• Title, Summary, Keyword: 대칭성

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Analysis of Magnetic Isotropy Property using Magnetoresistance Curve of CoFe/Cu/CoFe/PtMn Multilayer Film (CoFe/Cu/CoFe/PtMn 다층박막의 자기저항 곡선을 이용한 자기 등방성 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Jong-Gu;Kim, Su-Hee;Choi, Sang-Heon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Rhee, Jang-Roh
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 2017
  • The magnetic isotropy property from the magnetoresistance (MR) curve and magnetization (MH) loop for the PtMn based spin valve (SV) multilayer films fabricated with different the bottom structure after post-annealing treatment was investigated. The exchange biased coupling field ($H_{ex}$), coercivity ($H_c$), and MR ratio of Glass/Ta(10 nm)/CoFe(6 nm)/Cu(2.5 nm)/CoFe(3 nm)/Ta(4 nm) SV multilayer film without antiferromagnetic PtMn layer are 0 Oe, 25 Oe, and 3.3 %, respectively. MR curve for the Glass/Ta(10 nm)/CoFe(6 nm)/Cu(2.5 nm)/CoFe(3 nm)/PtMn(6 nm)/Ta(4 nm) SV multilayer film showed $H_{ex}=2Oe$, $H_c=316Oe$, and MR (%) = 4.4 % with one butterfly MR curve having by the effect of antiferromagnetic PtMn layer. MR curve for the dualtype Glass/Ta(10 nm)/CoFe(6 nm)/Cu(2.5 nm)/CoFe(3 nm)/PtMn(6 nm)/CoFe(3 nm)/Cu(2.5 nm)/CoFe(6 nm)/Ta(4 nm) SV multilayer film showed $H_c=37.5Oe$ and 386 Oe, MR = 3.5 % and 6.5 % with two butterfly MR curves and square-like hysteresis MH loops. The anisotropy property in CoFe spin valve-PtMn multilayer is neglected by the effects of a very small value of $H_{ex}$ and a very slightly shape magnetic anisotropy. This result is possible to explain the effect of magnetization configuration spin array of the bottom SV film and the top SV film of PtMn layer.

Sturctural Geometry of the Pyeongchang-Jeongseon Area of the Northwestern Taebaeksan Zone, Okcheon Belt (옥천대 북서부 태백산지역 평창-정선일대 지질구조의 기하학적 형태 해석)

  • Jang, Yirang;Cheong, Hee Jun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.541-554
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    • 2019
  • The Taebaeksan Zone of the Okcheon Belt is a prominent fold-thrust belt, preserving evidence for overlapped polyphase and diachronous orogenic events during crustal evolution of the Korean Peninsula. The Pyeongchang-Jeongseon area of the northwestern Taebaeksan Zone is fault-bounded on the western Jucheon and southern Yeongwol areas, showing lateral variations in stratigraphy and structural geometries. For better understanding these geological characteristics of the northwestern Taebaeksan Zone, we have studied the structural geometry of the Pyeongchang-Jeongseon area. For this, we have firstly carried out the SHRIMP U-Pb age analysis of the age-unknown sedimentary rock to clarify stratigraphy for structural interpretation. The results show the late Carboniferous to middle Permian dates, indicating that it is correlated to the Upper Paleozoic Pyeongan Supergroup. In addition to this, we interpreted the geometric relationships between structural elements from the detailed field investigation of the study area. The major structure of the northwestern Taebaeksan Zone is the regional-scale Jeongseon Great syncline, having NE-trending hinge with second-order folds such as the Jidongri and Imhari anticlines and the Nambyeongsan syncline. Based on the stereographic and down-plunge projections of the structureal elements, the structural geometry of the Jeongseon Great syncline can be interpreted as a synformal culmination, plunging slightly to the south at its southern area, and north at the northern area. The different map patterns of the northern and southern parts of the study area should be resulted in different erosion levels caused by the plunging hinges. Considering the Jeongseon Great syncline is the major structure that constrains the distribution of the Paleozoic strata of the Pyeongchang and Jeongseon areas, the symmetric repetition of the lower Paleozoic Joseon Supergroup in both limbs should be re-examined by structural mapping of the Hangmae and Hoedongri formations in the Pyeongchang and Jeongseon areas.

