• Title, Summary, Keyword: 남조류

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Blue-green algae as a Potential agent Causing Turf Leaf Disease (잔디 엽병을 유발하는 잠재인자로서의 남조류(Blue-Green algae)에 대한 관찰보고)

  • Park, Dae-Sup;Lee, Hyung-Seok;Hong, Beom-Seok;Choi, Byoung-Man;Cheon, Jae-Chan
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2008
  • Recently irregular dark-colored patches were found on the Kentucky teeing ground in a golf course in Gyunggi providence. Interestingly, blue-green algae from the leaf tissue sample containing black spot-stained symptoms were largely observed through microscopic study. In general, algae present on the upper soil surface or in the upper layer of root zone form dark brown layers of scum or crust, which invoked harmful effects to turf growth such as poor drainage, inhibition of new root development. In this observation, unlike the algae were sometime found in senescing leaves on contacted soil in July and August, the blue-green algae were detected within black spot-stained Kentucky bluegrass leaf tissues including leaf blade, ligule, auriclea as well as leaf sheath. The blue-green algae were also detected on the leaf and stem tissue adjacent to the symptomatic leaf tissues. Two species of blue-green algae, Phomidium and Oscillatoria, were greatly observed. Oscillatoria species was more commonly notified in all samples. In addition, the two species were found on a putting green showing yellow spot disease at another golf course in Gyunggi providence. The data from chemical control assay revealed that chemicals such as propiconazole, iprodione, and azoxystrobin decreased blue-green algae population and leaf spots, which finally resulted in enhanced leaf quality. All taken together, we strongly suggested that the disease-like phenomenon by blue-green algae might be very closely mediated with infection/translocation process in relation with turfgrass. It indicates that blue-green algae in turf management may play an adverse role as a secondary barrier as well as a pathogenic agent. This report may be helpful for superintendents to recognize and understand the fact that algae control should be provided more cautiously and seriously than we did previously in upcoming golf course management.

Dynamics of Cyanobacterial Toxins in the Downstream River of Lake Suwa (Suwa호 하류하천에서의 남조류 독소의 동태)

  • Kim, Bom-Chul;Park, Ho-Dong;Katagami, Yukimi;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Ho-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2001
  • Transport of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystin-LR, -RR, -YR) were assessed from a eutrophic lake, Lake Suwa, through the outflowing river, the Tenryu River, and its irrigation channel branch. Temporal variation of phytoplankton species composition in the river coincided with those of the lake; Microcystis ichthyoblabe dominated from June to July, and M. viridis dominated from August to September. When cyanobacterial bloom occurred, microcystins were continuously detected at the concentration of $0.3{\sim}3.2\;{\mu}g/l$ even at 32 km downstream. The change of the content of three microcystin variants were related both with the total cell density of Microcystis and with the change of Microcystis species composition. When Microcystis ichthyoblabe dominated during July, only microcystin-RR (MC-RR) and -LR (MC-LR) were detected, while when Microcystis viridis dominated between August and October, microcystin-RR,-YR (MC -YR) and -LR were detected. Along 29 km flowing distance (flow time 11 hours) between site 2 and site 5 in the Tenryu River, cyanobacterial density and microcystin concentration were reduced by 73% and 72%, respectively, which is mostly contributed by the dilution effect of tributary waters (61% and 57%, respectively) . In the artificial irrigation channel microcystins and cyanobacterial cells were decreased less than in the natural river. The results indicate that cyanobacterial toxins can be transported far downstream without much removal and give hazards to water usage in downstream of eutrophic lakes with cyanobacterial blooms.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Cyanobacteria in the Downstream of Nakdong River Considering the Meteorological Effects (기상학적 영향을 고려한 낙동강 하류 녹조 발생특성 연구)

