• Title/Summary/Keyword: 레이저 용접

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A Study on Remote CO2 Laser Welding for the Development of Automobive Parts (차체부품 개발을 위한 원격 CO2 레이저 용접에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Mun-Jong;Lee, Gyu-Hyun;Lee, Mun-Yong;Kim, Sok-Won
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2010
  • The Remote welding system(RWS) using $CO_2$ laser equipment has focusable distance of laser beam longer than 800 mm from workpiece and can deflect the laser beam by the scanner mirrors very rapidly. In the case of normal welding system based on robot, there is a limit to move the shortest path in short time and this causes interference between robot and workpiece. On the other hand, RWS is the optimized equipment to get big merits with advanced sequence of welding and short cycle time. However, there is still a pending task such as the control of plasma in the welding process of thick sheets therefore, it requires high power laser beam because of the absence of assist gas equipment in itself. In this study, high-tensile steel plates were overlap welded with $CO_2$ RWS for the production of car body and the influence of penetration depth according to the existence of assist gas was analyzed. Excellent tensile strength with enough width of molten zone independent to penetration depth was observed under welding condition with 3.6 kW laser power and 2.8 m/min welding speed without assist gas. Finally, the proto-type automotive parts were produced by applying the deduced optimal welding condition.

The weldability and mechanical property of CP titanium by GTAW (순 타이타늄의 GTAW 용접성 및 기계적 특성)

  • Hong, Jae-Keun;Kim, Jee-Hoon;Lee, Chae-Hoon;Yeom, Jong-Taek;Kang, Chung-Yun
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • 2009.11a
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    • pp.57-57
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    • 2009
  • 산업의 고도화에 따른 구조물의 사용 환경이 열악해지고 최근 에너지저감과 환경문제 개선을 위한 경화의 요구에 따라 뛰어난 내식성 및 우수한 고비강도 특성을 갖고 있는 타이타늄 및 타이타늄합금의 활용에 대한 연구가 많은 주목을 받고 있다. 이에 따라 타이타늄 신합금의 개발뿐만 아니라 기존에 개발되어 비교적 보편적으로 적용되고 있는 타이타늄 부품의 제조 및 성형기술에 대한 수요도 급증하고 있다. 특히, 기기 및 부품 제조를 위한 용접/접합기술도 매우 중요한 요소기술로 자리메김하고 있다. 타이타늄은 산소, 수소 등의 침입형 원소와의 친화력이 강한 활성이 큰 금속으로 용접시 고온에 노출되면 급격히 산화 및 취화 등의 문제를 발생한다. 따라서 타이타늄의 용접시에는 $426^{\circ}C$이상의 온도에서는 대기로부터 용접부가 차단되도록 하는 쉴딩기술이 매우 중요하다. 타이타늄의 용접은 일반적으로 아크용접, 전자빔 용접, 레이저 용접 및 확산접합 등이 적용되고 있으나 용접입열 조정이 용이하고 아크 안정성이 높고 용접부의 기계적 특성이 우수한 GTA 용접이 작업성을 고려하여 가장 많이 적용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 미국용접학회(AWS)의 타이타늄 용접가이드를 분석 및 소개하였고, 1t 이하의 박판 CP Ti를 대상으로 GTAW 용접부 미세조직 및 기계적 특성을 분석하였다. 이때, 용접 비드폭 제어 및 펄스 용접기술을 통하여 박판 타이타늄의 최적 GTAW 공정변수 제어기술을 분석하였다.

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Weldability of Magnesium Alloy Sheet by Nd:YAG Laser (II) -Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Weldment- (Nd:YAG 레이저를 이용한 마그네슘 합금 판재의 용접성 (II) -용접부의 기계적 특성과 미세조직-)

