhorrent of crimes. Many common responses to such a question is that death is an acceptable punishment for the most severe crimes. But to draw some theoretical distinction between a crime that deserves incarceration and a crime that is so heinous that it deserves capital punishment is subject to three errors. First, what possible line could be drawn? To decide on a particular number of deaths or to employ any standard would be arbitrary. Second, the use of a line would trivialize and undermine the deaths of those whose murderers fell below the standard. Third, any and all executions still are unjust, as the State should not degrade the institution of justice and dehumanize an individual who, although he or she has no respect for other human life, is still a living person. Simply put, all murders are heinous, all are completely unacceptable, and deserve the greatest punishment of the land; however, death as punishment is inappropriate. Also, while this article arrives at the conclusion that the death penalty is an inappropriate form of punishment, I have not offered an acceptable alternative that would appease those who believe capital offenders deserve a punishment that differs in its quality and severity. This is a burden that, admittedly, I am unable to meet. I finally conclude that the death penalty is unjustified retribution. This is the only claim that can effectively shift the intellectual paradigms of the participants in the debate. The continued use of the death penalty in society can only be determined and influenced by the collective conscience of the members of that society. As stated at the outset of this article, it is this essentially moral conflict regarding what is just and degrading that forms the backdrop for the past changes in and the present operation of our system of imposing death as a punishment for crime.

Compilation of Books on Military Arts and Science and Ideology of Military Science in the early Joseon Dynasty (조선(朝鮮) 초기(初期)의 병서(兵書) 편찬(編纂)과 병학(兵學) 사상(思想))

  • Yun, Muhak
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.49
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    • pp.325-355
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    • 2012
  • This research aims to generalize the thoughts of military science of the intellectuals through the books on military arts and science, which were published in the early Joseon Dynasty. In the early Joseon dynasty, it was in a position to establish the foundation in the new monarch internally, and, at the same time, to overcome foreign powers on both northern and southern borders externally. Thus, the books on military arts and science should have to be published under a premise of such situations. Accordingly, the books on military arts and science of those days took account of political stability having reflected the activities not only as the founder of Joseon but also as the military officer in the late Goryeo along with the books' own purpose to found military arts and sciences. The books on military arts and science that published in the early Joseon Dynasty were written mostly based on Chinese military books and its annotations, except some descriptions of the history of war. However, the intellectuals at that time endeavored to redefine military arts and science from the perspective of Confucianism having evaluated Chinese military science books that were biased to boost Machiavellian tactics. As a result of this, the geographical distinctions between China and Korea were the start of an argument for the military arts and science. There were also disputes over the relationships between the military science and the Yin-Yang School, and between the military science and Confucian school. Organizing our country's own history of war for the first time in the early Joseon Dynasty is worth for putting a high evaluation. However, it cannot help but to point out the limits of the books that there are noticeable descriptions about the factors related to toadyism, and that there are no descriptions about the wars against Japanese raiders. The books on military arts and science in the early Joseon Dynasty put emphasis on the commander's leadership that should be good at both literary and martial arts, as well as the harmony in military-to-military relations. After all, the intellectuals in the early Joseon Dynasty had linked the military arts and science to the sages of Confucian school under a premise that scholarship is to be used in combination with martial arts. And, as the nexus between the two, they noted the items of virtue, such as humaneness and righteousness (仁義); ritual and music (禮樂); loyalty and filial piety (忠孝); three fundamental principles (三綱); five moral disciplines (五倫). It can be said that this point is the typical features of the military arts and science in the early Joseon Dynasty, which cannot be found in Chinese military classics.

Pornographic Animation's Sexuality through Japanese Sex Culture (일본의 성문화를 통해 본 포르노그래피 애니메이션의 선정성)