  • Jung, Woo Suk;Kim, Young Do;Kim, Sung Eun;Ki, Seo Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.110-110
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    • 2020
  • 최근 낙동강유역에서는 여름철 폭염 및 가뭄의 영향으로 조류대경보가 발령되고 있으며, 급격한 수질환경적 변화가 이루어지고 있다. 본 연구대상유역인 낙동강에서도 가뭄으로 인해 녹조가 발생하여 조류경보가 발령되었다. 남조류의 대발생은 대량 번성 및 사멸에 따라 수체 내 산소 고갈 및 유기물 증가와 같은 문제를 야기하고 있다. 또한 남조류가 분비하는 독성물질 또한 수생태계와 인체에 유해하다. 그리고 인체에는 무해하다고 밝혀졌지만 수돗물 등에서 흙냄새와 같은 좋지 않은 냄새를 유발하는 냄새물인 지오스민, 2-MIB을 분비하여 정수공급체계의 악영향을 미친다. 본 연구대상 지점인 낙동강은 다기능 보 건설로 인해 하천 수심이 증가하고 유속이 느려지면서 정체성 수역 특성을 나타내고 있다. 이는 호소성 수역 특성을 나타내고 있음과 동시에 녹조발생과 같은 수질환경적 변화가 이루어지고 있다는 것을 의미한다. 본 연구에서 시각화 분석을 통해 낙동강 하류 남조류 발생현황을 분석하였으며, 랜덤포레스트를 이용하여 지점별 남조류 발생 주요 영향인자를 도출하였다. 조류경보제 발생 등급은 발령기준으로 관심, 위험, 대발생으로 구분된다. 학습데이터로 관심단계 기준인 남조류세포수 1,000 cell/mL 보다 작게 측정된 데이터들은 관심미만의 데이터로 Normal 등급으로 구분하였다. 구분된 발생등급을 범주형 변수로 설정하여 학습 데이터를 통해 모형을 구축하고 검증 데이터를 이용하여 모형 정확성을 평가하였다. 본 연구를 통해 조류발생 주요 영향인자를 도출하고 변수별 중요도를 평가를 통해 지점별 녹조 발생특성을 비교 분석하였다.

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Analysis of influential factors of cyanobacteria in the mainstream of Nakdong river using random forest (랜덤포레스트를 이용한 낙동강 본류의 남조류 발생 영향인자 분석)

  • Jung, Woo Suk;Kim, Sung Eun;Kim, Young Do
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2021
  • In this study, the main influencing factors of the occurrence of cyanobacteria at each of the eight Multifunctional weirs were derived using a random forest, and a categorical prediction model based on a Algal bloom warning system was developed. As a result of examining the importance of variables in the random forest, it was found that the upstream points were directly affected by weir operation during the occurrence of cyanobacteria. This means that cyanobacteria can be managed through efficient security management. DO and E.C were indicated as major influencers in midstream. The midstream section is a section where large-scale industrial complexes such as Gumi and Gimcheon are concentrated as well as the emissions of basic environmental facilities have a great influence. During the period of heatwave and drought, E.C increases along with the discharge of environmental facilities discharged from the basin, which promotes the outbreak of cyanobacteria. Those monitoring sites located in the middle and lower streams are areas that are most affected by heat waves and droughts, and therefore require preemptive management in preparation for the outbreak of cyanobacteria caused by drought in summer. Through this study, the characteristics of cyanobacteria at each point were analyzed. It can provide basic data for policy decision-making for customized cyanobacteria management.

Annual Fluctuation (2000 ${\sim}$ 2003) of Water Quality and Cyanobacterial Abundance in the Lower Part of Han-River (한강 하류의 남조류 및 환경요인의 연간 (2000 ${\sim}$ 2003) 변화에 대하여)

  • Suh, Mi-Yeon;Kim, Baik-Ho;Bae, Kyung-Seok;Han, Myung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2005
  • For 4 years (2000 ${\sim}$ 2003), annual fluctuations of standing crops of cyanobacteria and physicochemical factors were examined at five sites from Bridge of Seungsoo to Bridge of Seungsan in the lower part of Han River. The cyanobacterial abundance (ND to 4,167 cells $mL^{-1}$) was strongly decreased during the heavy rains in every year. During the similar periods in 2003, cyanobacteria hardly observed, and comprised below of 10 percentage of total phytoplankton. In the period of little cyanobacteria, some green algae and diatom dominated the phytoplankton community, while the concentration of chlorophyll a has not largely change. These results indicate that heavy frequent precipitation strongly limited the growth of cyanobacteria, and lead an algal succession by the appearance of new algal groups.

