• Title/Summary/Keyword: 모유수유

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Risk Factors of Nosocomial Rotavirus Infections in Children (소아 로타바이러스 원내 감염의 위험 인자)

  • Park, Sin Ae;Yu, Sun Hee;Lim, Seon Woong;Choi, Kyung Dan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.395-400
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    • 2005
  • Purpose :Rotavirus is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections among children. The aim of this study is to determine the risk of nosocomial rotavirus infections and to evaluate the effectiveness of breast-feeding and probiotics in the prevention of nosocomial rotavirus infections. Methods : This study was carried out on admitted children without diarrhea between March 1, 2003 and February 29, 2004. Three hundred ninety patients aged 4 days to 13 years during this study were available. We examined the feces of all children for rotavirus by latex agglutination on admission, during hospital, and after discharge, to see whether they developed diarrhea or not. Results : Nosocomial rotavirus infections was significantly increased with children under 12 months of age(P=0.008). The monthly attack rate was great between December and March(P=0.046). Prolonged hospital stay was associated with an increased attack rate of nosocomial rotavirus infections (P=0.003). The risk of nosocomial rotavirus infections was not associated with the number of roommates and whether or not they were breast-fed or fed on probiotics. Conclusion : Nosocomial rotavirus infections are significantly more likely to occur in children under 12 months of age, admitted between December and March, and with prolonged hospital stays. Prompt identification and isolation of children with nosocomial rotavirus infections, even without diarrhea, may decrease rates of nosocomial rotavirus infections.

Incidence of Febrile Urinary Tract Infection According to Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Congenital Hydronephrosis and Hydronephrotic Patients Diagnosed at First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection (선천성 수신증 환자군과 첫 발열성 요로감염으로 진단 시 발견된 수신증 환자군에서 임상적 특징에 따른 발열성 요로감염의 발생률)

  • Kim, Geun-Jung;Rhie, Seon-Kyeong;Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.184-194
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) according to clinical characteristics in patients with congenital hydronephrosis (CH) and hydronephrotic patients first diagnosed with hydronephrosis during treatment of febrile UTII. Methods : In this study, 200 patients with congenital hydronephrosis were enrolled in group 1 and 252 patients first diagnosed with hydronephrosis during treatment of febrile UTI were enrolled in group 2. We counted the episodes of UTI in the two groups according to clinical characteristics, the presence of VUR, type of feeding, and clinical outcomes since 2000. And we compared those results between the two groups. and compared two groups as well. Results : The incidence of recurrent UTI was 10%, 0.028 per person-year in group 1 and 16.7%, 0.051 per person-year in group 2, respectively (P <0.05). Group 2 had more VUR (3% vs. 27%, P <0.05) and higher incidence of UTI than group 1. The incidence of UTI in patients with CH of Society of Fetal Urology (SFU) grade 4 or grade 4-5 VUR was 80% and 44.4%, respectively. No significant differences were found in incidence of UTI between BMF (breast milk feeding) and artificial milk feeding group in both groups (P 1=0.274, P 2=0.4). The time of resolution of CH had no correlation with either number of UTI episodes or the presence of VUR. Conclusion : The overall incidence of UTI is low in patients with CH as well as patients patients first diagnosed with hydronephrosis during treatment of febrile UTI except patients with SFU grade 4 or grade 4-5 VUR. BMF has no protective effect against UTI.

The Changes of Intestinal Normal Flora in Neonates for Seven Days Postnatally (정상 신생아의 대변에서 생후 1주일 동안 장내세균총의 변화)

  • Sung, Nam-ju;Lee, Seung Gue;Kim, Me Jin;Kim, Young Ho;Yang, Seung;Hwang, Il Tae;Jung, Ji A;Lee, Hae Ran;Kim, Jae-Seok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Microbial colonization of the intestine begins just after birth and development of the normal flora is a gradual process. The first bacteria colonizing the intestine in newborns are Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus. For several days after birth, the number of Bifidobacterium spp. increase. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of microflora for seven days postnatally in neonatal stool. Methods: Fifteen neonates (breast : formula : mixed feeding 1 : 8 : 6, vaginal delivery : cesarean section 3 : 12) who were born at the Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University were enrolled. First meconium and stools of postnatal 1-, 3-, and 7-day were innoculated. Blood agar plates for total aerobes, trypton bile X-glucuronide agar for E. coli, phenylethyl alcohol agar for gram positive anaerobes, MRS agar for Lactobacillus spp., bifidobacterium selective agar for Bifidobacterium spp. and cefoxitin-cycloserine-fructose agar for Clostridium difficile were used in the general incubator ($CO_2$ free incubator), $CO_2$ incubator or the anaerobic chamber for 48 or 72 hours at $37^{\circ}C$ and then colony forming units were counted. Results: No microflora was identified in the first meconium. Total aerobes, E. coli, and gram positive anaerobes were significantly increased with advancing postnatal days. In only one baby, Lactobacillus acidophilus was detected $2{\times}10^5CFU/g$ in the seven-day stool. Bifidobacterium spp. was detected in two babies. Clostridium difficile was not detected during the seven days. There were no significant differences in the bowel flora depending on the delivery pattern and feeding method. Conclusion: This study shows many changes in the intestinal normal flora in neonatal stool during seven days postnatally. If these findings are confirmed with larger studies, the data may be preliminary findings to support use of probiotics in neonates.