  • Choi, Eun-Hye;Oh, Jin-Hee
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.281-302
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    • 2014
  • Human beings have advanced to release instinctive desire. Among the human desires, sexual desire is classed as a basic desire with appetite and has been expressed in many ways from prehistoric times to present. Despite the social and ethical restriction, expression of sexual image has been evolved with change of time and medium's development. Thanks to inventing the photograph technique, Change of pornographic image has showed a dramatic aspect since early 20th century. The video which delivers message more directly than the picture boosted this change, and the animation has experimented the expression methods and techniques numerously exceeding the limit of realistic image which reappeared by the device. In this thesis, I want to discuss how human beings express sexual desire in animation based on society's sex culture, and analyzed Japanese pornographic animation as its obvious cases. Japanese pornographic animation should be interpreted as the result of culture and society system's history. Through Heian, Edo and early Meiji period, Japanese sex culture has been kept very openly and preposterously. Transformation, metamorphosis, pedophilia, tentacle sex and exposure of specific body parts that are frequently appear in Japanese animation can be interpreted by ancient Japanese open sex culture like Wakashu, polygamy, sleeping in mixed sex group and pederasty. These Japanese odd sex culture is hard to find elsewhere and settled as intrinsic sexual expression in Japanese animation. This situation was institutionally severed by European Modernization's force at the end of World War II in 20th century. However, it seems they have been keeping their influence in a proper form until now. In this study, I discussed that pornographic animation should be interpreted in a frame of cultural phenomenon by researching the series of procedure that ancient Japanese open sex culture has been changed by the system. Sexuality which is found in general Japanese animation was started from their history, and the dichotomous expression about women can be understood that it is bent by institutionally regulated sexual opinion. Japanese history and culture can be understood that it is transformed to the dichotomy that are simultaneously according freedom of eroticism to the pornographic animation, and the fear and irresistible temptation about the woman's body as the other.

The Use of Interviews in Documentary Films (다큐멘터리에서의 인터뷰 활용 방식 연구)

  • Cho, Hyunjun
    • Trans-
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    • v.7
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    • pp.103-121
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    • 2019
  • In some documentary films, there are interviews, but in some other ones, there aren't any. As for the documentaries with interviews, the director uses talking heads to suggest their own arguments and to have audience agree. It is evident that interviews play a key role since they lead the story of a human-related documentary. Some directors prefer interviews where directors' questions and interviewees' answers are both heard. On the other hand, there a re directors who carry out the story just by using the answers from the interviewees. Then, it becomes crucial that we understand both of these styles and have new perspectives when watching documentary films. Ethics has always been considered one of the most important factors in documentaries and since they are believed to be "true," the influence documentaries have on the society is enormous. However, possibilities of exaggerating or manipulating the "truth" always exist. Therefore, it is important for the audience to identify the intentions of the director. As a matter of fact, there have been countless researches being done, but it is difficult to find studies that discuss the ways interviews are used in documentary films. The two different styles mentioned above do have huge differences in terms of directing methods. Thus, taking a look at differences from diverse angles will help us better understand the essentials of documentary films. This study will take examples from the interviews in Michael Moore's (2002), (2007) and observe how the flow of interviews can change when the voice of the director gets involved. There will also be a close examination of interviews in Kim Ilran and Hong Ji Yoo's (2011), and (2005) directed by Jim Butterworth, Aeron Lubarsky, and Lisa Sleeth, as well as Sebastian Junger and Tim Hetherington's (2010). By a careful review, use of dissolve, cross-cutting, and flashback will be analyzed to show how different editing techniques have an impact on subjective views of the director.

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A Study on the Awareness of Dental Hygiene Freshmen of Major and Occupation (치위생과 신입생들의 전공 및 직업의식에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Mi-Hee
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of dental hygiene freshmen about their major and their occupational consciousness. The subjects in this study were 361 dental hygiene freshmen at three different colleges in Gyeonggi province. After a survey was conducted, the collected data were analyzed with SPSS WIN 11.5 program. The findings of the study were as follows: 1. As for their view of occupation, the students made a well-paying job a priority(M = 2.97), and looked upon an occupation as a means of living(M = 1.60). Regarding the use of the profits of dental hospitals and clinics, they believed that they should reinvest their profits in a purchase of machinery, an expansion of facilities or technical development(M = 2.00). 2. Concerning relations between their motivation of college entrance and their satisfaction with their major, 96.6 percent of those who found their major satisfactory or quite satisfactory considered it to right up with their alley. 82.6 percent of them chose their major to get a stable job, and 62.8 percent of them did it through the advice of their families, relatives or regular teachers. 59.1 percent of them did it in consideration of their college entrance examination scores. Every student who were pressed for economic reasons to choose their major were unsatisfied with it. Thus, their motivation of college entrance made a statistically significantly wide difference to their satisfaction with major(p < 0.01). 3. They got a mean of 3.10 in occupational consciousness. By sub- category, they scored highest in interpersonal and work ethics(3.19 respectively). They got a mean of 3.04 in academic ethics, and got a mean of 2.99 in professional ethics, which was the lowest mark. 4. As to connections between their general characteristics and occupational consciousness, their occupational awareness was significantly different according to their motivation of college entrance and information they acquired at the time of college entrance(p < 0.05). In regard to the relationship of their satisfaction with major to their occupational awareness, their occupational consciousness statistically significantly varied with their department, their willingness of staying as a dental hygienist, the future prospect of dental hygienist (p < 0.01).

