• Title, Summary, Keyword: 매개변수 연구

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Dual Path Model in Store Loyalty of Discount Store (대형마트 충성도의 이중경로모형)

  • Ji, Seong-Goo;Lee, Ihn-Goo
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2010
  • I. Introduction The industry of domestic discount store was reorganized with 2 bigs and 1 middle, and then Home Plus took over Home Ever in 2008. In present, Oct, 2008, E-Mart has 118 outlets, Home Plus 112 outlets, and Lotte Mart 60 stores. With total number of 403 outlets, they are getting closer to a saturation point. We know that the industry of discount store has been getting through the mature stage in retail life cycle. There are many efforts to maintain existing customers rather than to get new customers. These competitions in this industry lead firms to acknowledge 'store loyalty' to be the first strategic tool for their sustainable competitiveness. In other words, the strategic goal of discount store is to boost up the repurchase rate of customers throughout increasing store loyalty. If owners of retail shops can figure out main factors for store loyalty, they can easily make more efficient and effective retail strategies which bring about more sales and profits. In this practical sense, there are many papers which are focusing on the antecedents of store loyalty. Many researchers have been inspecting causal relationships between antecedents and store loyalty; store characteristics, store image, atmosphere in store, sales promotion in store, service quality, customer characteristics, crowding, switching cost, trust, satisfaction, commitment, etc., In recent times, many academic researchers and practitioners have been interested in 'dual path model for service loyalty'. There are two paths in store loyalty. First path has an emphasis on symbolic and emotional dimension of service brand, and second path focuses on quality of product and service. We will call the former an extrinsic path and call the latter an intrinsic path. This means that consumers' cognitive path for store loyalty is not single but dual. Existing studies for dual path model are as follows; First, in extrinsic path, some papers in domestic settings show that there is 'store personality-identification-loyalty' path. Second, service quality has an effect on loyalty, which is a behavioral variable, in the mediation of customer satisfaction. But, it's very difficult to find out an empirical paper applied to domestic discount store based on this mediating model. The domestic research for store loyalty concentrates on not only intrinsic path but also extrinsic path. Relatively, an attention for intrinsic path is scarce. And then, we acknowledge that there should be a need for integrating extrinsic and intrinsic path. Also, in terms of retail industry, this study is meaningful because retailers want to achieve their competitiveness by using store loyalty. And so, the purpose of this paper is to integrate and complement two existing paths into one specific model, dual path model. This model includes both intrinsic and extrinsic path for store loyalty. With this research, we would expect to understand the full process of forming customers' store loyalty which had not been clearly explained. In other words, we propose the dual path model for discount store loyalty which has been originated from store personality and service quality. This model is composed of extrinsic path, discount store personality$\rightarrow$store identification$\rightarrow$store loyalty, and intrinsic path, service quality of discount store$\rightarrow$customer satisfaction$\rightarrow$store loyalty. II. Research Model Dual path model integrates intrinsic path and extrinsic path into one specific model. Intrinsic path put an emphasis on quality characteristics and extrinsic path focuses on brand characteristics. Intrinsic path is based on information processing perspective, and extrinsic path emphasizes symbolic and emotional dimension of brand. This model is composed of extrinsic path, discount store personality$\rightarrow$store identification$\rightarrow$store loyalty, and intrinsic path, service quality of discount store$\rightarrow$customer satisfaction$\rightarrow$store loyalty. Hypotheses are as follows; Hypothesis 1: Service quality perceived by customers in discount store has an positive effect on customer satisfaction Hypothesis 2: Store personality perceived by customers in discount store has an positive effect on store identification Hypothesis 3: Customer satisfaction in discount store has an positive effect on store loyalty. Hypothesis 4: Store identification has an positive effect on store loyalty. III. Results and Implications We examined consumers who patronize discount stores for samples of this study. With the structural equation model(SEM) analysis, we empirically tested the validity and fitness of the dual path model for store loyalty in discount stores. As results, the fitness indices of this model were well fitted to data obtained. In an intrinsic path, service quality(SQ) is positively related to customer satisfaction(CS), customer satisfaction(CS) has very significantly positive effect on store loyalty(SL). Also, in an extrinsic path, the store personality(SP) is positively related to store identification(SI), it shows significant effect on store loyalty. Table 1 shows the results as follows; There are some theoretical and practical implications. First, Many studies on discount store loyalty have been executed from various perspectives. But there has been no integrative view on this issue. And so, this research was theoretically designed to integrate various and controversial arguments into one systematic model. We empirically tested dual path model forming store loyalty, and brought up a systematic and integrative framework for future studies. We want to expect creative and aggressive research activities. Second, a few established papers are focused on the relationship between antecedents and store loyalty; store characteristics, atmosphere, sales promotion in store, service quality, trust, commitment, etc., There has been some limits in understanding thoroughly the formation process of store loyalty with a singular path, intrinsic or extrinsic. Beyond these limits in single path, we could propose the new path for store loyalty. This is meaningful. Third, discount store firms make and execute marketing strategies for increasing store loyalty. This research provides real practitioners with reference framework needed for actual strategy formation. Because this paper shows integrated and systematic path for store loyalty. A special feature of this study is to represent 6 sub dimensions of service quality in intrinsic path and 4 sub dimensions of store personality in extrinsic path. Marketers can make more analytic marketing planning with concrete sub dimensions of service quality and store personality. When marketers of discount stores make strategic planning like MPR, Ads, campaign, sales promotion, they can use many items which are more competitive than competitors.