A Study on the building of the Basic library by using Hyperspectral Image Based Algal Medium (초분광영상 기반 조류 배양액을 이용한 기초라이브러리 구축에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Gwang Soo;Kim, Young Do;You, Ho Jun;Kim, Dong Su
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.48-48
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    • 2020
  • 최근 이상기후변화로 인해 수환경 변화가 일어나고 있다. 그로 인해 국내에서 조류의 과대성장이 빈번히 발생되고 있으다. 이로 인해 유해남조류 등 조류가 생산하는 독성물질, 이취미 물질은 수질을 악화시키고 있으며, 생태계에 큰영향을 미친다. 조류는 하천에서 넓은 분포로 발생하게 되는데 이러한 조류 모니터링에는 많은 인력과 시간이 소요된다. 국내에선 인력과 시간을 줄이기 위해 최근 원격탐사 기법을 이용한 조류 모니터링에 대한 연구가 많이 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 녹조류, 남조류 5종을 이용해 실험을 진행하였다. 사용된 초분광 센서는 CORNING사의 microHSITM 410 SHARK를 이용하였으며 파장 400-1000 nm에서 NIR(visNIR)파장을 분석할 수 있으며, 초분광 센서를 정사로 영상을 촬영하기 위해 짐벌을 이용하여 영상을 수집하였다. 영상을 촬영 전 방사보정을 하기 위해 시료와 동일 선상에 99% 반사율을 갖는 백색반사판을 같이 촬영하여 방사보정을 진행하였다. 본 연구에서는 시기와 상관없이 조류에 대한 연구를 하기위해 조류배양액을 이용하였으며, 남조의 경우 470 nm에서 분광 특성을 나타내었으며, 녹조의 경우 477-510 nm에서 분광 특성을 나타났다. 초분광영상을 통해 기초라이브러리를 구축하고 구축된 라이브러리를 통해 조류의 분광특성을 분석하고 제시하여 하천에 적용하고자 한다.

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Changes of Dominant Phytoplankton Community in Downstream of the Nakdong River: From 2002 to 2012 (낙동강 하류지역의 식물플랑크톤 우점종 군집 변화: 2002년~2012년)

  • Son, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 2013
  • The changes of phytoplankton community in downstream of the Nakdong River from 2002 to 2012 was investigated. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was gradually increased, but dominant species cell number was gradually decreased. In changes of percentage of dominant species cell number from 2002 to 2012, Diatoms was gradually decreased, but blue-green algae was gradually increased. In changes of annual percentage of dominant period, Diatoms showed high percentage from November to May, and dominant period (%) of diatoms was 56%~74% from June to September, also dominant period of diatoms was about 300 days every year. Percentage of dominant species cell number and dominant period of blue-green algae was 68%~94% and 26%~ 36% from June to September, respectively. And green-algae showed low percentage from April to September. In the transition patterns of diatoms and blue-green algae, Stephanodiscus spp. was the highest dominant species, from December to May, and Aulacoseira spp. and Fragilaria spp. were showed high dominant percentage from May to October. In the case of blue-green algae, Microcystis spp. was the highest dominant species, from May to November, also in the case of green algae, Actinastrum spp., Pediastrum spp., Micractinium spp. and Pandorina spp. were dominant species from April to September.

Fresh-water Algae Occurred in Paddy Rice Fields II. Identification of Blue-green Algae (논발생(發生) 담수조류(淡水藻類)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) II. 람조류(籃藻類)의 동정(同定))

  • Lee, H.K.;Park, J.E.;Ryu, G.H.;Lee, J.O.;Park, Y.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 1992
  • The identification on blue-queen algae which were collected from paddy rice fields of the whole nation was carried out in 1991. The blue-green algae identified were 20 species in 5 families including 7 species in the Chroococcaceae. 1 species in the Chamaesiphonaceae. 1 species in the Pleurocapsaceae, 6 species in the Nostocaeae and 5 species in the Oscillatoriaceae. Among the blue-green algae, 6 species in 4 genera including Cylindrospernum, Anabaenopsis, Anabaena and Nostoc were characterized by heterocysts concerning with nitrogen fixation capacity. A concentrated population of Oscillatoria spp. induced soil flakes with blue tint in paddy rice fields. The genera. Spirulina and Oscillatoria, showed their specific motility.

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A study on the massive cultivation of cyanobacteria and strip analysis of cyanobacterial toxin (남조류의 대량배양 및 남조류 독소의 스트립분석법 연구)

  • Pyo, Dongjin;Yim, Miyeon;Kim, Eujin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2012
  • Cyanobacterial toxins, microcystins which exist in Korean lakes show strong toxicity to fish, cattles and human. In this study, we tried to analyze cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin in the Microcystis cultivation solution using test strip, although the most common analytical methods for the detection of microcystin are HPLC and ELISA. This new anlytical method used the advantages of high specifisity and rapidness of test strip, high sensitivity of fluorescence reader. Therefore, we could analyze the trace amount of microcystin existed in various water samples without using the microcystin standards.