• Title, Summary, Keyword: 링해석법

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A Study on the Diffuser Design of Exhaust Pipes for the Infra-Red Signature Reduction of Naval Ship (함정 적외선 신호 감소를 위한 폐기관의 디퓨져 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Seok-Tae;Cho, Yong-Jin;Ko, Dae-Eun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.793-798
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    • 2017
  • In modern naval ships, an infrared signature suppression (IRSS) system is used to reduce the metal surface temperature of the heated exhaust pipe and high-temperature exhaust gases generated from the propulsion system. Generally, the IRSS systems used in Korean naval ships consist of an eductor, mixing tube, and diffuser. The diffuser reduces the temperature of the metal surface by creating an air film due to a pressure difference between the internal gas and the external air. In this study, design variables were selected by analyzing the shapes of a diffuser designed by an advanced overseas engineering company. The characteristics of the design variables that affect the performance of the IRSS were investigated through the Taguchi experimental method. A heat flow analysis technique for IRSS systems established in previous studies was used analyze the performance of the diffuser. The performance evaluation was based on the area-averaged value of the metal surface temperature and exhaust gas temperature at the outlet of the diffuser, which are directly related to the intensity of the infrared signature. The results show that the temperature of the exhaust gas was significantly affected by changes in the diameter of the diffuser outlet, and the temperature of the diffuser's metal surface was significantly affected by changes in the number of diffuser rings.

A Study on the Safety Characterization Grounding Design of the Inner Photovoltaic System (태양광 발전단지 내부 그리드의 안전 특성화 접지 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Yong;Yoon, Suk-Ho
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.130-140
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: In this paper, we propose a design technique for the safety characterization grounding in the construction of the photovoltaic power generation complex which can be useful and useful as an alternative power energy source in our society. In other words, we will introduce the application of safety grounding for each application, which can improve and optimize the reliability of the internal grid from the cell module to the electric room in the photovoltaic power generation complex. Method: We analyze the earth resistivity of the soil in the solar power plant and use the computer program (CDEGS) to analyze the contact voltage and stratospheric voltage causing the electric shock, and propose the calculation and calculation method of the safety ground. In addition, we will discuss the importance of semi-permanent ground electrode selection in consideration of soil environment. Results: We could obtain the maximum and minimum value of ground resistivity for each of the three areas of the data measured by the Wenner 4 - electrode method. The measured data was substituted into the basic equation and calculated with a MATLAB computer program. That is, it can be determined that the thickness of the minimum resistance value is the most favorable soil environment for installing the ground electrode. Conclusion: Through this study, we propose a grounding system design method that can suppress the potential rise on the ground surface in the inner grid of solar power plant according to each case. However, the development of smart devices capable of accumulating big data and a monitoring system capable of real-time monitoring of seismic changes in earth resistances and grounding systems should be further studied.

Geoscientific land management planning in salt-affected areas* (염기화된 지역에서의 지구과학적 토지 관리 계획)

  • Abbott, Simon;Chadwick, David;Street, Greg
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.98-109
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    • 2007
  • Over the last twenty years, farmers in Western Australia have begun to change land management practices to minimise the effects of salinity to agricultural land. A farm plan is often used as a guide to implement changes. Most plans are based on minimal data and an understanding of only surface water flow. Thus farm plans do not effectively address the processes that lead to land salinisation. A project at Broomehill in the south-west of Western Australia applied an approach using a large suite of geospatial data that measured surface and subsurface characteristics of the regolith. In addition, other data were acquired, such as information about the climate and the agricultural history. Fundamental to the approach was the collection of airborne geophysical data over the study area. This included radiometric data reflecting soils, magnetic data reflecting bedrock geology, and SALTMAP electromagnetic data reflecting regolith thickness and conductivity. When interpreted, these datasets added paddock-scale information of geology and hydrogeology to the other datasets, in order to make on-farm and in-paddock decisions relating directly to the mechanisms driving the salinising process. The location and design of surface-water management structures such as grade banks and seepage interceptor banks was significantly influenced by the information derived from the airborne geophysical data. To evaluate the effectiveness ofthis planning., one whole-farm plan has been monitored by the Department of Agriculture and the farmer since 1996. The implemented plan shows a positive cost-benefit ratio, and the farm is now in the top 5% of farms in its regional productivity benchmarking group. The main influence of the airborne geophysical data on the farm plan was on the location of earthworks and revegetation proposals. There had to be a hydrological or hydrogeological justification, based on the site-specific data, for any infrastructure proposal. This approach reduced the spatial density of proposed works compared to other farm plans not guided by site-specific hydrogeological information.