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The Influence of Store Images of Discount Stores on Shopping Values and Shopping Satisfaction: The Roles of Perceived Retail Crowding (대형마트의 점포이미지가 쇼핑가치 및 쇼핑만족에 미치는 영향: 지각된 혼잡의 역할)

  • Bae, Byung-Ryul
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2012
  • Conceptualization of store image have been suggested in the past by many marketing scholars. The dominant perspective about store image is treated as the results of a multi-attribute model. Store image is expressed as a function of the salient attributes of a particular store that are evaluated. Though, there is a little confusions about what elements compose the store image, most scholars agree that merchandise, service, atmosphere, physical facilities, comfort, and location are generally accepted elements as store image. A considerable researches support that shopping can provide both hedonic and utilitarian value. Hedonic shopping value reflects the value received from fantasy and emotive aspects of shopping experience, while utilitarian shopping value reflects the acquisition of products. These two types of shopping value can affect shopping satisfaction. This study examines the relationships among stores images(store atmosphere, salespeople services, facilities, product assortment, and store location), shopping values(utilitarian shopping value and hedonic shopping value), and shopping satisfaction based on discount stores (E-Mart, Home plus, and Lotte Mart). The author hypothesized that five store image components affect shopping values, and these shopping values affect shopping satisfaction. The author focused on the roles of perceived retail crowding between these relationships. Specifically, the author hypothesized that perceived retailing crowding moderated the relationship between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. The author also hypothesized the direct effect of perceived retail crowding on shopping satisfaction. Finally, the author hypothesized that five store image components affect directly shopping satisfaction. Research model is presented in

    . To test model and hypotheses, data were collected from 114 consumers located mid-size city in local area. The author employs PLS methodology (SmartPLS 2.0) to test hypotheses. Data analysis results indicate that among five store images salespeople services, and store location affect utilitarian shopping value. Store atmosphere, salespeople services, and store location affect hedonic shopping value. Two shopping values affect shopping satisfaction. Hedonic shopping value affect more shopping satisfaction than utilitarian shopping value. Data analysis results is presented in . The author examines the moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. Results indicate that there are no moderating effects between shopping values and shopping satisfaction. Moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between utilitarian shopping value and shopping satisfaction are presented in
    . Moderating effects of perceived retail crowding between hedonic shopping value and shopping satisfaction is presented in . The author examines the direct effect of perceived retail crowding on shopping satisfaction. Results are presented in
    . The author analyzed the relationship between perceived retail crowding and shopping satisfaction using WarpPLS 3.0 which can analyze the non-linear relationship. Result indicates that perceived retail crowding affects directly shopping satisfaction and there is a non-linear relationship between them. Among five store image components, store atmosphere and salespeople services affect directly shopping satisfaction. The author describes about the managerial implications, limitations, and future research issues.

