• Title/Summary/Keyword: 모유수유

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A Study on Factors Related to the Practice of Breast-feeding (모유수유 실천과 관련 요인)

  • 박천만
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.23-43
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse factors related to the actual status and practice of breast-feeding during an infant period to grasp elements detrimental to breast-feeding and, therefore, provide basic information useful for its effective practice and encouragement. Method: From April 1 to June 30, 2001, this study was carried out with the mothers of 337 who were 6 months old, as of the surveyed date, of infants born in 2002 and registered in Seongju-gun Public Health Center, Gyeongsangbug-do Province. The method for its survey included both of the visiting and telephone interviews, and questions were mainly about the mothers' general characteristics(3 questions), infants' general characteristics(3 questions), environmental characteristics of infant delivery( 4 questions), support to breast-feeding(4 questions), understanding of breast-feeding(5 questions), and feeding type during the 1 to 6-month period after birth. Result: 1. The feeding type during the I-month period after birth showed that the breast-feeding accounted for 42.4%, which was higher than dry milk-feeding(30%) or mixed milk-feeding(26.8%). However, it began to be lower than the dry milk-feeding from the 2-month period after birth. During the 6-month period, the breast-feeding accounted for 28.6% which was lower than 56.5% of the dry milk-feeding. 2. The mothers who were encouraged by their delivery clinic to and were educated to breast-feed infants accounted for 55.4% and 41.4%, respectively, which were relatively low. The understanding of breast-feeding indicated that the responses were positive from the view point of mother & infant health, but negative from mother's physical form. 3. It was shown that the lower the educational background of mother(p〈0.05) and the higher the unemployment of mother(p〈0.001), the higher the positive understanding of breast-feeding, and that the higher the entire support to breast-feeding, the more positive their understanding. 4. It was also shown that the lower the educational background of mother(p〈0.05), the higher the unemployment of mother(p〈0.001), the more the experience in breast-feeding at a delivery clinic(p〈0.01) and the faster the initial feeding(p〈0.001), the higher the rate of breast-feeding. 5. The factor having an effect on breast-feeding included a delivery clinic's encouragement to breast-feed(p〈0.001), understanding of breast-feeding(p〈0.01), father's comment on feeding method(p〈0.05) and mother's employment(p〈0.05). Discussion: In order to encourage the breast-feeding, as shown above, it is required, fist of all, to offer pregnant women an education about importance and excellence of breast-feeding and its appropriate method before delivery in advance to result in a positive comprehension of the breast-feeding. To do that, both the publicity activities and program development designed to encourage the breast-feeding must be performed in advance at the government level. In addition to that, the mother-infant space as ‘rooming-in’ available for breast-feeding immediately after delivery must be prepared on the basis of legal and administrative support. Finally, female employees' leave after childbirth must be performed for the purpose of productive welfare and circumstances also be prepared for breast-feeding, such as a children's home at work.

Estimation of Indicator PCBs Exposure in Infants via Breast-Feeding Period (수유기간에 따른 모유 중 Indicator PCBs 분석을 통한 영유아의 인체노출평가)

  • We, Sung-Ug;Yoon, Cho-Hee;Min, Byung-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2012
  • The levels of indicator PCBs were determined in 132 human milk samples (Colostrum, 30th days after delivery, 60th days after delivery) collected in 2006 according to World Health Organization's (WHO) protocol. In addition, concentrations of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured by the isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatograph/high resolution mass detector (HRGC/HRMS), which gave accurate and precise data for estimations of international trend and comparisons. Average daily intakes (ADIs) of all analytes were calculated. The median level of total indicator PCBs was 14 ng/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level found in individuals from other countries. PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 accounted for about 65% of the sum of the indicator congeners analyzed. The concentration of the most abundant PCB 153 is positively correlated with the concentration of the sum indicator PCBs (p<0.001). In this study, concentrations of total indicator PCBs significantly decreased with increasing number of children for a mother, indicating that parity and breast-feeding period an important role in the accumulation and elimination of these compounds in lactating women. The ADI for the median of total indicator PCBs for an infant was evaluated at $0.077{\mu}g/kg{\cdot}bw/day$ from birth to 6 months of age. The present study shows that concentrations of PCB 118 primipara breast milk have decreased 25~35 since 1998, and that this trend is continuing.

A comparative study on iron deficiency anemia based on feeding patterns of nine-month-old infants (9개월 영아의 수유방법에 따른 철결핍빈혈에 대한 연구)

  • Yun, Hyun Jin;Choi, Eun Jeong;Choi, Eun Jin;Hong, Su Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.820-826
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study was conducted to evaluate the red cell indices and frequency of iron deficiency anemia based on the feeding patterns of nine-month-old infants. Methods : Blood tests were performed on 253 nine-month-old infants, who visited Il Sin Christian Hospital for health check-ups from January to December 2007. Their parents answered telephonic questions regarding their feeding patterns and weaning foods. Results : Three infants groups were created according to feeding patterns before they started weaning foods. One group was exclusively breast-fed (48.6%), another had mixed feeding (27.3%), and the third had artificial milk feeding (24.1%). Red cell indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH) of the breast-fed group were comparatively lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.05). Twenty-five infants (9.9%) were diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. According to feeding patterns, the frequency of anemia was highest in the breast-fed group. Six infants who started weaning foods before six months of age (113 infants) were diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia (5.3%), and nineteen who started after six months of age (140 infants) were diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia (13.6%). Conclusion : When nine-month old infants visit hospitals for health check-ups, pediatricians must consider their feeding pattern and weaning foods histories, and then recommend screening blood tests for iron-deficiency anemia.