REPORT OF EXPERIENCE WITH KIMURA'S DISEASE (기무라씨 질환, 5 예 보고)

  • Seel David J.;Park Yoon-Kyu;Lee Kwang-Min
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1989
  • Kimura's Disease is a chronic inflammatory and proliferative condition producing subcutaneous masses especially in the head and neck area. This report of our experience with 5 patients with this disease is the first in the Korean surgical literature. Kimura's Disease is thought to be part of the larger spectrum of the entity known as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE). It is characterized pathologically by hyperplastic lymphoid follicles, eosinophilic infiltration, and vase 비 ar proliferation. It produces masses which are most common in the area of the parotid, submandibular gland and upper neck. These masses occupy the subcutaneous tissues but also extend into salivary tissue and into upper neck nodes. One of our patients had masses in the groin. The tumors are extremely vascular due to the presence of new proliferative vessels and sinusoids. The average age of our 5 patients was 35, but all but one case were younger than 38 years of age. The male: female ratio was 3 : 2, and the average duration of symptoms was 5,2years. All patients had peripheral blood eosinophilia. All had multiple masses, sometimes symmetrical. The management was surgery alone in one case, surgery and steroids in one case, surgery and radiotherapy in two cases, and all three modalities in one case. The relationship of this entity to ALHE and our experience in the management of this disease are presented. A clinicopathological discrepancy alerted us to the existence of Kimura's Disease. A nineteen-year old male presented with subcutaneous masses over both mastoid areas present for 3 years (Case III). When biopsy on each side was reported as 'eosinophilic granuloma' we submitted the slides to an internationally expert pathologist. Symmetrically occurring tumors in the peri-parotid subcutaneous areas did not fit any category of neoplasm or granuloma known to us. The diagnosis, made by Dr. Gist Fan at the Ochsner Clinic, was Kimura's Disease. We found two additional cases in a review of soft tissue eosinophilic granuloma previously reported at Presbyterian Medical Center, and since then have diagnosed two new cases. These five cases constitute the basis for this, the largest series to be reported in Korea. These vascular, tumor-like lesions of the skin, subcutaneous areas and subjacent structures of the head and neck have been a variety of names, such as angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma, angioblastic lymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia, histioid hemangioma, and epithelioid hemangioma. The history of this disease spectrum dates back to 1937 when Kimm and Szeto (1) reported 7 cases of 'eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma' in the Proceedings of the Chinese Medical Journal. In 1948 Kimura and his associates(2) reported additional cases in Japan under the title 'On the unusual granulation combined with hyperplastic changes of lymphatic tissue.' From then until 1966 several hundred cases were reported in China and Japan. The first report from the West was by Wells and Whimster(3) in the British Journal of Dermatology, in 1969. These authors coined the term, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE). Since that time a debate has ensued as to whether Kimura's Disease and ALHE are distinct entities, or whether Kimura's is part of the larger spectrum of ALHE, perhaps a later or advanced phase. From the clinical perspective, surgeons should be aware of the diagnosis of Kimura's Disease not only as part of the differential diagnosis of head and neck tumors but also because these lesions are indolent, and generally require conservative surgical removal as part of the management program. CASE I. A 37-year-old female company employee presented in August 1982 with submental swelling of 12 years' duration and with inguinal swelling of 7 years' duration. The submental mass measured 5x5cm. and the inguinal mass was 8x4cm. in size. Peripheral eosinophilia varying from 14% to 40% was found. On August 20, 1982, the submental mass was removed and a superficial groin dissection was done. In May 1983 an intraoral lesion of the palate was removed. The patient is free of disease. CASE II. A 23-year-old unemployed man visited this hospital for the first time in July, 1984, with swelling of the right cheek present for 6 years. The mass was soft and ill-defined but measured 10x20cm. and extended from the submandibular upper neck to the zygomatic arch, and from the mastoid to the cheek, over the parotid gland. Eosinophilia varying from 27% to 29% was noted in the peripheral blood. On March 21, 1986, the lesion was resected. The procedure comprised an extended superficial parotidectomy from the temporalis fascia to the upper neck. Post-operatively radiotherapy 3000 rad tissue dose was administered using the 6 MeV linear accelerator. The patient remains free of disease. CASE III. A 19-year-old student came to the clinic with masses over both mastoid areas, present 3 years. On the right there were two adjacent lesions, one over the mastoid, the other in the upper jugular level of the neck. On the left it was a single mass over the mastoid. Eosinophilia varied from 13 to 32% in the peripheral blood, and 11.6% in the bone marrow. Incisional biopsy revealed 'eosinophilic granuloma' and a trial of predisolone was employed. The mass increased in size so a small dose of radiation (600 rads) was used, with substantial regression,. The lesion on the left was excised and follwed by 1000 rads radiotherapy. Finally recurrent tumor on the right side was removed on November 5, 1985. The patient remains free of disease. CASE N. A 29-year-old local merchant had had swelling of both upper necks since childhood. At the time of his first visit on March 17, 1986, the right submandibular mass measured 5x3.5cm. and the ,right upper neck and parotid tail mass measured 2.5cm. On the left there were masses in the upper neck, the largest of which measured 2.5cm, and of the parotid tail, 2.0cm. in size.(See Fig. 1) Peripheral eosinophilia of 39% was recorded. Left side partial parotidectomy and resection of the upper neck and subdigstric mases was done on May 2, 1986. The mass involving the right parotid tail and upper neck nodes was removed on Angust 7,1986. Postoperatively the patient was placed on prednisolone 30 mg. per day. No definite masses are palpable. CASE V. A 66-year-old housewife informed us, at the time of her first visit in May, 1986, that she had had multiple neck masses since 10 years ago. On the right side there was a 2.5cm. subcutaneous mass of the upper neck, over the upper jugular chain. On the left there was a 9x4.5cm. mass involving the entire parotid, the post-auricular area and the upper neck. A third mass presented in the submental area and measured 3.5cm. (See Fig. 2) Eosinophilia of 51% was noted in the peripheral blood. partial excision of the left upper neck lesion and complete excision of the submental mass were performed on june 6, 1986. post-operatively she was placed on 20 mg. of prednisolone daily, but when the mass re-grew after two months she was referred to Radiation Therapy for a 2500 rad course of treatment. A barely palpable thickening remains.