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  • Evaluation of CH4 Flux for Continuous Observation from Intertidal Flat Sediments in the Eoeun-ri, Taean-gun on the Mid-western Coast of Korea (서해안 태안 어은리 갯벌의 연속관측 메탄(CH4) 플럭스 특성 평가)

    • Lee, Jun-Ho;Rho, Kyoung Chan;Woo, Han Jun;Kang, Jeongwon;Jeong, Kap-Sik;Jang, Seok
      • Economic and Environmental Geology
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      • v.48 no.2
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      • pp.147-160
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      • 2015
    • In 2014, on 31 August and 1 September, the emissions of $CH_4$, $CO_2$, and $O_2$ gases were measured six times using the closed chamber method from exposed tidal flat sediments in the same position relative to the low point of the tidal cycle in the Eoeun-ri, Taean-gun, on the Mid-western Coast of Korea. The concentrations of $CH_4$ in the air sample collected in the chamber were measured using gas chromatography with an EG analyzer, model GS-23, within 6 hours of collection, and the other gases were measured in real time using a multi-gas monitor. The gas emission fluxes (source (+), and sink (-)) were calculated from a simple linear regression analysis of the changes in the concentrations over time. In order to see the surrounding parameters (water content, temperature, total organic carbon, average mean size of sediments, and the temperature of the inner chamber) were measured at the study site. On the first day, across three measurements during 5 hours 20 minutes, the observed $CO_2$ flux absorption was -137.00 to $-81.73mg/m^2/hr$, and the $O_2$ absorption, measured simultaneously, was -0.03 to $0.00mg/m^2/hr$. On the second day using an identical number of measurements, the $CO_2$ absorption was -20.43 to $-2.11mg/m^2/hr$, and the $O_2$ absorption -0.18 to $-0.14mg/m^2/hr$. The $CH_4$ absorption before low tide was $-0.02mg/m^2/hr$ (first day, Pearson correlation coefficient using the SPSS statistical analysis is -0.555(n=5, p=0.332, pronounced negative linear relationship)), and $-0.15mg/m^2/hr$ (second day, -0.915(n=5, p=0.030, strong negative linear relationship)) on both measurement days. The emitted flux after low tide on both measurement days reached a minimum of $+0.00mg/m^2/hr$ (+0.713(n=5, p=0.176, linear relationship which can be almost ignored)), and a maximum of $+0.03mg/m^2/hr$ (+0.194(n=5, p=0.754, weak positive linear relationship)) after low tide. However, the absolute values of the $CH_4$ fluxes were analyzed at different times. These results suggest that rate for $CH_4$ fluxes, even the same time and area, were influenced by changes in the tidal cycle characteristics of surface sediments for understanding their correlation with these gas emissions, and surrounding parameters such as physiochemical sediments conditions.

    A Study on the Effects of Store Choice Criteria of Mass Merchandisers on Store Loyalty with Customer Emotions as Moderating Variables (대형마트 점포선택기준이 점포애호도에 미치는 영향)

