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A Study on People Counting in Public Metro Service using Hybrid CNN-LSTM Algorithm (Hybrid CNN-LSTM 알고리즘을 활용한 도시철도 내 피플 카운팅 연구)

  • Choi, Ji-Hye;Kim, Min-Seung;Lee, Chan-Ho;Choi, Jung-Hwan;Lee, Jeong-Hee;Sung, Tae-Eung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.131-145
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    • 2020
  • In line with the trend of industrial innovation, IoT technology utilized in a variety of fields is emerging as a key element in creation of new business models and the provision of user-friendly services through the combination of big data. The accumulated data from devices with the Internet-of-Things (IoT) is being used in many ways to build a convenience-based smart system as it can provide customized intelligent systems through user environment and pattern analysis. Recently, it has been applied to innovation in the public domain and has been using it for smart city and smart transportation, such as solving traffic and crime problems using CCTV. In particular, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the easiness of securing real-time service data and the stability of security when planning underground services or establishing movement amount control information system to enhance citizens' or commuters' convenience in circumstances with the congestion of public transportation such as subways, urban railways, etc. However, previous studies that utilize image data have limitations in reducing the performance of object detection under private issue and abnormal conditions. The IoT device-based sensor data used in this study is free from private issue because it does not require identification for individuals, and can be effectively utilized to build intelligent public services for unspecified people. Especially, sensor data stored by the IoT device need not be identified to an individual, and can be effectively utilized for constructing intelligent public services for many and unspecified people as data free form private issue. We utilize the IoT-based infrared sensor devices for an intelligent pedestrian tracking system in metro service which many people use on a daily basis and temperature data measured by sensors are therein transmitted in real time. The experimental environment for collecting data detected in real time from sensors was established for the equally-spaced midpoints of 4×4 upper parts in the ceiling of subway entrances where the actual movement amount of passengers is high, and it measured the temperature change for objects entering and leaving the detection spots. The measured data have gone through a preprocessing in which the reference values for 16 different areas are set and the difference values between the temperatures in 16 distinct areas and their reference values per unit of time are calculated. This corresponds to the methodology that maximizes movement within the detection area. In addition, the size of the data was increased by 10 times in order to more sensitively reflect the difference in temperature by area. For example, if the temperature data collected from the sensor at a given time were 28.5℃, the data analysis was conducted by changing the value to 285. As above, the data collected from sensors have the characteristics of time series data and image data with 4×4 resolution. Reflecting the characteristics of the measured, preprocessed data, we finally propose a hybrid algorithm that combines CNN in superior performance for image classification and LSTM, especially suitable for analyzing time series data, as referred to CNN-LSTM (Convolutional Neural Network-Long Short Term Memory). In the study, the CNN-LSTM algorithm is used to predict the number of passing persons in one of 4×4 detection areas. We verified the validation of the proposed model by taking performance comparison with other artificial intelligence algorithms such as Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) and RNN-LSTM (Recurrent Neural Network-Long Short Term Memory). As a result of the experiment, proposed CNN-LSTM hybrid model compared to MLP, LSTM and RNN-LSTM has the best predictive performance. By utilizing the proposed devices and models, it is expected various metro services will be provided with no illegal issue about the personal information such as real-time monitoring of public transport facilities and emergency situation response services on the basis of congestion. However, the data have been collected by selecting one side of the entrances as the subject of analysis, and the data collected for a short period of time have been applied to the prediction. There exists the limitation that the verification of application in other environments needs to be carried out. In the future, it is expected that more reliability will be provided for the proposed model if experimental data is sufficiently collected in various environments or if learning data is further configured by measuring data in other sensors.

Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of the Radon Progeny Concentrations in the open Atmosphere and the Influence of Meteorological Parameters (대기중 라돈자핵종 농도의 일일 및 계절적 변화와 기상인자가 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Dong-Myung;Kim, Chang-Kyu;Rho, Byung-Hwan;Lee, Seung-Chan;Kang, Hee-Dong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.207-216
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    • 2000
  • Continuous measurements of radon progeny concentrations in the open atmosphere and measurements of meteorological parameters were performed in Tajeon, using a continuous gross alpha/beta aerosol monitor and a weather measuring equipment between July 1999 and July 2000. These data were analyzed for half-hourly, daily, and seasonal variations. The distribution of daily averaged equilibrium equivalent radon concentration$(EEC_{Rn})$ had an arithmetic mean value of $11.3{\pm}5.86Bqm^{-3}$ with the coefficient of variation of about 50% and the geometric mean was $10.3Bqm^{-3}$. The $EEC_{Rn}$ varies between 0.83 and $43.3Bqm^{-3}$, depending on time of day and weather conditions. Half-hourly averaged data indicated a diurnal pattern with the outdoor $EEC_{Rn}$ reaching a maximum at sunrise and a minimum at sunset. The pattern of the seasonal variation of the $EEC_{Rn}$ in Taejon had a tendency of minimum concentration occurring in the summer(July) and maximum concentration occurring in the late autumn(November). But the seasonal variation of the $EEC_{Rn}$ is expect to vary greatly from place to place. The outdoor $EEC_{Rn}$ was highly dependent on the local climate features. Particularly the $EEC_{Rn}$an rapidly drops less than $5Bqm^{-3}$ in case of blowing heavily higher than wind speed of $6msec^{-1}$, reversely the days with more than $30Bqm^{-3}$ were at a calm weather condition with the wind speed of lower than $1msec^{-1}$.

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Utilization of meiobenthos for pollution monitoring in the Gamak Bay, Korea (가막만의 중형저서생물을 활용한 오염모니터링)

  • KIM Dong-Sung;JE Jong-Geel;SHIN Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.307-319
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    • 2000
  • Community structure (seasonal fluctuation), taxon diversity, nematodes/benthic harpacticoids and nematodes/kinorhynchs ratios of meiobenthos were studied in the Gamak Bay, Korea. A series of samplings were carried out from April 1997 to May 1999. Meiobenthic organisms was collected by van Veen grab and three subcores of 34 mm in internal diameter were taken from each sediment sample. The total density of meiobenthos in each seasons was found to be the highest in May 1999, and the lowest in December 1998. Total density of meiobenthos at each station was the highest at Station 9 in May 1999 ($2,218 inds./10 cm^2$) and the lowest at Station 3 in December 1998 ($2 inds./10 cm^2$). The Gamak Bay seemed to have an individual number increased from the inner toward the outer stations. The highest number of meiobenthos was observed on 0.125 and 0.063 mm mesh size. In every season, over $80{\%}$ of the meiobenthos was composed of only four groups: nematodes, benthic harpacticoids, sarcomastigophorans and nauplius larvae of crustaceans. Seasonal fluctuation of meiobenthos was also studied. The nematodes/benthic harpacticoids(nematodes/kinorhynchs) ratios were studied as an index of pollution monitoring for benthic ecosystem at each station in each season. The value of nematodes/benthic harpacticoids ratio was the highest at the inner stations and the lowest at the outer stations in the Gamak Bay. Taxon diversity (H') was the highest at the outer stations and the lowest at the inner stations in the Gamak Bay. The value of nematodes/benthic harpacticoids ratio significantly increased from the outer toward the inner stations, whereas the taxon diversity (H') significantly increased from the inner toward the outer stations in Gamak Bay.

