• Title, Summary, Keyword: 대칭성

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Allocation Methods for Port Incentives at Gwangyang Port (항만 인센티브 배분방법 설계 - 광양항을 중심으로)

  • Sung, Souk-Kyung;Park, Byung-In
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2013
  • This paper aims to review the fairness of carriers' incentive schemes at Gwangyang port in 2010 and to show the desirable incentive allocation rules using the proportional and egalitarian rules under cooperative game theory. The carriers' incentive schemes at Gwangyang port in 2010 did not meet the no-envy and the efficiency, and satisfy the symmetry axiom. According to the research findings, the equal surplus method satisfies the axioms of equity, efficiency, symmetry, and progressivity. However, the uniform losses method meets the axioms of equity, efficiency, symmetry, and regressivity. We use a single allocation criterion of the total throughput to show the regressivity and the symmetry principles into the incentive scheme instead of using multiple criteria such as total throughput, increased volume, and coastal volume. The uniform losses method based on the total throughput can distribute the incentive amount according to the intent of the incentive schemes. Hence, we need to establish a rationing system to allocate reasonably the total amount of different types of incentives, avoiding the temptation to adjust the volume shipped between the ports of carriers considering the efficiency of allocation.

Power Minimization Techniques for Logic Circuits Utilizing Circuit Symmetries (회로의 대칭성을 이용한 다단계 논리회로 회로에서의 전력 최소화 기법)

  • 정기석;김태환
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.504-511
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    • 2003
  • The property of circuit symmetry has long been applied to the Problem of minimizing the area and timing of multi-level logic circuits. In this paper, we focus on another important design objective, power minimization, utilizing circuit symmetries. First, we analyze and establish the relationship between several types of circuit symmetry and their applicability to reducing power consumption of the circuit, proposing a set of re-synthesis techniques utilizing the symmetries. We derive an algorithm for detecting the symmetries (among the internal signals as well as the primary inputs) on a given circuit implementation. We then propose effective transformation algorithms to minimize power consumption using the symmetry information detected from the circuit. Unlike many other approaches, our transformation algorithm guarantees monotonic improvement in terms of switching activities, which is practically useful in that user can check the intermediate re-synthesized designs in terms of the degree of changes of power, area, timing, and the circuit structure. We have carried out experiments on MCNC benchmark circuits to demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. On average we reduced the power consumption of circuits by 12% with relatively little increase of area and timing.

Cancellation of MRI Motion Articact in Image Plane (촬상단면에 있어서 MRI 체동 아티팩트의 제거)

  • 김응규
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.434-436
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    • 1999
  • MRI 촬상내의 체동에 의해 화상위에 나타나는 아티팩트를 제거하는 알고리즘에 관해서 기술한다. 종래의 반복적인 위상탐색법에 의한 제거법과는 달리, 위상 엔코딩 방향인 Y 방향의 체동에 대하여 MRI의 원리에 근거해서 체동과 화상의 위상공간에서의 대응관계를 해석해서 체동성분을 추출함으로써 아티팩트를 제거하는 새로운 알고리즘을 제안한다. 인체의 단층상에 있어서 피하지방 부위를 통과하는 Y방향의 한 라인상의 밀도분포는 대칭성을 갖고 있어 밀도분포위상의 선형성을 체동과 화상성분을 분리하기 위한 구속조건으로 사용한다. MRI 신호에 대해서 X 방향의 1차원 푸리에 변환을 행한 후의 Y 방향의 스펙트럼 위상값은 화상자신의 성분과 체동성분의 합이 되고 있다. Y 방향의 한 라인에 따른 밀도분포가 대칭인 경우에는 화상의 위상성분이 그 위치에 대해서 선형함수가 되고 있다. 이러한 구속조건에 근거한 아티팩트의 제거방법을 정식화하며, 시뮬레이션에 의해 본 방법의 유효성을 확인한다. 아울러, 체동 변동이 약간 큰 경우 및 Y 접선 영역의 대칭성이 무너진 경우에 대해서도 검토를 행한다.

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Ground State Computation of Interacting Fermion Systems by using Advanced Stochastic Diagonalization (진보된 혼돈 대각화 방법을 이용한 상호작용하는 페르미온 계의 기저상태 계산)

  • Ahn, Sul-Ah;Cho, Myoung Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.209-211
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    • 2007
  • The computational time of Stocahstic Diagonalization (SD) calculation for 2-dimensional interacting fermion systems is reduced by using several methods including symmetry operations. First, each lattice is subdivided into spin-up and spin-down lattices separately, thus allowing a bi-partite lattice. A valid basis state is then obtained from stacking up an up-spin configuration on top of a down-spin configuration. As a consequence, the memory space to be used in saving the trial basis state reduces significantly. Secondly, the matrix elements of a Hamiltonianin are reconrded in a look-up table when making basis state set. Thus the repeated calculation of the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian are avoided during SD process. Thirdly, by applying symmetry operations to the basis state set the original basis state is transformed to a new basis state whose elements are the eigenvectors of the symmetry operations. The ground state wavefunction is constructed from the elements of symmetric - bonding state - basis state set. As a result, the total number of basis states involved in SD calculation is reduced upto 50 percentage by using symmetry operations.