    • Oh, Young-Ho;Jung, Yong-Tae
      • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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      • v.6 no.3
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      • pp.147-175
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      • 2011
    • The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of store choice criteria on customer satisfaction and store loyalty, and the moderating effects of customer emotions on the causal relationship between store choice criteria and customer satisfaction. In this regard, this study tries to identify the effects of store choice criteria on customer satisfaction and store loyalty in case of mass merchandisers, and to analyze the moderating effects of customer emotions on the causal relationship between store choice criteria and customer satisfaction. For this purpose, 300 customers, who have ever shopped at mass merchandisers, were surveyed and 246 valid responses were finally used for the data analysis. The results of this study are as follows. First, out of six store choice criteria, product factors, store reputation and physical environment turn out to have statistically significant effects on customer satisfaction. This result confirms those of the previous studies. On the other hand, store accessibility, subsidiary facilities and store atmosphere are not found to have statistically significant effects on customer satisfaction. This result is somewhat different from those of previous studies, and so further research on the subject needs to be carried out. Secondly, it turns out that customer satisfaction has a statistically significant effect on store loyalty, which is in line with the results of previous studies that perceived emotions affect customers' store attitudes which in turn influence their revisit intentions. Thirdly, as for the moderating effects of customer emotions on the relationship between store choice criteria and customer satisfaction, pleasure moderates the effects of store accessibility, subsidiary facilities and store atmosphere on customer satisfaction, arousal moderates the effects of product factors, subsidiary facilities and store reputation on customer satisfaction, and finally dominance moderates the effects of product factors and subsidiary facilities on customer satisfaction. These findings partially support the results of previous studies that customers' in-store emotional experiences such as feeling good or bad enhance their store loyalty.

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    A study of the relationship of the senior-guard's quality of exchange, job satisfaction and intention to leave one's job in private security company (민간경비업체에서 상사-부하 교환관계의 질, 직무만족 그리고 이직의도의 관계에 관한 연구)

    • Chung, Dae-Yong;Lee, Won-Haeng;Kim, Choon-Kwang
      • Korean Security Journal
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      • no.20
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      • pp.313-338
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      • 2009
    • Yet this study of a private security company guards who did not apply to most firms - An exchange relationship with the quality of the application of the theory of private security companies and the high turnover and low job satisfaction and find ways to improve the firm - An exchange relationship Job satisfaction and turnover of the quality of the major research variables with a theoretical discussion of the relationship they set and based on this study demonstrate the analysis is attempted. This expansion contributes to the possibility of applying the theory, and private security companies to manage their organizations more effective by presenting the theoretical basis. Was trying to contribute to practical. Therefore, in this study to determine the following three things that it first, in a private security company bosses - men exchange turnover of the members of the quality of the relationship is to help the relationship, secondly, from a private security company boss - An exchange relationship The quality of the work of the members are satisfied with the relationship, and finally the 'private security company's turnover in the member's job satisfaction is associated with a reduction of is whether. To this end, Seoul. Gyeonggi Province located in a private security guard companies and 238 people involved in the actual target and try to analyze these results demonstrate the firm - An exchange relationship to the quality of the turnover of the direct impact of the factors, but showed up as non - Job satisfaction showed a significant impact. Job satisfaction also significantly affect the turnover of the firm - An exchange relationship to the quality parameters according to degree of turnover. Therefore, exchange relationships with men from private security companies want to increase the quality of the firm's efforts to improve the men's job satisfaction indirectly through a reduction in turnover can be affected have been identified. We in the private security company to members of the firm's position in relation to their subordinates to improve the quality of the proposal is to.

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    Effects of Strength Recognition on the Intent of Start-up after Retirement: To the Office Workers (강점인식이 은퇴 후 창업의도에 미치는 영향: 직장인을 대상으로)

    • Park, Hye sung;Park, Woojin;Yun, Bae byung
      • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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      • v.15 no.1
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      • pp.143-150
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      • 2020
    • This research is intended to identify how office worker's recognition of strength affects the intention of starting a business when it is used as a medium for utilizing strength. The survey period was conducted for two months from January 17, 2019 to March 8, 2019. In order to achieve the object of this study, a significant number of employees have been collected nationwide, and 287 office workers were analyzed after collecting 300 questionaires, excluding 13 office workers who were not sincere. The significant data were analyzed by utilizing the structural equation and technical statistics and by verifying the conformity of structural model and measurement model and by investigating the relationship between variables. The results of this study are summarized as follows: First, employee's perception of strength has been found to have a significant effect on the utilizing of strength. Second, the use of workers' strengths has been found to have a significant effect on the intention of starting a business. Third, it has been confirmed that in the relationship between the employee's perception of strength and intention to start a business, the recognition of strength has a significant effect on the intention of starting a business only through the use of strength. Most office workers are nervous about the future and make various plans. The time to live after retirement is getting longer and jobs and working hours are shrinking at an alarming rate. According to the analysis on the status of small business owners in the mid-term of 2017 data, the average monthly operating profit of small business owners across the country is decreasing over the years, and most start-ups are subsistence-type start-ups, and they decide to start their own businesses because they have no other choice than start-ups. As the number of small business owners suffering from financial difficulties has increased since the financial crisis and insecurity of job is pushing those with financial difficulties after retirement to the battleground of the start-up market, the result of this research suggest that the workers need to recognize their own strength and enhance the importance of utilizing the strength.

