• Title/Summary/Keyword: 레이저 용접

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The Weldability of $6mm^t$ Primer-coated Steel for Shipbuilding by $CO_2$ Laser( I ) - Effects of Primer Coating Condition and Gap Clearance - ($6mm^t$조선용 프라이머 코팅강판의 $CO_2$레이저 용접성( I ) - 프라이머 코팅조건과 갭 간극의 영향 -)

  • Kim Jong-Do;Park Hyun-Joon
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.76-82
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    • 2005
  • Recently the application of laser welding technology has been considered to shipbuilding structure. However, when this technology is applied to primer coated steel, good quality weld beads are not easily obtained. Because the primer-coated layer caused the spatter, humping bead and porosity which are main part of the welding defect attributed to the powerful vaporizing pressure of zinc. So we performed experiment with objectives of understanding spatter and porosity formation mechanism and producing sound weld beads in 6mmt primer coated steels by a $CO_2$ CW laser. The effects of welding parameters; defocused distance, welding speed, coated thickness and coated position; were investigated in the bead shape and penetration depth on bead and lap welding. Alternative idea was suggested to suspend the welding defect by giving a reasonable gap clearance for primer coated thickness. The zinc of primer has a boiling point that is lower than melting point of steel. Zinc vapor builds up at the interface between the two sheets and this tends to deteriorate the quality of the weld by ejecting weld material from lap position or leaving porosity. Significant effects of primer coated position was lap side rather than surface. Therefore introducing a small gap clearance in the lap position, the zinc vapor could escape through it and sound weld beads can be acquired. In conclusion, formation and suspension mechanism of the welding defects was suggested by controling the factors.

A Study on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Electron Gun in Braun Tubes (I) - Characteristics of Beam Output Energy and Optical Parameters - (브라운관 전자총 부품의 펄스 Nd:YAG레이저 용접에 관한 연구 (I) - 빔의 출력특성과 광학변수 -)

  • 김종도;하승협;조상명
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.525-534
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    • 2002
  • During laser spot welding of the braun tube electron gun, phenomena such as serious spattering and oxidative reaction, etc. were occurred. The spatter occurred from weld pool affects the braun tube, namely it blocks up a very small hole on the shadow mask and causes short circuit between two roles of the electron gun. We guessed that high power density and oxidative reaction are main sources of these problems. So, we studied to prevent and to reduce spatter occurring in spot welding of the braun tube electron gun using pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The characteristics of laser output power was estimated, and the loss of laser energy by optical parameter and spatter was measured by powermeter. The effects of welding parameters, laser defocused distance and incident angle, were investigated on the shape and penetration depth of the laser welded bead in flare and flange joints. From these results, the laser peak power was a major factor to control penetration depth and to occur spatter. It was found that the losses of laser energy by optic parameter and sticked spatter affect seriously laser weldability of thin sheets. The deepest penetration depth is gotten on focal position, and a "bead transition" occurred with a slight displacement of focal position relative to the workpiece surface and the absorption rate of the laser energy is affected by the shape factor of the workpiece. When we changed the incident angle of laser beam, the penetration depth was decreased a little with increasing of the incident angle, and the bead width was increased. The spattering was prevented by considering laser beam energy and incident angle.ent angle.

Reverse Design of F-Theta Lens for Compact Laser Scanner (소형 2차원 레이저 스캐너용 F-theta 렌즈 역설계)

  • Choi, Hae Woon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2017
  • In this study, a reverse design of the F-theta lens was proposed for a 2D scanner in remote welding applications. The curvature and distance of the lens were set as variables, and the focal length of the lens was set as the marginal ray height. The ZEMAX commercial software was used to perform a simulation with unlimited iterations for the optimization process. The target value was optimized using the internal Merit function with the weight factors of focal length and spot diameter. The number of lenses was four, and the focal length obtained from the results was 135mm that is slightly less than that of the commercial lens, which is set with a focal length of 185 mm. The calculated spot diameters are $1.3{\mu}m$, $6.2{\mu}m$, and $16.1{\mu}m$ for $0^{\circ}$, $12.5^{\circ}$ and $23^{\circ}$ of incident laser beam, respectively. It is expected that an optimized lens design is possible by performing the reverse design of a lens by the ray tracing method.