  • Kim, Jong-Do;Lee, Jung-Han;Lee, Jae-Bum;Lee, Mun-Yong;Park, Hyun-Jun
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • 2009.11a
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    • pp.116-116
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    • 2009
  • 마그네슘 합금은 구조용으로 사용 가능한 금속 재료 중 가장 가벼운 소재이며, 동시에 비강도 및 비강성과 같은 기계적 특성이 우수하여 알루미늄 합금의 뒤를 이을 차세대 경량 재료로써 주목을 받고 있다. 더욱이 석유자원의 대부분을 소비하고 있는 운송기기 분야에서는 경량화를 통한 연비향상과 배출가스 저감이 가장 큰 과제이며, 이 문제를 해결하기 위한 노력의 일환으로 최경량 소재인 마그네슘 합금의 사용량은 더욱 증가할 것으로 기대된다. 한편 기존의 마그네슘 합금 관련 연구는 새로운 합금의 개발에 치우쳐 있었으며, 상대적으로 이들 합금을 활용하기 위한 가공기술, 특히 용접에 대한 연구는 아직까지 많이 부족한 실정이다. 이는 철강재와 비교하여 마그네슘 합금의 고유물성이 용접의 관점에서는 상당히 열악하기 때문으로, 마그네슘은 융점 및 비점은 낮은 반면, 증기압과 열전도율은 높고 표면장력 및 점성은 낮은 특성을 가지고 있다. 그러므로 타 공법에 비해 상대적으로 입열이 적고 고속용접이 가능한 레이저의 적용이 최적으로 판단된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 Nd:YAG 레이저를 사용하여 압연판재로 상용화되어 있는 AZ31B 마그네슘 합금의 맞대기 용접성을 조사하였으며, 용접부의 미세조직과 용접조건에 따른 용접부의 기계적 특성을 비교 및 검토하였다. 용접부의 기계적 특성은 인장 및 경도시험을 통해 평가하였다. 그 결과 레이저 출력 1.2kW를 적용한 경우에 안정적인 강도를 얻을 수 있었으며 레이저 출력 1.5kW, 용접속도 80mm/sec의 조건에서 모재 인장강도 대비 103% 그리고 연신율 대비 47.1%의 최적의 결과가 얻어졌다. 또한 용접부의 경도는 모재와 동등하거나 다소 높은 수준이었다. 이는 용접시 용접부내 잔류하는 알루미늄에 의한 고용 강화 효과와 금속간화합물의 석출 빈도 증가, 그리고 레이저 용접의 특징인 급열급랭 공정에 기인한 결정립 미세화의 영향 때문으로 사료된다. 한편 용접부 미세조직을 관찰한 결과, 열영향부의 존재는 두드러지지 않았으며 용융경계부에서는 주상정이, 그리고 용접부 가운데에서는 등축정이 관찰되었다.

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Effect of Coating Thickness on Microstructures and Tensile Properties in Yb:YAG Disk Laser Welds of Al-Si Coated Boron Steel (Al-Si 용융 도금된 보론강의 Yb:YAG 디스크 레이저 용접부의 미세조직과 인장성질에 미치는 도금두께의 영향)

  • Cao, Wei-Ye;Kong, Jong-Pan;Ahn, Yong-Nam;Kim, Cheol-Hee;Kang, Chung-Yun
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.66-75
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the effect of coating thickness($20{\mu}m$ and $30{\mu}m$) on microstructure and tensile properties in Yb:YAG disk laser welds of Al-Si-coated boron steel (1.2mmt) was investigated. In the case of as welds, the quantity of ferrite was found to be higher in base metal than that in HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) and fusion zone, indicating, fracture occurrs in base metal, and the fracture position is unrelated to the coating thickness. Furthermore, yield strength, tensile strength of base metal and welded specimens showed similar behavior whereas elongation was decreased. On the other hand, base metal and HAZ showed existence of martensite after heat treatment, the fusion zone indicated the presence of full ferrite or austenite and ferrite during heat treatment ($900^{\circ}C$, 5min), After water cooling, austenite was transformed to martensite, and the quantity of ferrite in fusion zone was higher as compared with in base metal, resulting in sharply decrease of yield strength, tensile strength and elongation, which leads to fracture occured at fusion zone. In particular, results showed that because the concentration of Al was higher in 30um coating layer specimen than that of 20um coating specimen, after heat treatment, producing a higher quantity of ferrite was higher after heat treatment in the fusion zone; howevers, it leads to a lower tensile property.