Readmission of late preterm infants after discharge from nursery (신생아실에서 퇴원한 후기 조산아들의 재입원에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Myo-Jing
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.8
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    • pp.888-892
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : To evaluate the risk factors for hospital readmission during the neonatal period among late preterm infants who were discharged after nursery care. Methods : In this retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of 135 late preterm infants readmitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the neonatal period, after discharge from nursery of IL Sin Christian Hospital from January 2003 to December 2008. We compared the risk factors of the hospital readmission group with the control group. Results : The gestational age and birth weight of 135 study infants were $36^{+1}{\pm}0.5$ weeks and $2,718.4{\pm}296.9gm$, respectively. Identified risk factors of hospital readmission were breastfeeding (71.9% vs. 44.4%), short duration of nursery stay ($3.3{\pm}1.6$ days vs. $4.1{\pm}2.0$ days), firstborn (60.0% vs. 45.3%), and maternal pregnancy complication (31.9% vs. 18.8%). Jaundice accounted for the majority of hospital readmissions (83.7%), and the age at hospital readmission was $6.2{\pm}3.6$ postnatal days, mostly at 5-6 postnatal days (40.7%). Identified risk factors of hospital readmission due to jaundice were spontaneous normal vaginal delivery (43.4% vs. 1.8%), younger maternal age ($29.8{\pm}3.4$ yrs vs. $32.1{\pm}4.2$ yrs), and lower maternal pregnancy complication (28.3% vs. 50%). Conclusion : Identified risk factors of hospital readmission were breastfeeding, short duration of nursery stay, firstborn, and maternal pregnancy complication. Jaundice accounted for the majority of hospital readmissions, and the age at hospital readmission was $6.2{\pm}3.6$ postnatal days.

Postnatal cytomegalovirus infection in an extremely premature infant transmitted via breast milk: A case report (산모의 모유를 통하여 감염된 극소 저체중 출생아에서의 거대세포바이러스 감염)

  • Kim, Ji Hye;Chung, Eun-Jin;Park, Hyun Kyung;Moon, Soo Ji;Choi, Su-Mi;Oh, Sung Hee
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.1053-1058
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    • 2009
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most commonly encountered viral pathogens in newborn infants and is found in 0.3-2.4% of all live births. It has been demonstrated that 40-96% of seropositive mothers shed the virus via their breast milk. Breast milk containing CMV can cause almost one-third of CMV infections occurring in infants. A case of postnatal CMV infection in an extremely premature infant (gestational age $24^{+5}$ weeks, birth weight 750 g) transmitted via breast milk is presented. For neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) management of severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, and sepsis syndrome, the infant received repeated transfusions of platelets; intravenous (IV) immunoglobulins; and gamma- irradiated, filtrated packed red cells and was fed her mother's breast milk since the second week of life. CMV infection was diagnosed with positive CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and positive urine CMV culture at the second month of life. Considering the negative CMV IgM and urine CMV culture at birth, postnatally-acquired CMV infection was suspected and confirmed with completely identical nucleotide sequence alignments of the infantile blood isolate and the maternal breast milk isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first case of proven postnatal CMV infection transmitted via breast milk in an extremely premature infant in Korea.

Factors Affecting to Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women (폐경기 여성의 골밀도에 영향을 주는 인자)

  • Jung, Seung-Pil;Lee, Keun-Mi;Lee, Suk-Hwan
    • Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 1996
  • Introduction: Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disorder, is a condition of reduced bone density and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis is a major public health problem and a significant cause of morbidity in postmenopausal women. Therefore family physicians as primary care physicians are in a key position for preventing and treating this disorder. So we studied the factors affecting to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 spontaneous postmenopausal women were participated in the study. They have measured spinal bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry from January 1992 to June 1995 at Yeungnam University Hospital. Age, height, weight, age at menarche and menopause, number of child and breast feeding child, history of oral pill ingestion, family history of osteoporosis, amount of milk and coffee ingestion, consumption of tobacco and alcohol and physical activity were assessed by qustionnaire and medical records. Results: The mean age is 55.2 and mean age at menopause is 47.9. Height, weight and physical activity were significantly positive correlated to bone mineral density. But age, duration after menopause and number of child were significantly negative correlated. Also age, height, weight, physical activity and duration after menopause were significantly correlated to % age-matched bone mineral density. In multiple regression analysis, which dependent variable is bone mineral density, duration after menopause, physical activity and weight were significant contributors. Duration after menopause is most the largest contributor. In multiple regression analysis, which dependent variable is % age-matched bone mineral density to adjust the age effect, physical activity and weight were significant contributors. Physical activity is most the largest contributor. Conclusions: Among factors affecting to BMD in postmenopausal women, physical activity and weight were more important factors. Therefore continuous physical activity is significant factor to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