A Study on Remote CO2 Laser Welding for the Development of Automobive Parts (차체부품 개발을 위한 원격 CO2 레이저 용접에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Mun-Jong;Lee, Gyu-Hyun;Lee, Mun-Yong;Kim, Sok-Won
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2010
  • The Remote welding system(RWS) using $CO_2$ laser equipment has focusable distance of laser beam longer than 800 mm from workpiece and can deflect the laser beam by the scanner mirrors very rapidly. In the case of normal welding system based on robot, there is a limit to move the shortest path in short time and this causes interference between robot and workpiece. On the other hand, RWS is the optimized equipment to get big merits with advanced sequence of welding and short cycle time. However, there is still a pending task such as the control of plasma in the welding process of thick sheets therefore, it requires high power laser beam because of the absence of assist gas equipment in itself. In this study, high-tensile steel plates were overlap welded with $CO_2$ RWS for the production of car body and the influence of penetration depth according to the existence of assist gas was analyzed. Excellent tensile strength with enough width of molten zone independent to penetration depth was observed under welding condition with 3.6 kW laser power and 2.8 m/min welding speed without assist gas. Finally, the proto-type automotive parts were produced by applying the deduced optimal welding condition.

The weldability and mechanical property of CP titanium by GTAW (순 타이타늄의 GTAW 용접성 및 기계적 특성)

  • Hong, Jae-Keun;Kim, Jee-Hoon;Lee, Chae-Hoon;Yeom, Jong-Taek;Kang, Chung-Yun
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.57-57
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    • 2009
  • 산업의 고도화에 따른 구조물의 사용 환경이 열악해지고 최근 에너지저감과 환경문제 개선을 위한 경화의 요구에 따라 뛰어난 내식성 및 우수한 고비강도 특성을 갖고 있는 타이타늄 및 타이타늄합금의 활용에 대한 연구가 많은 주목을 받고 있다. 이에 따라 타이타늄 신합금의 개발뿐만 아니라 기존에 개발되어 비교적 보편적으로 적용되고 있는 타이타늄 부품의 제조 및 성형기술에 대한 수요도 급증하고 있다. 특히, 기기 및 부품 제조를 위한 용접/접합기술도 매우 중요한 요소기술로 자리메김하고 있다. 타이타늄은 산소, 수소 등의 침입형 원소와의 친화력이 강한 활성이 큰 금속으로 용접시 고온에 노출되면 급격히 산화 및 취화 등의 문제를 발생한다. 따라서 타이타늄의 용접시에는 $426^{\circ}C$이상의 온도에서는 대기로부터 용접부가 차단되도록 하는 쉴딩기술이 매우 중요하다. 타이타늄의 용접은 일반적으로 아크용접, 전자빔 용접, 레이저 용접 및 확산접합 등이 적용되고 있으나 용접입열 조정이 용이하고 아크 안정성이 높고 용접부의 기계적 특성이 우수한 GTA 용접이 작업성을 고려하여 가장 많이 적용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 미국용접학회(AWS)의 타이타늄 용접가이드를 분석 및 소개하였고, 1t 이하의 박판 CP Ti를 대상으로 GTAW 용접부 미세조직 및 기계적 특성을 분석하였다. 이때, 용접 비드폭 제어 및 펄스 용접기술을 통하여 박판 타이타늄의 최적 GTAW 공정변수 제어기술을 분석하였다.

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Weldability of Magnesium Alloy Sheet by Nd:YAG Laser (II) -Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Weldment- (Nd:YAG 레이저를 이용한 마그네슘 합금 판재의 용접성 (II) -용접부의 기계적 특성과 미세조직-)

  • Kim, Jong-Do;Lee, Jung-Han;Lee, Jae-Bum;Lee, Mun-Yong;Park, Hyun-Jun
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.116-116
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    • 2009
  • 마그네슘 합금은 구조용으로 사용 가능한 금속 재료 중 가장 가벼운 소재이며, 동시에 비강도 및 비강성과 같은 기계적 특성이 우수하여 알루미늄 합금의 뒤를 이을 차세대 경량 재료로써 주목을 받고 있다. 더욱이 석유자원의 대부분을 소비하고 있는 운송기기 분야에서는 경량화를 통한 연비향상과 배출가스 저감이 가장 큰 과제이며, 이 문제를 해결하기 위한 노력의 일환으로 최경량 소재인 마그네슘 합금의 사용량은 더욱 증가할 것으로 기대된다. 한편 기존의 마그네슘 합금 관련 연구는 새로운 합금의 개발에 치우쳐 있었으며, 상대적으로 이들 합금을 활용하기 위한 가공기술, 특히 용접에 대한 연구는 아직까지 많이 부족한 실정이다. 이는 철강재와 비교하여 마그네슘 합금의 고유물성이 용접의 관점에서는 상당히 열악하기 때문으로, 마그네슘은 융점 및 비점은 낮은 반면, 증기압과 열전도율은 높고 표면장력 및 점성은 낮은 특성을 가지고 있다. 그러므로 타 공법에 비해 상대적으로 입열이 적고 고속용접이 가능한 레이저의 적용이 최적으로 판단된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 Nd:YAG 레이저를 사용하여 압연판재로 상용화되어 있는 AZ31B 마그네슘 합금의 맞대기 용접성을 조사하였으며, 용접부의 미세조직과 용접조건에 따른 용접부의 기계적 특성을 비교 및 검토하였다. 용접부의 기계적 특성은 인장 및 경도시험을 통해 평가하였다. 그 결과 레이저 출력 1.2kW를 적용한 경우에 안정적인 강도를 얻을 수 있었으며 레이저 출력 1.5kW, 용접속도 80mm/sec의 조건에서 모재 인장강도 대비 103% 그리고 연신율 대비 47.1%의 최적의 결과가 얻어졌다. 또한 용접부의 경도는 모재와 동등하거나 다소 높은 수준이었다. 이는 용접시 용접부내 잔류하는 알루미늄에 의한 고용 강화 효과와 금속간화합물의 석출 빈도 증가, 그리고 레이저 용접의 특징인 급열급랭 공정에 기인한 결정립 미세화의 영향 때문으로 사료된다. 한편 용접부 미세조직을 관찰한 결과, 열영향부의 존재는 두드러지지 않았으며 용융경계부에서는 주상정이, 그리고 용접부 가운데에서는 등축정이 관찰되었다.