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Structural and Compositional Characteristics of Skarn Zinc-Lead Deposits in the Yeonhwa-Ulchin Mining District, Southeastern Taebaegsan Region, Korea Part II : The Yeonhwa II Mine (연화(蓮花)-울진광산지대(蔚珍鑛山地帶) 스카른연(鉛)·아연광상(亞鉛鑛床)의 구조적(構造的) 및 성분적(成分的) 특징(特徵) 기이(其二) : 제2연화광산(第二蓮花鑛山))

  • Yun, Suckew
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.147-176
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    • 1979
  • The Yeonhwa II zinc-lead mine is characterized by a dozen of moderately dipping tabular orebodies of skarn and zinc-lead sulfides, developed in accordance with the ENE-trending bedding thrusts and bedding planes of the Pungchon Limestone and underlying Myobong Formation, mostly along the contacts of a ENE-trending sill and a NW-trending dike of quartz mononite porphyry. The orebodies occur in three groups: (1) the footwall Wolgok orebodies with respect to the sill, (2) the hangingwall Wolgok orebodies, and (3) the Seongok orebodies extended from dike contacts into carbonate beds. Mineral compositions of these orebodies are dominated by calc-silicates (skarn) associated with ore minerals of sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, as well as sulfide gangue of pyrrhotite. A pair of exo- and endo-skerns in the Wolgok footwall contact aureole between the Pungchon Limestone and quartz monzonite porphyry on the -120 level represents a well-developed symmetrical pattern of mineral zoning: a garnet/quartz zone in the center of exoskarn, two zones of pyroxene with ore minerals on both sides of the garnet/quartz zone, further outwards-an epidote/chlorite-bearing hornfelsic zone in the Myobong slate beyond a zone of unaffected limestone, and an epidote-dominated zone of endo skarn on the opposite side toward fresh quartz monzonite porphyry. These features indicate a combination of two effects on the skarn formation: (1) differences in composition of the host rocks(sedimentary and ignous), and (2) progressive outward migration of inner zones on outer zones on the course of metasomatic replacement of the pre-existing minerals. Microprobe analyses of garnet, pyroxene, pyroxenoids, epidote, and chlorite for nine major elements on a total of 23 mineral grains revealed that: the pyroxenes are hedenbergitic, in most zones, with a gradual decrease of Fe- and Mn-contents toward the central zone, whereas the garnets are andraditic in outer zones, but are grossularitic in the central zone. This indicates a reverse relationship of Fe-contents between pyroxene and garnet across the exoskarn zones. Pyroxenoids are lacking in wollastonite but are dominated by pyroxmangite, rhodonite and bustamite, indicating a Mn-rich nature in bulk chemistry. Pseudomorphic fluorite after garnet occurs abundantly reflecting a fluorine-enhanced evidence of the skarn-forming fluids. Epidote contains 0.19-0.25mole fraction of pistacite, and chlorite is Mn-rich but is Mg-poor. Sulfide mineralization took place with the most Fe-rich pyroxene rather than with garnet as indicated by the fact that the highest value of hedenbergite mole fraction occurs in the ore-bearing pyroxene zone. The Yeonhwa II ores are characterized by high zinc and low lead in metal grade, with minor quantity of copper content in almost constant grade. The hangingwall Wolgok and Seongok orebodies, that formed in a more open environment with respect to their local configurations of geologic setting, are more variable in metal grades and ratios, than are the footwall Wolgok orebodies formed in a more closed condition in a narrow interval of sedimentary beds.