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Effect of Prenatal Education Program of Labor and Delivery Experience (분만 체험 산전교육 프로그램 효과)

  • Seong, Chun-Hee;Park, Kyung-Min
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.5716-5725
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    • 2014
  • This study examined the effects of a prenatal education program of labor and delivery experience for primigravidas in mid-pregnancy. This investigation was designed as a one group pre-post quasi-experimental study, aiming to determine the effects of prenatal education on anxiety, confidence and knowledge in delivery by demonstrating knowledge and actual situations including understanding labor, breast-feeding, baby care and others, and experiencing the education program. Subjects were collected randomly from an on-line club in D city. The simulation education proceeded for 2 hours a week from April to June, 2014, and there were 6 sessions each in the first and second periods. We included 35 primigravidas who attended all 6 sessions. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and a paired t-test. According to the study results, the subjects showed a significant difference in knowledge in delivery (t=-9.07, p<001), confidence in delivery (t=-9.00, p<001) and anxiety (t=14.39, p<001) after participating in the prenatal education program. An evaluation of satisfaction revealed experience to be the most differentiating factor, and the simulation experience was identified as most effective. The desired appropriate number of class sessions was 4 times, and 88.6% of the pregnant women intended to attend the program at their next birth, indicating a high response rate.

FACTORS AFFECTING MAXILLARY ANTERIOR TEETH CARIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN (취학전 어린이의 상악 유전치 우식증과 관련 요인)

  • Jong, Seung-Yol;Lee, Kwang-Hee;Ra, Ji-Young;Lee, Dong-Jin;An, So-Youn;Kim, Ji-Yeong;Song, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.635-641
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of study was to investigate the etiologic factors of maxillary primary anterior caries. The subjects of study were 401 preschool children, 214 boys and 187 girls, from 36 to 71 months old of randomly selected seven nurseries in Iksan city. The prevalence of maxillary primary anterior teeth was cross-analyzed with gender, age, breast feeding or bottle feeding, length of feeding, sweet snack intake frequency, beginning of toothbrushing, and toothbrushing frequency per day. The prevalence was 43.0% in boys and 26.7% in girls, and there was significant association between the prevalence and gender in cross analysis(P<0.01). The prevalences of the shorter than 2 years of feeding group, the from 2 to 3 years group, and the longer than 3 years group were 31.0%, 43.2%, and 63.2%, respectively, and there was significant association between the prevalence and the length of feeding(P<0.01). Daily intake of sweet snacks had a significant association with the prevalence(P<0.05). There was no significant association between the prevalence and the variables of age, breast feeding or bottle feeding, beginning of toothbrushing, and toothbrushing frequency per day(P>0.05).

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Breastfeeding and Melatonin (모유 수유와 멜라토닌)

  • Song, Minyu;Park, Won Seo;Yoo, Jayeon;Ham, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.133-145
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    • 2018
  • Breastfeeding is highly recommended due to its benefits for both the infant and mother; however, most mothers predominantly use formula feed. Breastfeeding affords protection against a wide variety of medical conditions that may emerge at different time points over the lifespan, including hospital admissions for respiratory infections and neonatal fever, offspring childhood obesity, and cancer as well as cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, breastfeeding is expected to decrease the risk of adolescent depression and other psychopathologies. It is also important for the development of the gut, gut-brain axis, and immune system, and night-time breast milk is likely to have higher antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulatory effects due to the impact of breast milk melatonin on the infant's developing microbiome and gut permeability. Melatonin can be added to a night-time-specific formula feed; however, it is not included in the Korean Food Additive Codex.

Development of Arduino-based Notification System for the Public Facilities (공공시설의 효율적 활용을 위한 아두이노 기반 알림 시스템 개발)

  • Lee, Sung-Jin;Kim, Eun-Gyeong;Kim, Seok-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • 2017.04a
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    • pp.1211-1213
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    • 2017
  • 일반적으로 공공기관, 쇼핑몰, 백화점 등과 같은 많은 사람들이 모이는 장소들은 다양한 편의시설(화장실, 모유수유실, 놀이방 등)들을 갖추고 있지만, 실제 해당 장소를 이용하는 다수의 사람들은 이러한 편의시설을 적절히 활용하지 못하고 있는 것이 사실이다. 특히 이러한 편의시설들의 대부분이 여성, 어린이, 노약자 등 사회적 약자를 위한 시설이지만, 실제 이용 대상자들은 언제 어떤 편의시설을 이용할 수 있는지에 대한 정보를 파악하기 어려워 해당 공간의 활용률을 극대화 하지 못하고 있다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해, 본 논문에서 제안하는 시스템에서는 해당 편의시설의 사용가능 여부를 인식 및 감지하고 이를 해당 편의시설을 이용하고자 하는 사용자들에게 시설 사용 정보를 실시간으로 통보할 수 있도록 하여, 해당 편의시설의 활용률을 극대화 할 수 있도록 하였다. 이를 통해, 해당 편의시설의 활용률 증가 및 대기시간 감소 등의 효과를 기대할 수 있다.