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Effect of Coating Thickness on Microstructures and Tensile Properties in Yb:YAG Disk Laser Welds of Al-Si Coated Boron Steel (Al-Si 용융 도금된 보론강의 Yb:YAG 디스크 레이저 용접부의 미세조직과 인장성질에 미치는 도금두께의 영향)

  • Cao, Wei-Ye;Kong, Jong-Pan;Ahn, Yong-Nam;Kim, Cheol-Hee;Kang, Chung-Yun
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.66-75
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the effect of coating thickness($20{\mu}m$ and $30{\mu}m$) on microstructure and tensile properties in Yb:YAG disk laser welds of Al-Si-coated boron steel (1.2mmt) was investigated. In the case of as welds, the quantity of ferrite was found to be higher in base metal than that in HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) and fusion zone, indicating, fracture occurrs in base metal, and the fracture position is unrelated to the coating thickness. Furthermore, yield strength, tensile strength of base metal and welded specimens showed similar behavior whereas elongation was decreased. On the other hand, base metal and HAZ showed existence of martensite after heat treatment, the fusion zone indicated the presence of full ferrite or austenite and ferrite during heat treatment ($900^{\circ}C$, 5min), After water cooling, austenite was transformed to martensite, and the quantity of ferrite in fusion zone was higher as compared with in base metal, resulting in sharply decrease of yield strength, tensile strength and elongation, which leads to fracture occured at fusion zone. In particular, results showed that because the concentration of Al was higher in 30um coating layer specimen than that of 20um coating specimen, after heat treatment, producing a higher quantity of ferrite was higher after heat treatment in the fusion zone; howevers, it leads to a lower tensile property.

Design and Fabrication of APD-FET Module for 2.5 Gbps Optical Communicating System (광통신용 APD-FET 광수신모듈 설계 및 제작)

  • 강승구;송민규;윤형진;박경현;박찬용;박형무;윤태열;이창희;심창섭
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 1994
  • The fiber optic receiver, ETRI APD-FET 1.0, is developed for the application of optical communication. This fiber optic receiver includes PD sub-module and pre-amplifier case. A single lens system is introduced for the PD sub-module. The sub-module consists of the avalenche photodiode(APD), GRIN rod lens, and a single mode fiber. The above components are enclosed into the stainless steel 304L housings. By bevelling the fiber end, the single mode fiber provides less than ~ 28 dB of optical return loss. The area of image focus is controlled by adjusting the length of spacer located in-between the fiber and the GRIN rod lens. The laser welding technique is applied to achieve the maximum coupling efficiency for the joining of each housing. In the pre-amplifier case, GaAs FET pre-amplifier workes for photocurrent amplification and the thermister is mounted to control the APD bias. The performance of ETRI APD-FET1.0 shows the sensitivity of - 30.3 dBm at $10^{-10}$ BER(bit error rate) and 2.5 Gbps optical random signal of $2^{23}-1$ word length. The fiber optic receiver is one of the essensial parts of the transmission module for B-ISDN. Also, the above optical packaging technology will be adapted for the developement of 10 Gbps transmission application 2.5 Gbps 5 Gbps

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TENSILE STRENGTH OF LASER WELDED-TITANIUM AND GOLD ALLOYS (티타늄과 금합금의 레이저 용접부의 인장강도)