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동물 결핵

  • Jo, Yun-Sang
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.803-818
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    • 2008
  • 동물의 결핵은 Mycobacterium bovis의 감염에 의한 만성 소모성 질병이며 인수공통전염병이다. 동물로부터 사람으로의 결핵 전염은 생유 섭취하던 시대에 상당히 많이 보고되었다. 우유의 살균처리와 소에서 피내진단에 의한 양성우 살처분 및 보상금 지급 정책을 전개하면서 M. bovis의 사람전염은 급격히 감소하였다. 소 결핵은 우리나라에서 연간 0.15% 내외의 발생을 보이고 있으며, 발생의 주원인으로는 외부입식소, 인근발생농장, 과거발생농장의 사후관리소홀 등이다. 사람 결핵의 주원인균인 M. tuberculosis와 M. bovis는 유전체가 99.9% 유사하며, M. bovis를 M. tuberculosis의 아종으로 분류하기도 한다. 두 세균은 M. tuberculosis complex에 속하며, M. tuberculosis와 M. bovis이외에도 M. africanum, M. canettii, M. microti, M. pinnipedii 등이 있다. M. bovis는 M. tuberculosis complex중에서 가장 넓은 숙주범위를 가진다. M. bovis의 대표적인 숙주는 종이름에도 나타나 있듯이 소이다. 소결핵 전파원으로서는 M. bovis에 감염된 소가 가장 중요하다. 소 이외에도 면양, 산양, 말, 돼지, 사슴, 엘크, 영양 (antelope, kudus, elands, sitatungas, oryxes, addaxes), 개, 고양이, 흰족제비 (ferrets), 낙타, 여우, 밍크, 오소리, 쥐, 영장류, 라마, 맥 (tapirs), 코끼리, 코뿔소 (rhinoceroses), 주머니쥐, 땅다람쥐 (ground squirrels), 수달 (otters), 물개, 산토끼 (hares), 두더쥐 (moles), 너구리 (raccoons), 코요테, 사자, 호랑이, 표범, 살쾡이 (lynx) 등에 감염될 수 있으나, 대부분 종결숙주 (spillover host)로 가축의 결핵방제가 유지되고 있는 국가에서는 야생동물 결핵의 가축 전염이 문제시되고 있다. M. bovis는 주로 호흡기와 소화기를 통하여 감염되며, 결핵결절이 형성되는 부위를 관찰하면 감염경로를 추정할 수 있다. 결핵에 감염되면, 초기에는 뚜렷한 임상증상을 보이지 않으나, 아침, 추운 날씨, 또는 운동 중에 심한 기침을 하며, 호흡곤란을 일으킬 수 있다. 결핵은 감염되어도 대부분 무증상이기 때문에 피내진단, 결핵결절 병리소견, 원인균 분리 등에 의해 진단하여야 한다. 감염된 결핵균은 탐식세포에 탐식되어 특징적인 육아종성 결절 병변으로 진행된다. 현재 결핵은 피내진단과 결핵결절 병리소견 등에 의해 판정하고 있다. 최신 진단법으로는 피내진단을 대체할 수 있는 인터페론 감마 검사법과 우군의 결핵 스크리닝과 말기 결핵 검사에 우수한 항체진단법이 개발되어 있다. 그러나, 소 결핵 근절을 위해서는 일관성있는 진단법과 진단기준을 적용하는 것이 중요한 성공요인중 하나이다. 소결핵 청정국인 호주와 캐나다에서는 피내진단과 도축장 결절검사를 결핵 양성우 색출방법의 근간으로 삼고 있으며, 소결핵 근절의 최종단계에 이르러서는 특이적인 검사법을 적용하였지만, 근절목적상 민감성이 높은 피내진단법을 사용하였다. 이와 더불어, 피내진단 양성우의 부검소견과 원인균 분리를 통해 결핵을 확진하여 출처농장의 역추적 검사를 통하여 결핵 양성소를 제거하였다. 한편, 결핵의 농장간 및 지역간 전파방지를 위해 결핵 청정농장과 결핵 오염농장, 결핵 청정지역과 결핵 오염지역 구분을 통하여 결핵 오염농장과 결핵 오염지역으로부터 결핵 청정농장과 결핵 청정지역으로의 이동전 결핵 검진을 통해 개체 이동에 따른 결핵 전파를 근본적으로 차단하는 시스템을 엄격히 적용한 것이 주요한 성공 요인중 하나였다. 호주 결핵 근절정책 성공요인을 요약하면, 일관성 있는 결핵진단법 적용, 양성우 출처농장의 철저한 역추적 검사, 개체 이동전 결핵 음성증명 확인, 농가단체의 경제적 및 방역상 적극적인 지원 및 협조 결핵의 지속적인 모니터 링과 현장요구에 부응하는 방제신기술의 지속적인 연구개발 등을 들 수 있다. 최근 들어 국내 동물 결핵은 소, 특히, 한우의 결핵발생이 증가하고 있으며, 사슴 결핵발생도 증가하고 있다. 농장간 및 지역간에 결핵 감수성 가축, 특히, 소와 사슴의 거래가 아주 복잡하게 이루어지고 있는 현실을 고려할 때, 결핵전파의 주원인인 결핵감염 소나 사슴의 농장내 반입을 철저히 차단해야 할 것이다. 이때, 개체 검사는 물론이고, 출처농장에 대한 결핵 음성을 확인한 후 입식하여야 할 것이며, 입식 후에도 60일정도 격리사육하면서 피내진단등 결핵검진 후 음성인 경우에만 합사하여야 할 것이다. M. bovis는 사람을 비롯한 거의 모든 온혈동물에서 결핵을 일으킬 수 있기 때문에, 결핵 감염소로 판정된 농장 종사자는 각 시도 보건소의 협조를 받아 결핵검진을 받도록 해야 한다. 농장 가축에 접촉할 수 있는 야생동물의 접촉을 차단하여야 하며, 특히, 농장 사료의 야생동물에 의한 오염을 방지할 수 있는 사료창고관리를 철저히 해야 한다. 결핵 감염소를 다룰 때는 분비물 또는 가검물에 의해 감염될 수 있기 때문에 개인방역장비 - 방역복, 마스크, 비닐장갑, 비닐장화 - 를 착용한 상태에서 다루어야 한다. 특히, 결핵 감염소를 매몰 또는 소각하는 과정에서 결핵 감염소의 배설물 및 분비물 처리를 철저히 하여야 한다. 모든 작업을 마친 후에는 개인방역장비, 매몰 또는 소각에 사용하였던 장비 등을 청소 및 소독하고 필요시 소각 또는 매몰하여야 하며, 개인감염위험과 타인 감염위험을 방지하기 위해 노출부위를 세척하여야 한다.