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    3-Dimensional ${\mu}m$-Scale Pore Structures of Porous Earth Materials: NMR Micro-imaging Study (지구물질의 마이크로미터 단위의 삼차원 공극 구조 규명: 핵자기공명 현미영상 연구)

    • Lee, Bum-Han;Lee, Sung-Keun
      • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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      • v.22 no.4
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      • pp.313-324
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      • 2009
    • We explore the effect of particle shape and size on 3-dimensional (3D) network and pore structure of porous earth materials composed of glass beads and silica gel using NMR micro-imaging in order to gain better insights into relationship between structure and the corresponding hydrologic and seismological properties. The 3D micro-imaging data for the model porous networks show that the specific surface area, porosity, and permeability range from 2.5 to $9.6\;mm^2/mm^3$, from 0.21 to 0.38, and from 11.6 to 892.3 D (Darcy), respectively, which are typical values for unconsolidated sands. The relationships among specific surface area, porosity, and permeability of the porous media are relatively well explained with the Kozeny equation. Cube counting fractal dimension analysis shows that fractal dimension increases from ~2.5-2.6 to 3.0 with increasing specific surface area from 2.5 to $9.6\;mm^2/mm^3$, with the data also suggesting the effect of porosity. Specific surface area, porosity, permeability, and cube counting fractal dimension for the natural mongolian sandstone are $0.33\;mm^2/mm^3$, 0.017, 30.9 mD, and 1.59, respectively. The current results highlight that NMR micro-imaging, together with detailed statistical analyses can be useful to characterize 3D pore structures of various porous earth materials and be potentially effective in accounting for transport properties and seismic wave velocity and attenuation of diverse porous media in earth crust and interiors.

    A Study on the Necessity Verification of Convex Probe Disinfection (Convex Probe 소독 필요성 검증에 관한 연구)

    • Choi, Kwan-Yong;Yoo, Se-jong;Lee, Jun-ho;Hong, Sung-Yong
      • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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      • v.13 no.2
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      • pp.193-200
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      • 2019
    • The study was conducted surveying ultrasound room workers on hospital infection awareness in Daejeon and Choong-chunng region. The contamination of ultrasonic probes used in clinical trials was measured using ATP, and the results were verified after using 70% alcohol sterilization. It was measured on the group's general characteristics and the specific categories such as academic background, job type, having professional certificate and infection education. After the examination, the gel removal and method, disinfection status of the probe and variable correlation analysis were performed to analyze the recognition of the ultrasonic probe disinfection. After examination in ultrasound room, it was found that towels were used the most for cleaning, and the gel container was not replaced for more than three months. After 70% alcohol disinfection, ATP contamination was reduced from $1055.4{\pm}944.2$ to $133.5{\pm}93.2$ and the result was analyzed to be statistically significant.(${\rho}<0.01$) The found bacteria were CNS, Gram positive bacillus, and Micrococcus specs. In order to solve this problem, 70% alcohol sterilization was applied and the bacteria were not detected after the treatment. The research shows that regular training on infection control and efforts to prevent infection are necessary, and that 70% alcohol is effective in disinfect the bacteria. Therefore, the medical institution should provide active hospital infection control education to improve the awareness of hospital infection among workers and contribute to the prevention of patient infection. It is also understood that proper use of the results of this study will help prevent infection by means of ultrasonic probes.