  • Song, Yun-Gwan;Ha, Il-Soo;Song, Kwang-Yeob
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.200-213
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    • 2000
  • Lasers have given dentistry a new rapid, economic, and accurate technique for metal joining. Although laser welding has been recommended as an accurate technique, there are some limitations with this technique. For example, the two joining surfaces must have a tight-fitting contact, which may be difficult to achieve in some situations. The tensile samples used for this study were made from a custom-made pure titanium and type III gold alloy plates. 27 of 33 specimens were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis with a carborundum disk and water coolant. Six specimens remained and served as the control group. A group of 6 specimens was posed as butt joints in custom parallel positioning device with a feeler gauge at each of three gaps : 0.00, 0.25. and 0.50mm. All specimens were then machined to produce a uniform cross-sectional dimension, none of the specimens was subjected to any subsequent form of heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on representative tested specimens at fractured surfaces in both the parent metal and the weld. Vickers hardness was measured at the center of the welds with a micropenetrometer using a force of 300gm for 15 seconds. Measurement was made at approximately $200{\mu}m\;and\;500{\mu}m$ deep from each surface. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's test was calculated to detect differences between groups. The purpose of this study is to compare the strength and properties of the joint achieved at various butt Joint gaps by the laser welding of type III gold alloy and pure titanium tensile specimens in an argon atmosphere. The results of this study were as follows : 1. When indexing and welding pure titanium, there was no decrease in ultimate tensile strength as compared with the unsectioned alloys for indexing gaps of 0.00 to 0.50mm, although with increasing gap size may come increased distortion (p>0.05). 2. When indexing and welding type III gold alloy, there were significant differences in ultimate tensile strength among groups with weld gaps of 0.00mm, 0.25 and 0.50mm, and the control group. Group with butt contact without weld gap demonstrated a significant higher ultimate tensile strength than groups with weld gaps of 0.25 and 0.50mm (p<0.05). 3. When indexing and welding the different metal combination of type III gold alloy and pure titanium, there were significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between groups with weld gaps of 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50mm. However, the mechanical properties of the welded joint would become too brittle to be acceptable clinically (p<0.05). 4. The presence of large pores in the laser welded joint appears to be the most important factor in controlling the tensile strength of the weld in both pure titanium and type III gold alloy.

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Mechanical Properties of Precious Metal-Ceramic Alloy Joined by the Laser-Welding and the Soldering Method (레이저 용접과 납착법으로 연결된 귀금속성 금속-도재 합금의 물리적 성질)

  • Oh, Jung-Ran;Lee, Seok-Hyung;Woo, Yi-Hyung
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.269-279
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the mechanical properties of precious metal-ceramic alloy joined by the laser-welding and the soldering compared with the parent metal. Twenty-four tensile specimens were cast in precious metal-ceramic alloy and divided into three groups of eight. All specimens in the control group(group 1) were left in the as-cast condition. Group 2 and 3 were the test specimens, which were sectioned at the center. Eight of sectioned specimens were joined by soldering with a propane-oxygen torch, and the remaining specimens were joined by laser-welding. After joining, each joint diameter was measured, and then tested to tensile failure on an Instron machine. Failure loads were recorded, and then fracture stress(ultimate tensile strength), 0.2% yield strength and % elongation calculated. These data for three groups were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA). Neuman-Keuls post hoc test was then used to determine any significant differences between groups. The fracture locations, fracture surfaces were examined by SEM(scanning electron microscope). The results were as follows: 1) The tensile strength and 0.2% yield strength of the soldered group($280.28{\pm}49.35MPa$, $160.24{\pm}26.67MPa$) were significantly less than both the as-cast group($410.99{\pm}13.07MPa$, $217.82{\pm}17.99MPa$) and the laser-welded group($383.56{\pm}59.08MPa$, $217.18{\pm}12.96MPa$). 2) The tensile strength and 0.2% yield strength of the laser-welded group were about each 98%, 99.7% of the as-cast group. There were no statistically significant differences in these two groups(p<0.05). 3) The percentage elongations of the soldered group($3.94{\pm}2.32%$) and the laser-welded group($5.06{\pm}1.08%$) were significantly less than the as-cast group($14.25{\pm}4.05%$) (p<0.05). 4) The fracture of the soldered specimens occurred in the solder material and many porosities were showed at the fracture site. 5) The fracture of the laser-welded specimens occurred also in the welding area, and lack of fusion and a large void was observed at the center of the fracture surface. However, the laser-welded specimens showed a ductile failure mode like the as- cast specimens. The results of this study indicated that the tensile strengths of the laser-welded joints were comparable to those of the as-cast joints and superior to those of the soldered joints.