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Cross-sectional Changes of Ridge Traversing Trail in Jirisan National Park (지리산국립공원 종주등산로의 횡단면 변화 - 노고단~삼도봉 구간을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Taeho;Lee, Seungwook
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.234-245
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    • 2013
  • In order to examine the amount and rate of soil erosion on Ridge Traversing Trail in Jirisan National Park, a cross-sectional area of hiking trail were monitored at 16 sites in Nogodan - Samdobong section from November 2011 to April 2012. Although all sites demonstrates an enlarged cross-section of trail, the amount of soil erosion varies from site to site: 54.9 to $908.8cm^2$. It suggests that the erosional rate ranges from $0.1cm^2/day$ to $1.72cm^2/day$. The erosional amount is also varied with a trail type: $109.3cm^2$ for a shallow gully-like trail to $573.2cm^2$ for a unilateral trail. However, the cross-sectional change is larger on a sidewall than a tread irrespective of a trail type. The erosional amounts of November to April are smaller than that of May to October. In particular, the erosional amount of November 2011 to April 2012 is smaller than the depositional amount, implying a reduced cross-section of trail. Pipkrake action puts loose soil particles on a sidewall on March and April, and then rainwash due to a heavy rainfall takes them away after May. It seems to be the most predominant erosional process in Ridge Traversing Trail. A sidewall facing north shows a larger amount of erosion than a sidewall facing south. It also implies a difference in the development of a pipkrake according to an aspect. The small amount of erosion and cross-sectional decrease, which is usually observed on April, results from the combined effect of frost heaving, pipkrake action, a small rainfall and a temporary suspension of trampling. It is necessary to establish the monitoring system of trail erosion in terms of the management of hiking trail in a mountain national park.