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An Inquiry into the Meaning of "Sasang" in the I Ching and Its Relationship to the Sasang Medicine (주역의 '사상'과 사상의학의 '사상'의 연관성에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Sung-hwan;Kim, Ki-hyon
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.24-36
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : Many believe that the Sasang mentioned in the I Ching and the Sasang of Sasang Medicine (as expounded by Dr. Lee Je-ma in the book Longevity and Life Preservation in Oriental Medicine) refer to different concepts. This is untrue. In order to understand the thought patterns of Dr. Lee Je-ma and his book, it is necessary to first understand the concepts of the I Ching. The I Ching was the most respected text in Dr. Lee Je-ma time, and served as the foundation upon which his medicine stood. The purpose of this research is to understand the concept of Sasang in the I Ching and how it applies to the Sasang medicine. Method : The authors first defined the term Sasang according to the theory of I Ching. It was then discussed in relation to theories of modern science. Inferences were made as to how Sasang corresponds to the terminologies and concepts of modern science. The characteristics of Sasang interpreted through modern science were then applied to the physiology, pathology and pharmacology of Sasang Medicine. Results and Conclusion : 1. The Sasang theory of the I Ching organizes seemingly random and isolated natural phenomena into four distinct groups according to various attributes. The particular characteristics representing each of these four categories are known as Sasang. 2. The Sasang theory of I Ching has a strong correlation to the Theory of Relativity and the Theory of Complementarity, as well as the Digital and Fractal Theories. 3. By applying the Sasang Theory to various fields, the seemingly unrelated principles of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine can be seen as parts of a whole. 4. Sasang Medicine categorizes human morphology, physiology and pharmacology into four categories according to the characteristics defined by the Sasang Theory of the I Ching. 5. Grouping new discoveries of modern physics, chemistry, biology and medicine according to the Sasang Theory will bring to light the intricacies of the Sasang Theory while facilitating the incorporation of modern science into Sasang Medicine.

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Development of a Value Inquiry Model in Biology Education (생물교육에서의 가치 탐구 모형 개발)

  • Jeong, Eun-Young;Kim, Young-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.582-598
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    • 2000
  • There are many bioethical issues in line with the rapid advance of biology. In this situation, it is important for students to make a rational decision on value problem. In this study 'value inquiry in biology education' is defined as 'the process of rational value judgement and wise decision-making in the biology-related value problem' and the model was developed. To develop the model, value inquiry models were reviewed. Value clarification model is helpful for the formation of the personal value as the process of individual value inquiry, but it isn't helpful for clarifying the value conflicts. Value analysis model focuses on the rational solution of value problem through the logical procedure. But it has the limitations that overemphasizing the logical and systematic aspects results in devaluating students' affective aspects. So it is necessary to coordinate psychological and logical aspects of value inquiry. In this regard, the model was developed, including identifying and clarifying value problem, understanding biological knowledge related to conflict situation, considering on the related persons, searching for alternatives, predicting the consequences of each alternative, selecting the alternative, evaluating the alternative, and final value judgement and affirming it. The educational objectives of value inquiry were selected in consideration of the ability to carry out the steps of the developed model. And the selected contents were animal duplication, test-tube baby, genetic engineering, growth hormone injection problem, brain death, organ transplant, animal to be experimented and were organized on the basis of the 6th and the 7th science curriculum. And the suitable instructional models for the value inquiry education were selected: bioethical value clarification decision-making model, group presentation according to the value analysis model, role play and debate, and discussion through web forum. And the interview was considered to be suitable to evaluate the students' value inquiry ability and the rubric was made to evaluate the attainment of the educational objectives for value inquiry.

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