Two Crystal Structures of Fully Dehydrated $Ag_{12-2x}Co_x-A (x = 3 and 4.5)$ (완전히 탈수한 $Ag_{12-2x}Co_x-A$ (x = 3 및 4.5)의 결정구조)

  • Seung Hwan Song;Duk Soo Kim;Jong Yul Park;Un Sik Kim;Yang Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.520-527
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    • 1988
  • The crystal structures of $Co^{2+}\;and\;Ag^+\;exchanged\;zeolite\; A,\; Ag_6Co_3$-A(a = 12.131(5)$\AA$) and $Ag_3Co_{4.5}$-A(a = 12.145(1)$\AA$), have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Both structures were solved and refined in the cubic space group Pm3m at 21(1)$^{\circ}C$. Full-matrix leastsquares refinement converged to the final error indices of R1 = 0.045 and R2 = 0.041 for $Ag_3Co_{4.5}-A,\; and\; R1 = 0.066\; and\; R2 = 0.076\; for\; Ag_6Co_3$-A using the 258 and 189 reflections, respectively, for which I > 3$\sigma$(I). Both structures indicate that CO(Ⅱ)ions are coordinated by three framework oxygens; the Co(II) to O(3) distances are 2.118(4)$\AA$ for $Ag_3Co_{4.5}$-A and 2.106(1)$\AA$ for $Ag_6Co_3-A$, respectively. In each structure, the angle substended at Co(II), O(3)-Co(II)-O(3) is ca 120°, close to the idealized trigonalplanar value. $Co^{2+}$ ions prefer to 6-ring sites and $Ag^+$ ions prefer to 8-ring site when total number of cations is more than 8. The crystals of hydrated and dehydrated $Ag_{12-2x}Co_x-A (x > 4.5)$ had no crystalline diffraction pattern, indicating the apparent exchange limit of $Co^{2+}\; into\; Ag_{12}-A\; is\; 4.5 Co^{2+}$ ions per unit cell. $Co^{2+}$ ions hydrolyze $H_2O$ molecules and $H_3O^+$ concentraction is accumulating. These $H_3O^+$ ions destroy the zeolite structures.

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A Comparative Analysis between Photogrammetric and Auto Tracking Total Station Techniques for Determining UAV Positions (무인항공기의 위치 결정을 위한 사진 측량 기법과 오토 트래킹 토탈스테이션 기법의 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Won Jin;Kim, Chang Jae;Cho, Yeon Ju;Kim, Ji Sun;Kim, Hee Jeong;Lee, Dong Hoon;Lee, On Yu;Meng, Ju Pil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.553-562
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    • 2017
  • GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver among various sensors mounted on UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) helps to perform various functions such as hovering flight and waypoint flight based on GPS signals. GPS receiver can be used in an environment where GPS signals are smoothly received. However, recently, the use of UAV has been diversifying into various fields such as facility monitoring, delivery service and leisure as UAV's application field has been expended. For this reason, GPS signals may be interrupted by UAV's flight in a shadow area where the GPS signal is limited. Multipath can also include various noises in the signal, while flying in dense areas such as high-rise buildings. In this study, we used analytical photogrammetry and auto tracking total station technique for 3D positioning of UAV. The analytical photogrammetry is based on the bundle adjustment using the collinearity equations, which is the geometric principle of the center projection. The auto tracking total station technique is based on the principle of tracking the 360 degree prism target in units of seconds or less. In both techniques, the target used for positioning the UAV is mounted on top of the UAV and there is a geometric separation in the x, y and z directions between the targets. Data were acquired at different speeds of 0.86m/s, 1.5m/s and 2.4m/s to verify the flight speed of the UAV. Accuracy was evaluated by geometric separation of the target. As a result, there was an error from 1mm to 12.9cm in the x and y directions of the UAV flight. In the z direction with relatively small movement, approximately 7cm error occurred regardless of the flight speed.