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Modified Scan Line Based Generalized Symmetry Transform with Selectively Directional Attention (선택적 방향주의를 가지는 수정된 스캔라인 일반화 대칭 변환)

  • Kim, Dong-Su;Jin, Seong-Il
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.411-421
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    • 2001
  • The generalized symmetry transform evaluates symmetry without segmentation and extracts regions of interest in an image by combining locality and reflectional symmetry The demand that the symmetry transform be local is reflected by the distance weight function. When calculating large regions-of-interest, we should select a large standard deviation of distance weight function. But such a large standard deviation makes the execution time increase in the second power of r, which is a radius of search area. In this paper we propose modified scan line based GST with selectively directional attention to improve time complexity The symmetry map of our proposed GST is found to be very similar to that of the existing GST. However the computation time of the proposed GST increases linearly with respect to r because our proposed GST evaluates symmetry between a pair of edge pixels along the scan lines. The GST computation decreases considerably when the proposed GST is peformed with selectively directional attention in case of large r. Several experiments in this paper demonstrate the time efficiency and the usefulness of our proposed GST.

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Target extraction using divergent-direction-emphasis symmetry transform (발산 방향성 강조 대칭변환을 이용한 표적 검출)

  • Jun, Jun-Hyung;Lee, Hee-Yul;Choi, Byung-Jae;Park, Kil-Houm
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2010
  • This paper propose the DDEGST(divergent-direction-emphasis generalized symmetry transform) which emphasis the symmetry of divergent intensity orientation for effective target extraction in FLIR(forward looking infra-red) images. In the proposed method, we use the exponential function instead of cosine function as a phase weight function in the generalized symmetry transform for effective target extraction in FLIR images which contain a target with higher intensity than a background intensity. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we compare the proposed mehtod with conventional GST method in experiments. We prove that the proposed method have better performance in IR images.

비대칭 워터마킹 시스템에 관한 연구

  • Choi, Hyuk;Kim, Tae-Jung
    • Review of KIISC
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2002
  • 디지털 데이터의 저작권 보호를 위해 사용되는 워터마킹은 키의 대칭성 측면으로 볼 때 대칭 방식과 비대칭 방식으로 나눌 수 있다. 기존의 연구들은 거의 모두가 대칭 워터마킹의 형태로 이루어져 왔으나 공개적인 검출이 필요한 워터마킹의 특성상 삽입키와 검출키가 같은 대팅 형태에서는 검출기에서 유출되는 정보에 의해 삽입키가 제거될 수 있는 안전성 문제를 가지고 있다. 이를 해결하기 위해 검출키와 삽입키가 다른 비대칭 워터마킹 방식이 대두되었다. 본 논문은 최근에 2세대 워터마킹 방식으로 주목을 받고 있는 비대칭 워터마킹의 개념과 기존의 연구들을 소개하고 그들의 성능을 비교, 분석하였다.

Conservation Laws and Symmetry of Differential Equations -stories about E. Noether's Theorem- (보존률과 미분방정식의 대칭성 -뇌터의 정리를 중심으로-)

  • Han, Chong-Kyu
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.211-222
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    • 2018
  • This paper surveys the theory of symmetry group of differential equations. A proof of the simplest version of the Noether's theorem on conservation laws has been presented with examples in the classical mechanics. As a new approach to the conservation laws the theory of characteristic cohomology due to S. H. Wang and others has been presented.

Fabrication of symmetrical thin film diodes using flexible electrodes (연성 전극을 이용한 대칭형 박막 다이오드 제작)

  • Lee, Chan-Jae;Hong, Sung-Jei;Moon, Dae-Gyu;Han, Jeong-In
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.128-131
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    • 2002
  • 연성 AI 전극을 이용하여 플라스틱 기판 위에 대칭성 박막 다이오드를 제작하였다. 다이오드의 구조는 $Al/Ta_{2}O_{5}/Al$의 3층 구조로 되어 있다 상부 AI 전극 제작시 하부 AI 전극의 손상을 방지하기 위해 무(無)식각 공정을 개발, 적용하였다. AI 전극을 사용한 결과 단단한 Ta 전각에서 나타난 변형 빛 균열 문제가 해결되었다. 또한 상부 빛 하부의 대칭성 전극 구조로 제작함으로써 I-V 곡선이 완벽한 대칭형의 우수한 전기적 특성을 얻을 수 있었다.

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A Study on Adopting Symmetric Control System in Active Suspension Equipment (능동 서스펜션 장치에의 대칭제어시스템 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Park Jung-Hyen;Kim Soon-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.769-774
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    • 2006
  • This paper proposed a theoretic numerical modelling in control system design to analyze active suspension equipment by adopting minimum phase system theory. Recent in the field of suspension system design it is general to adopt active control scheme for stiffness and damping, and connection with other vehicle stability control equipment is also intricate, it is required for control system scheme to design more robust, higher response and precision control equipment. Transfer matrices of system with collocated sensors and actuators are symmetric. The symmetry is independent of the entities of mass, damping, or stiffness matrices, and is a non parametric nature. From this point of view, symmetric robust control system is analyzed and designed in this paper. Numerical example is shown for validity of robust control system design.