Reverse Design of F-Theta Lens for Compact Laser Scanner (소형 2차원 레이저 스캐너용 F-theta 렌즈 역설계)

  • Choi, Hae Woon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2017
  • In this study, a reverse design of the F-theta lens was proposed for a 2D scanner in remote welding applications. The curvature and distance of the lens were set as variables, and the focal length of the lens was set as the marginal ray height. The ZEMAX commercial software was used to perform a simulation with unlimited iterations for the optimization process. The target value was optimized using the internal Merit function with the weight factors of focal length and spot diameter. The number of lenses was four, and the focal length obtained from the results was 135mm that is slightly less than that of the commercial lens, which is set with a focal length of 185 mm. The calculated spot diameters are $1.3{\mu}m$, $6.2{\mu}m$, and $16.1{\mu}m$ for $0^{\circ}$, $12.5^{\circ}$ and $23^{\circ}$ of incident laser beam, respectively. It is expected that an optimized lens design is possible by performing the reverse design of a lens by the ray tracing method.

A Study on HAZ Softening Characteristics of Fiber Laser Weldment for High-Strength Steel (고장력강 파이버 레이저 용접부의 HAZ 연화 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Min-Ho;Kim, Ill-Soo;Lee, Jong-Pyo;Jin, Byeong-Ju;Kim, Do-Hyeong;Kim, In-Ju;Kim, Ji-Sun
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2015
  • Laser welding sector in the automotive industry has been widely recognized as one of the most important bonding processes, such as parts welding. Efforts to improve productivity and weld quality have been progressing steadily. In addition, laser welding is suitable for welding process that can produce high-quality welds suitable for flexible production and small quantity batch productions. In order to ensure the rigidity of the material, high strength material are applied to more than 1 GPa class body parts and automotive bumper beams. However, not only the situation is that the trend of domestic research, but also development is based on product molding considering freedom of shape where reinforcement is applied to meet the safety regulations and high-speed crash performance, despite the use of high strength materials. The tendency for heat-affected zone (HAZ) softening phenomenon common in areas of laser welded high tensile steel welding confirmed the occurrence of weld softening effect according to the process parameters. Based on this, range of process parameters could be selected for ensuring weld quality.

Effect of Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties and Formability in Nd:YAG Laser Welds of 1000MPa Grade DP Steel (1000MPa급 DP강의 Nd:YAG 레이저 용접부의 기계적 성질과 성형성에 미치는 용접 속도의 영향)

  • Jang, Jin-Young;Choi, Woo-Nam;Jung, Byung-Hun;Kang, Chung-Yun
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2009
  • The effects of welding speed were investigated on penetration characteristics, defects and mechanical properties including formability test in Nd:YAG laser welded 1000MPa grade DP steels. A shielding gas was not used and bead-on-plate welding was performed with various welding speeds at 3.5kW laser power. Defects of surface and inner beads were not observed in all welding speeds. As the welding speed increased, the weld cross-section varied from the trapezoid having wider bottom bead, through X type, finally to V type in partial penetration range of welding speeds. The characteristic of hardness distribution was also investigated. The center of HAZ had maximum hardness, followed by a slight decrease of hardness as approaching to FZ. Significant softening occurred at the HAZ near BM. Regardless of the welding speed, the weld showed approximately the same hardness distribution. In the perpendicular tensile test with respect to the weld direction, all specimens were fractured at the softening zone. In the parallel tensile test to the weld direction, the first crack occurred at weld center and then propagated into the weld. Good formability over 80% was taken for all welding conditions.