반응표면분석에 의한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성 변화

  • 이용욱;금준석;은종방
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.167.2-168
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    • 2003
  • 현대 사회는 서구적인 식생활의 변화로 인해 조리가 간편하고 조리 시간이 짧은 즉석식품과 영양 기호식품을 동시에 충족시켜주는 음식에 대한 소비가 늘고 있는 실정이다. 또한 최근 미곡의 공급량에 비해서 소비량이 해마다 감소하여 재고미의 증가를 볼 때, 쌀의 새로운 이용방법 모색이 절실히 요망된다. 따라서 쌀의 소비촉진과 현대사회의 소비형태를 접목시켜서 쇠고기와 야채를 이용한 즉석쌀죽을 개발하고자 하였다. 쇠고기, 야채 및 쌀가루를 이용한 soup mix의 최적 배합비를 설정하기 위하여 제조조건에 따라 다르게 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 변화를 조사하였다. 이때 야채의 배합비에 따른 이화학적 및 관능적 특성을 모니터링 하고자 반응표면분석법 (response surface methodology, RSM)을 이용하였다. 요인변수(Xn)를 쌀의 양에 대한 버섯의 비율 (X$_1$), 당근의 비율 (X$_2$), 대파의 비율 (X$_3$)로 하여 중심합성계획에 따라 17실험구로 구분하여 조리실험을 실시하였고, 반응변수(Yn)는 soup mix를 이용하여 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 특성인 색도의 L*값 (Y$_1$), a*값 (Y$_2$), b*값 (Y$_3$), 점도(Y$_4$), 퍼짐성 (Y$_{5}$), 고형분 함량(Y$_{6}$), PH (Y$_{7}$)으로 하였으며 관능적 특성인 색 (Y$_{8}$), 향 (Y$_{9}$), 점성 (Y$_{10}$), 맛 (Y$_{11}$), 전체적인 기호도 (Y$_{12}$)를 종속변수로 하여 회귀분석에 이용하였다. 회귀분석에 의한 모델식의 예측에는 SAS (statistical analysis system)program을 사용하였으며, 3차원 반응표면 분석법으로 해석하였다. 야채의 배합비에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 물리적 특성인 색도의 L*, a*, b* 값에 대한 반응표면 회귀식의 $R^2$은 각각 0.6098(p> 0.05), 0.8803 (p <0.05), 0.6781(p> 0.05)로서 b값에 있어서 그 유의성이 5%수준에서 인정되어 b값에 미치는 영향이 크다는 것을 알 수 있었다. L*값은 63-68사이로, a*값은 0.13에서 -0.89사이를 b*값은 2-5값 사이에서 변화하여 제조한 죽의 색이 옅은 황색임을 알 수 있었다. 고형분 함량, 퍼짐성과 pH에 대한 $R^2$은 각각 0.4280, 0.5433과 0.2406임을 볼 때 버섯, 당근, 대파의 비율에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 고형분 함량, 퍼짐성과 pH는 설정된 범위내에서 그 유의성이 인정되지 않아 큰 영향을 미치지 않음을 알 수 있었다. 관능검사 결과, 색과 향에 대한 반응표면 회귀식의 $R^2$은 각각0.6000과 0.7825이고 P-value는 각각 0.4290과 0.0942로서 5% 수준에서 유의한 상관성이 없음을 확인할 수 있었다. 맛과 점성에 대한 $R^2$은 0.8717과 0.8068이고 P-value는 각각 0.0195 (p <0.05)와 0.0612로서 야채의 배합비에 따라 맛에 있어서 유의확률 5%수준에서 그 유의성이 인정되었으며, 전체적인 기호도에 대한 유의성은 $R^2$이 0.8463이고 P-value는 0.0344 (p <0.05)임을 볼 때, 설정된 범위내에서 야채의 배합비에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 맛과 기호도에 큰 영향을 미치는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 최대 임계점이 버섯의 첨가량은 0.99%, 당근의 첨가량은 0.97%, 대파의 첨가량은 0.59%에서 최적 반응표면을 나타내었다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때, 야채의 배합비에 따른 맛과 전체적인 기호도에 있어서 그 유의성이 5%수준에서 모두 유의한 상관관계를 보였으며, soup mix 제조시 쌀가루 양에 대한 야채의 최적 배합비는 버섯, 당근, 대파에 있어서 각각 0.99, 0.97과 0.59%임을 알 수 있었다.