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Distributional Characteristics of Fault Segments in Cretaceous and Tertiary Rocks from Southeastern Gyeongsang Basin (경상분지 남동부 일대의 백악기 및 제3기 암류에서 발달하는 단층분절의 분포특성)

  • Park, Deok-Won
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.109-120
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    • 2018
  • The distributional characteristics of fault segments in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks from southeastern Gyeongsang Basin were derived. The 267 sets of fault segments showing linear type were extracted from the curved fault lines delineated on the regional geological map. First, the directional angle(${\theta}$)-length(L) chart for the whole fault segments was made. From the related chart, the general d istribution pattern of fault segments was derived. The distribution curve in the chart was divided into four sections according to its overall shape. NNE, NNW and WNW directions, corresponding to the peaks of the above sections, indicate those of the Yangsan, Ulsan and Gaeum fault systems. The fault segment population show near symmetrical distribution with respect to $N19^{\circ}E$ direction corresponding to the maximum peak. Second, the directional angle-frequency(N), mean length(Lm), total length(Lt) and density(${\rho}$) chart was made. From the related chart, whole domain of the above chart was divided into 19 domains in terms of the phases of the distribution curve. The directions corresponding to the peaks of the above domains suggest the directions of representative stresses acted on rock body. Third, the length-cumulative frequency graphs for the 18 sub-populations were made. From the related chart, the value of exponent(${\lambda}$) increase in the clockwise direction($N10{\sim}20^{\circ}E{\rightarrow}N50{\sim}60^{\circ}E$) and counterclockwise direction ($N10{\sim}20^{\circ}W{\rightarrow}N50{\sim}60^{\circ}W$). On the other hand, the width of distribution of lengths and mean length decrease. The chart for the above sub-populations having mutually different evolution characteristics, reveals a cross section of evolutionary process. Fourth, the general distribution chart for the 18 graphs was made. From the related chart, the above graphs were classified into five groups(A~E) according to the distribution area. The lengths of fault segments increase in order of group E ($N80{\sim}90^{\circ}E{\cdot}N70{\sim}80^{\circ}E{\cdot}N80{\sim}90^{\circ}W{\cdot}N50{\sim}60^{\circ}W{\cdot}N30{\sim}40^{\circ}W{\cdot}N40{\sim}50^{\circ}W$) < D ($N70{\sim}80^{\circ}W{\cdot}N60{\sim}70^{\circ}W{\cdot}N60{\sim}70^{\circ}E{\cdot}N50{\sim}60^{\circ}E{\cdot}N40{\sim}50^{\circ}E{\cdot}N0{\sim}10^{\circ}W$) < C ($N20{\sim}30^{\circ}W{\cdot}N10{\sim}20^{\circ}W$) < B ($N0{\sim}10^{\circ}E{\cdot}N30{\sim}40^{\circ}E$) < A ($N20{\sim}30^{\circ}E{\cdot}N10{\sim}20^{\circ}E$). Especially the forms of graph gradually transition from a uniform distribution to an exponential one. Lastly, the values of the six parameters for fault-segment length were divided into five groups. Among the six parameters, mean length and length of the longest fault segment decrease in the order of group III ($N10^{\circ}W{\sim}N20^{\circ}E$) > IV ($N20{\sim}60^{\circ}E$) > II ($N10{\sim}60^{\circ}W$) > I ($N60{\sim}90^{\circ}W$) > V ($N60{\sim}90^{\circ}E$). Frequency, longest length, total length, mean length and density of fault segments, belonging to group V, show the lowest values. The above order of arrangement among five groups suggests the interrelationship with the relative formation ages of fault segments.