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A Study on the Botany of New Natural Habitats of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai in the Byeonsanbando National Park (변산반도국립공원 내 새로운 미선나무 자생지의 식물학적 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun Kyung;Soh, Min Seok;Rho, Jae Hyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed in 2010 to examine the flora and vegetation structure and chemical characteristics of soil in the growing community of Abeliophyllum distichum, located in the Byeonsanbando National Park. This Abeliophyllum distichum community has more individual numbers in Cheongrim-ni and Jungkye-ri, Byeonsan-myeon, and Buan-gun area, which is designated as a Natural Monument (No. 370), and also where the habitat conditions for Abeliophyllum distichum is more favorable. The authors recorded 100 taxa with 45 families, 82 genus, 93 species, 4 varieties, and 3 forms. Among them, species such as Abeliophyllum distichum (critically endangered), Asarum maculatum (near threatened) and Chionanthus retusa (near threatened), which are categorized as rare plants, were recorded. According to the list of Korean endemic plants, 4 taxa, particularly Philadelphus schrenckii, Abeliophyllum distichum, Weigela subsessilis, and Lonicera subsessili, were recorded. The community of Abeliophyllum distichum is located in the northwest slope of Baekcheon watershed and the community is comprised of healthy soil. The community structure was classified into three: the Castanea crenata community, Zelkova serrata community, and Quercus serrata community. The Castanea crenata community is composed of the Cornus walteri, Platycarya strobilacea, Zelkova serrata, Rhamnella frangulioides, arranged in terms of importance percentage. The Zelkova serrata community is composed of Celtis sinensis, Quercus aliena, Styrax japonica, and Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, also according to importance percentage. As for the Quercus serrata community, it is composed of Quercus variabilis, Castanea crenata, and Prunus sargentii, also arranged in terms of importance percentage. The importance percentage of Abeliophyllum distichum is 6.6% in the Castanea crenata community, 5.6% in the Zelkova serrata community and 5.1% in the Quercus serrata community. Moreover, in order of chemical characteristics of soil pH, electrical conductivity, available phosphoric, organic matter, and exchangeable cation (K, Ca, Mg) are analyzed. The No. 3 site was relatively higher than other districts of the same chemical characteristics of soil.

Water Quality and Ecosystem Health Assessments in Urban Stream Ecosystems (도심하천 생태계에서의 수질 및 생태건강성 평가)

  • Kim, Hyun-Mac;Lee, Jae-Hoon;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.311-322
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of the study were to analyze chemical water quality and physical habitat characteristics in the urban streams (Miho and Gap streams) along with evaluations of fish community structures and ecosystem health, throughout fish composition and guild analyses during 2006$\sim$2007. Concentrations of BOD and COD averaged 3.5 and 5.7 mg L$^{-1}$, in the urban streams, while TN and TP averaged 5.1 mg L$^{-1}$ and 274 ${\mu}g$ L$^{-1}$, indicating an eutrophic state. Especially, organic pollution and eutrophication were most intense in the downstream reach of both streams. Total number of fish was 34 species in the both streams, and the most abundant species was Zacco platypus (32$\sim$42% of the total). In both streams, the relative abundance of sensitive species was low (23%) and tolerant and omnivores were high (45%, 52%), indicating an typical tolerance and trophic guilds of urban streams in Korea. According to multi-metric models of Stream Ecosystem Health Assessments (SEHA), model values were 19 and 24 in Miho Stream and Gap Stream, respectively. Habitat analysis showed that QHEI (Qulatitative Habitat Evaluation Index) values were 123 and 135 in the two streams, respectively. The minimum values in the SEHA and QHEI were observed in the both downstreams, and this was mainly attributed to chemical pollutions, as shown in the water quality parameters. The model values of SEHA were strongly correlated with conductivity (r=-0.530, p=0.016), BOD (r=-0.578, p< 0.01), COD (r=-0.603, p< 0.01), and nutrients (TN, TP: r>0.40, p<0.05). This model applied in this study seems to be a useful tool, which could reflect the chemical water quality in the urban streams. Overall, this study suggests that consistent ecological monitoring is required in the urban streams for the conservations along with ecological restorations in the degradated downstrems.

Influence of Fish Compositions and Trophic/Tolerance Guilds on the Fishkills in Geum-River Watershed (Backje Weir) (금강수계(백제보)에서 발생된 어류폐사에 대한 종 조성 및 트로픽/내성도 길드 영향 분석)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Hyun;Han, Jeong-Ho;Yoon, Johee;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.393-401
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    • 2013
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze structures of fish community and the ecological health using a multi-metric fish model, the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) in the Backje Weir of Geum River during two periods namely before-the-fishkill ($B_f$) and after-the-fishkill ($A_f$). The total number of fish species observed were 32 and among them 10 species (35%) were Korean endemic species. The exotic species observed were 3 which decreased by 0.4% after-the-fishkill ($A_f$). The dominant species were Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis (13%) at the Bf period and Squalidus japonicus coreanus (17%) at the Af period in the Backje Weir. At after the fishkill ($A_{f-I}$) total biomass was about 10 times lower than the biomass before-the-fishkill ($B_f$). The biomass of Carassius auratus decreased 98% after-the-fishkill and as time passed by the biomass recovered to nearly 100%. Similar decrease in the biomass occurred in the population of Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis, while Rhinogobius brunneus population increased. According to the structure analysis of fish community, species richness index, evenness index and species diversity index were high but after-the fishkill, the values of indices decreased. Tolerant species (64%) dominated the fish community, and the sensitive species (2%) were rare, indicating the degradation of the ecosystem. According to analysis of the multi-metric model (IBI), the mean model value of the fish community in Backje Weir was estimated as 17.5 indicating a "fair condition".