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Analysis of Interactions in Multiple Genes using IFSA(Independent Feature Subspace Analysis) (IFSA 알고리즘을 이용한 유전자 상호 관계 분석)

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Choi, Seung-Jin;Bang, Sung-Yang
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2006
  • The change of external/internal factors of the cell rquires specific biological functions to maintain life. Such functions encourage particular genes to jnteract/regulate each other in multiple ways. Accordingly, we applied a linear decomposition model IFSA, which derives hidden variables, called the 'expression mode' that corresponds to the functions. To interpret gene interaction/regulation, we used a cross-correlation method given an expression mode. Linear decomposition models such as principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were shown to be useful in analyzing high dimensional DNA microarray data, compared to clustering methods. These methods assume that gene expression is controlled by a linear combination of uncorrelated/indepdendent latent variables. However these methods have some difficulty in grouping similar patterns which are slightly time-delayed or asymmetric since only exactly matched Patterns are considered. In order to overcome this, we employ the (IFSA) method of [1] to locate phase- and shut-invariant features. Membership scoring functions play an important role to classify genes since linear decomposition models basically aim at data reduction not but at grouping data. We address a new function essential to the IFSA method. In this paper we stress that IFSA is useful in grouping functionally-related genes in the presence of time-shift and expression phase variance. Ultimately, we propose a new approach to investigate the multiple interaction information of genes.

Crystal Structures of Dehydrated $Ag^+\;and\;Zn^{2+}$ Exchanged Zeolite A, $(Ag_{2.8}Zn_{4.6}-A)$ and of Its Ethylene Sorption Complex (은 이온과 아연 이온으로 치환한 제올라이트 A $(Ag_{2.8}Zn_{4.6}-A)$의 탈수한 결정구조와 이것에 에틸렌을 흡착시킨 결정구조)

  • Mi Suk Jeong;Jong Yul Park;Un Sik Kim;Yang Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.189-195
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    • 1991
  • Two crystal structures of dehydrated $Ag_{2.8}ZN_{4.6}-A$ and of its ethylene sorption complex have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structures were solved and refined in the cubic space group Pm3m at 23(1)$^{\circ}$C. Dehydration of two crystals studied were achieved at 400$^{\circ}$C and $2{\times}10^{-6}$ Torr for 2 days and one crystal was treated with 250 Torr of ethylene at 25(1)$^{\circ}$C. The structures of dehydrated $Ag_{2.8}ZN_{4.6}-A$ (a = 12.137(2) ${\AA}$ and of its ethylene sorption complex (a = 12.106(2)${\AA}$) were refined to final error indices, R(weighted) = 0.044 with 237 reflections and R(weighted) = 0.050 with 301 reflections, respectively, for which I > 3${sigma}$(I). 2.8 $Ag^+$ ions are recessed 0.922(2) ${\AA}$ from (111) plane of three 6-ring oxygens into the large cavity where each forms a lateral ${\pi}$ complex with an ethylene molecule. These $Ag^+$ ions are in 2.240(5)${\AA}$ from three framework oxide ions and 2.290(5) ${\AA}$ from each carbon atom of an ethylene molecule. The $Zn^{2+}$ ions occupy two different threefold axis positions of the unit cell. 2.8 $Zn^{2+}$ ions are recessed 0.408(2) ${\AA}$ from (111) plane of the 6-ring oxygens and each $Zn^{2+}$ ion forms a $\pi$ complex with an $C_2H_4$ molecule. The distances between $Zn^{2+}$ ions and carbon atom of ethylene molecule, Zn(2)-C = 2.78(4) ${\AA}$ are long. This indicates that this bond is relatively weak.