Solidification Cracking Behavior in Austenitic Stainless Steel Laser Welds (Part 2) -Effects of δ-ferrite Crystallization and Solidification Segregation Behavior on Solidification Cracking Susceptibility- (오스테나이트계 스테인리스강 레이저 용접부의 응고균열 거동 (Part 2) - δ 페라이트 정출 및 응고편석 거동에 따른 응고균열 민감도 변화 -)

  • Chun, Eun-Joon;Lee, Su-Jin;Suh, Jeong;Kang, Namhyun;Saida, Kazuyoshi
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2016
  • A numerical simulation of the solid/liquid coexistence temperature range, using solidification segregation model linked with the Kurz-Giovanola-Trivedi model, explained the mechanism of the BTR shrinkage (with an increase in welding speed) in type 310 stainless steel welds by reduction of the solid/liquid coexistence temperature range of the weld metal due to the inhibited solidification segregation of solute elements and promoted dendrite tip supercooling attributed to rapid solidification of laser beam welding. The reason why the BTR enlarged in type 316 series stainless welds could be clarified by the enhanced solidification segregation of impurity elements (S and P), corresponding to the decrement in ${\delta}-ferrite$ crystallization amount at the solidification completion stage in the laser welds. Furthermore, the greater increase in BTR with type 316-B steel was determined to be due to a larger decrease in ${\delta}-ferrite$ amount during welding solidification than with type 316-A steel. This, in turn, greatly increases the segregation of impurities, which is responsible for the greater temperature range of solid/liquid coexistence when using type 316-B steel.

Effect of Hot-stamping Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Al-Segregated Zone in TWB Laser Joints of Al-Si-coated Boron Steel and Zn-coated DP Steel (Al-Si 도금된 보론강과 Zn 도금된 DP강 TWB 레이저 용접부내의 Al-편석부 미세조직에 미치는 핫스탬핑 열처리의 영향)

  • Jung, Byung Hun;Kong, Jong Pan;Kang, Chung Yun
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2012
  • Al-Si coated boron steel and Zn coated DP steel plates were laser-welded to manufacture a Tailor Welded Blank (TWB) for a car body frame. Hot-stamping heat treatment ($900^{\circ}C$, 5 min) was applied to the TWB weld, and the microstructural change and transformation mechanism were investigated in the Al-rich area near the bond line of the Al-Si coated steel side. There was Al-rich area with a single phase, $Fe_3(Al,Si)$, which was transformed to ${\alpha}-Fe$ (Ferrite) after the heat treatment. It could be explained that the $Fe_3(Al,Si)$ phase was transformed to ${\alpha}-Fe$ during heat treatment at $900^{\circ}C$ for 5 min and the resultant ${\alpha}-Fe$ phase was not transformed by rapid cooling. Before the heat treatment, the microstructures around the $Fe_3(Al,Si)$ phase consisted of martensite, bainite and ${\alpha}-Fe$ while they were transformed to martensite and ${\delta}-Fe$ after the heat treatment. Due to the heat treatment, Al was diffused to the $Fe_3(Al,Si)$ and this resulted in an increase of Al content to 0.7 wt% around the Al-rich area. If the weld was held at $900^{\circ}C$ for 5 min it was transformed to a mixture of austenite (${\gamma}$) and ${\delta}-Fe$, and only ${\gamma}$ was transformed to the martensite by water cooling while the ${\delta}-Fe$ was remained unchanged.

Microstructures and Hardness of CO2 Laser Welds in 409L Ferritic Stainless Steel (409L 페라이트계 스테인리스강 CO2레이저 용접부의 미세조직과 경도)

  • Kong, Jong Pan;Park, Tae Jun;Na, Hye Sung;Uhm, Sang Ho;Kim, Jeong Kil;Woo, In Su;Lee, Jong Sub;Kang, Chung Yun
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2010
  • The microstructure and hardness of $CO_2$ laser welds were investigated in the Ti-stabilized ferritic stainless steel 409L. The observed specimen was welded in a fully penetrated condition in which the power was 5 kW and the welding speed 5 m/min. The grain structure near the bond line of the laser welds was produced by epitaxial growth. The grain size was the largest in the fusion zone, and HAZ showed nearly the same grain size as that of the base metal. The HAZ microstructure consisted of subgrains and precipitates that were less than 100 nm in size and that were located along the subgrain boundaries. On the other hand, the hardness was the highest in the fusion zone due to the large amount of small precipitates present. These were composed of TiN, Ti(C,N) and $TiO_2$+Ti(C,N). The hardness decreased continuously from the fusion zone of the base metal. The HAZ hardness was slightly greater than that of the base metal due to the existence of subgrains and precipitates in the subgrain boundary.