    A Study on the optimum drying condition of sewage sludge cake using continuous microwave full scale dryer (연속적 마이크로파 Full Scale 건조장치를 이용한 하수슬러지 케익의 최적 건조조건 연구)

    • Ha, Sang-An;Jung, Wang-Seok
      • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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      • v.16 no.2
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      • pp.47-56
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      • 2008
    • The objective of this research is to evaluate the optimum recycling methods for the sewage sludge cakes at different microwave power-settings and for different periods of time. The dehydrated sewage sludge cakes used in this study was obtained from N wastewater treatment plan in the P City. The beginning drying processes were carried out in a microwave oven with 2,450 MHz frequency and power ranges of 1kW to 4 kW. The continuous conveyer drying system was also operated with 2,450 MHz frequency and power setting, ranging from of 1 kW to 6 kW. Initial moisture content of the sewage cake is 78~80%, and the moisture content decreased rapidly up to 0.2~2(wt%) within short periods due to breaking the cell walls. This study is also conducted to evaluate the characteristics of sewage sludge cakes with respect to important physical parameters effect on the thermal kinetics for evaporation water in the sludge which are operation times, moisture contents, drying rates, input amounts, flow rates and calorific values. It takes 60 minutes and 120 minutes to reach the critical moisture contents with power setting of 4 kW for 3kg/min and 6kg/min of the flow rates respectively. It takes 120 minutes and 110 minutes to reach the critical moisture contents with flow rates of 2.5 cm/min and sludge input of 6kg/min for the power settings of 4 kW and 6 kW respectively. The most effective value of the power for drying the sludge is 4 kW. Operation with 6kg/min and 4kW on 2cm of the sludge thickness can be effectively and inexpensively to reach the critical moisture contents, when you compare 2cm of the sludge thickness with 1cm and 3cm of the sludge thickness.

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    Effects of Anti-thyroglobulin Antibody on the Measurement of Thyroglobulin : Differences Between Immunoradiometric Assay Kits Available (면역방사계수법을 이용한 Thyroglobulin 측정시 항 Thyroglobulin 항체의 존재가 미치는 영향: Thyroglobulin 측정 키트에 따른 차이)

    • Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Seo, Ji-Hyeong;Bae, Jin-Ho;Jeong, Shin-Young;Yoo, Jeong-Soo;Jung, Jin-Hyang;Park, Ho-Yong;Kim, Jung-Guk;Ha, Sung-Woo;Sohn, Jin-Ho;Lee, In-Kyu;Lee, Jae-Tae;Kim, Bo-Wan
      • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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      • v.39 no.4
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      • pp.252-256
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      • 2005
    • Purpose: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a valuable and sensitive tool as a marker for diagnosis and follow-up for several thyroid disorders, especially, in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Often, clinical decisions rely entirely on the serum Tg concentration. But the Tg assay is one of the most challenging laboratory measurements to perform accurately owing to antithyroglobulin antibody (Anti-Tg). In this study, we have compared the degree of Anti-Tg effects on the measurement of Tg between availale Tg measuring kits. Materials and Methods: Measurement of Tg levels for standard Tg solution was performed with two different kits commercially available (A/B kits) using immunoradiometric assay technique either with absence or presence of three different concentrations of Anti-Tg. Measurement of Tg for patient's serum was also performed with the same kits. Patient's serum samples were prepared with mixtures of a serum containing high Tg levels and a serum containg high Anti-Tg concentrations. Results: In the measurements of standard Tg solution, presence of Anti-Tg resulted in falsely lower Tg level by both A and B kits. Degree of Tg underestimation by h kit was more prominent than B kit. The degree of underestimation by B kit was trivial therefore clinically insignificant, but statistically significant. Addition of Anti-Tg to patient serum resulted in falsely lower Tg levels with only A kit. Conclusion: Tg level could be underestimated in the presence of anti-Tg. Anti-Tg effect on Tg measurement was variable according to assay kit used. Therefore, accuracy test must be performed for individual Tg-assay kit.