Survey of the Status of Conutry-of-origin Lables and Hygine on the Meat Markets of 4 Regions in Korea (4개 권역 축산물 판매업소의 원산지 표시실태 및 위생상태 표본조사)

  • Nam, Bo-Ra;Nam, Jung-Oak;Park, Jung-Min;Lee, Ra-Mi;Gu, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Myung-Hee;Chang, Un-Jae;Suh, Hyung-Joo;Kim, Jin-Man
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2007
  • Expenditure on meat and meat products has been increased in Korea due to the increase of income and the change of diet. From raising farm animals to eating the meat, various hazardous elements can make their ways into the meat and meat products. Recently the issues on food safety and hygiene are drawing a lot of attention, and the current system for managing the safety of foods is still needed to be improved. This survey was aimed to monitor the current situation of country-of-origin labels and hygiene for the meat markets at 4 regions Korea. The survey was performed by collecting samples from whole- sale and retail stores in the nation, which were selling beef. The markets were divided into groups as to territory and the size of the market (Large size, Medium size, and Small size). In terms of size distribution, small butcher shops occupied the highest percentage. On the itemized suitability test of unpacked and packed beef, all the market of 4 regions showed good agreements. However, such labels indicating the methods of cooking and storage were not properly posted on the products. Especially for Ho-nam region, corrections are needed. The results of monitoring sanitation conditions for the butcher shops at 4 regions in Korea showed relatively low suitability. Especially, there were serious lack of knowledge about wearing the sanitation clothing, caps, and shoes. The problem with food safety is so complicated that producer, consumer, food manufacturer, the press, the government, and scholar should solve altogether. It is necessary to educate farmers, food handlers, consumers, etc. and provide them with an accurate information and knowledge.

Community Distribution on Mountain Forest Vegetation of the Geumsusan and Doraksan Area in the Worak National Park, Korea (월악산국립공원 금수산 및 도락산 일대 삼림식생의 군락분포에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Yun;Oh, Jang-Geun;Jung, Se-Hoon;Kim, Ha-Song
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2015
  • Forest vegetation of Geumsusan (1,016.0 m) and Doraksan (964.4 m) in Woraksan National Park is classified into mountain forest vegetation. Mountain forest vegetation is subdivided into deciduous broad-leaved forest, mountain valley forest, coniferous forest, riparian forest, afforestation and other vegetation. Including 77 communities of mountain forest vegetation and 5 communities of other vegetation, the total of 82 communities were researched; mountain forest vegetation classified by physiognomy classification are 37 communities deciduous broad-leaved forest, 16 communities of mountain valley forest, 8 communities of coniferous forests, 1 community of riparian forest, 15 afforestation and 5 other vegetation. As for the distribution rate for surveyed main communities, Quercus variabilis and Quercus mongolica communities account for 33.031 percent of deciduous broadleaved forest, Cornus controversa community takes up 29.142 percent of mountain valley forest, Pinus densiflora community holds 64.477 percent of mountain coniferous forest holds. In conclusion, minority species consisting of Quercus variabilis, Quercus mongolica, Pinus densiflora, Quercus serrata and Cornus controversa are distributed as dominant species of the uppermost part in a forest vegetation region in Woraksan National Park. In addition, because of vegetation succession and climate factors, numerous colonies formed by the two species are expected to be replaced by Quercus variabilis, Quercus mongolica, Cornus controversa and Fraxinus mandshurica which are climax species in the area.