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Development of Sauces Made from Gochujang Using the Quality Function Deployment Method: Focused on U.S. and Chinese Markets (품질기능전개(Quality Function Deployment) 방법을 적용한 고추장 소스 콘셉트 개발: 미국과 중국 시장을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Seul Ki;Kim, A Young;Hong, Sang Pil;Lee, Seung Je;Lee, Min A
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.1388-1398
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    • 2015
  • Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is the most complete and comprehensive method for translating what customers need from a product. This study utilized QFD to develop sauces made from Gochujang and to determine how to fulfill international customers' requirements. A customer survey and expert opinion survey were conducted from May 13 to August 22, 2014 and targeted 220 consumers and 20 experts in the U.S. and China. Finally, a total of 208 (190 consumers and 18 experts) useable data were selected. The top three customer requirements for Gochujang sauces were identified as fresh flavor (4.40), making better flavor (3.99), and cooking availability (3.90). Thirty-three engineering characteristics were developed. The results from the calculation of relative importance of engineering characteristics identified that 'cooking availability', 'free sample and food testing', 'unique concept', and 'development of brand' were the highest. The relative importance of engineering characteristics, correlation, and technical difficulties are ranked, and this result could contribute to the development Korean sauces based on customer needs and engineering characteristics.

Crystal Structures of Full Dehydrated $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$and $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$ ($Ca^{2+}$ 이온과 $Cs^+$ 이온으로 치환되고 탈수된 두개의 제올라이트 X $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$$Ca_{29}Cs_{34}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$의 결정구조)

  • Jang, Se Bok;Song, Seung Hwan;Kim, Yang
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.427-435
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    • 1996
  • The structures of fully dehydrated $Ca^{2+}$- and $Cs^+$-exchanged zeolite X, $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$($Ca_{35}Cs_{22}$-X; a=25.071(1) $\AA)$ and $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}Si_{100}Al_{92}O_{384}$($Ca_{29}Cs_{34}$-X; a=24.949(1) $\AA)$, have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods in the cubic space group Fd3 at $21(1)^{\circ}C.$ Their structures were refined to the final error indices $R_1$=0.051 and $R_2$=0.044 with 322 reflections for $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}$-X, and $R_1$=0.058 and $R_2$=0.055 with 260 reflections for $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}$-X; $I>3\sigma(I).$ In both structures, $Ca^{2+}$ and $Cs^+$ ions are located at five different crystallographic sites. In dehydrated $Ca_{35}Cs_{22}$-X, sixteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions fill site I, at the centers of the double 6-rings(Ca-O=2.41(1) $\AA$ and $O-Ca-O=93.4(3)^{\circ}).$ Another nineteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions occupy site II (Ca-O=2.29(1) $\AA$, O-Ca-O=118.7(4)') and ten $Cs^+$ ions occupy site II opposite single six-rings in the supercage; each is $1.95\AA$ from the plane of three oxygens (Cs-O=2.99(1) and $O-Cs-O=82.3(3)^{\circ}).$ About three $Cs^+$ ions are found at site II', 2.27 $\AA$ into sodalite cavity from their three-oxygen plane (Cs-O=3.23(1) $\AA$ and $O-Cs-O=75.2(3)^{\circ}).$ The remaining nine $Cs^+$ ions are statistically distributed over site Ⅲ, a 48-fold equipoint in the supercages on twofold axes (Cs-O=3.25(1) $\AA$ and Cs-O=3.49(1) $\AA).$ In dehydrated $Ca_{29}Cs_{34}$-X, sixteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions fill site I(Ca-O=2.38(1) $\AA$ and $O-Ca-O=94.1(4)^{\circ})$ and thirteen $Ca^{2+}$ ions occupy site II (Ca-O=2.32(2) $\AA$, $O-Ca-O=119.7(6)^{\circ}).$ Another twelve $Cs^+$ ions occupy site II; each is $1.93\AA$ from the plane of three oxygens (Cs-O=3.02(1) and $O-Cs-O=83.1(4)^{\circ})$ and seven $Cs^+$ ions occupy site II'; each is $2.22\AA$ into sodalite cavity from their three-oxygen plane (Cs-O=3.21(2) and $O-Cs-O=77.2(4)^{\circ}).$ The remaining sixteen $Cs^+$ ions are found at III site in the supercage (Cs-O=3.11(1) $\AA$ and Cs-O=3.46(2) $\AA).$ It appears that $Ca^{2+}$ ions prefer sites I and II in that order, and that $Cs^+$ ions occupy the remaining sites, except that they are too large to be stable at site I.

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