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Factors Related to Bone Mineral Content Among Adolescents in Seoul (서울시 일부 청소년의 골질량 관련요인)

  • Shin, Sang-Ah;Hong, Kyung-Eui;Choi, Hyun-Jeong;Roh, Ji-Hyun;Joung, Hyo-Jee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.156-164
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to bone mineral contents (BMC) at os calcis of adolescents. The subjects were 604 students (327 boys and 277 girls) between 7th and 9th grade in Seoul, Korea. The mean age was 14.2 ${\pm}$ 0.9 years. General characteristics were collected by a questionnaire, bone mineral contents (BMC) were measured in os calcis by Duel Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (PIXI, General Electronics, USA) and height and weight were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Inbody 4.0, Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). Mean BMC of os calsis were 2.241 g. Height (p <.0001), weight (p <.0001I), BMC (p <.0001I) ofboys were higher than those of girls. Percent body fat of girls, however, was higher than that of boys (p <.0001). Anthropometric measurement, pocket money, sibling, experience of fracture, pubertal stage, intake of supplements, physical or outdoors activity, and eating habit had significant influence on BMC of boys. Anthropometric measurement, physical or outdoors activity, and eating habit had significant influence on BMC of girls. Multivariate regression with adjustment for sex and age showed that BMC was associated positively with height, BMI, frequency of regular activity, and intake of spinach or radish leaves (all p <0.05), and negatively with percent body fat (p <.0000 and Korean traditional diet pattern (p = 0.01). On the basis of these results, it is recommended to develop nutrition education and physical activity program for adolescents to improve BMC and prevent osteoporosis.

Clinical Feature and Dietary Pattern of Infantile Constipation Under Two Years of Age (2세 이하 영유아 변비의 임상 양상과 식이 방식)

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Moon, Jin Soo;Hwang, Jong Hee;Jang, Hyun Oh;Nam, Seung Yeun;Kim, Dong Wook;Lee, Chong Guk
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Infantile constipation is one of the most common problems in pediatric gastrointestinal outpatient clinic. We planed to show the clinical feature of infantile constipation and explore the possible relationship between diets and symptoms of constipation. Methods: We analyzed the medical records and telephone questionnaire about infants under 2 years of age with constipation, who visited outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, Ilsan Paik Hospital during the time from March 2002 to February 2005. Data including the symptoms and signs of constipation, diet history, and past-medical history were analyzed. Results: Total 96 infants, 40 male and 56 female, were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 9 months. Twenty-three infants were exclusively breast milk fed (BMF), 20 infants were cow's milk fed (CMF) and 53 infants had a history of mixed feeding with cow's milk and breast milk (MMF). Patients showed painful defecation (95.8%), abdominal distension (53.1%), palpable rectal stool (35.1%), hard stool (30.2%), blood-tinged stool (29.2%) and anal fissure (16.7%). Patients with exclusive cow milk feeding had prominent clinical features, such as anal fissure (p=0.03), hematochezia (p=0.04) and palpable rectal stool (p=0.025). Patients who had a history of larger intake of liquid food had a tendency to get anal skin tag (p<0.05). Conclusion: Exclusive breast milk feeding seemed important to avoid constipation with clinical significance. To educate caregivers in appropriate way of the weaning food may help the infants with constipation.

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Child Rearing Practice of Working Mothers in a Poor Area of Pusan (부산시 영세지역 취업여성들의 영유아 양육실태)

  • Hwang, Yeon-Ja;Park, Jung-Han
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.22 no.3 s.27
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    • pp.389-397
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    • 1989
  • To identify the problems in child rearing practice of employed mothers in urban poor area, all of 201 women with children under 6 years old living in Yun San 3 Dong, a poor area of Pusan city, were interviewed with a questionnaire by a trained interviewer from 10th April to 10th May 1989. Among 201 women, 51 women were employed and 150 women were unemployed. Of the employed mothers 78.5% got their jobs because of economical need and 31.4% of them worker for 60-69 hours per week. Their average monthly income was 100,000-190,000 Won in 33.4% and 200,000-290,000 Won in 25.4% Breast milk was fed in 66.0% of the children of unemployed mothers while 49.0 of the children of the employed mothers were breast-fed (p<0.05). The most common reason for not breast feeding was shortage of breast milk among unemployed mothers (58.9%) but that of the employed mothers was their job(63.6%). The basic immunization for children was completed in 70.5% of children of employed mothers as compared with 82.0% of the children of the unemployed mothers were completely immunized (p>0.1). Accident experience rate of children among the employed mothers was 23.5 a and that of the children of the unemployed mothers was 17.3% . The most common cause of acident in children of the unemployed mothers was carelessness while they were playing(34.6%) but in children of the employed mothers it was traffic accident(25.0%) and falling(25.0%). Most of the traffic accidents took place while the children's brother or sister of age under 14 years were baby sitting. When the accident took place 73.1% of the unemployed mothers were just at home, but 58.3% of the employed mothers were out of home for work. In case of the employed mothers, 58.7% of their children were looked after by an adult mainly grandparents, 15.7% by the children's brothers and sisters under 14 years old, and 3.9% of the children were left alone. A majority of the unemployed mothers wanted to get a job if someone could take care of their children. To facilitate the women employment and for the safety and health of the children, good nurseries for working mothers need to be established at a cost they can afford.

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A study of mothers knowledge of weaning of infants with iron-deficiency anemia (철결핍빈혈 영·유아에서 어머니의 이유지식)

  • Kim, Sung Jin;Kim, Dong Hyun;Chang, Joo Hee;Jun, Yong Hun;Hong, Young Jin;Son, Byong Kwan;Kim, Soon Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.468-473
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is still one of the most common nutrient deficiency disorders, despite improvements in general health and nutrition. This study was designed to investigate the diagnostic values of hematological profiles, including the level of ferritin, and to evaluate the knowledge of mothers on weaning practices for infants and young children with IDA. Methods : This study was conducted on 111 infants and young children from six to 40 months of age with IDA. Their parents completed a questionnaire. IDA was defined as a level of hemoglobin <11.0 g/dL, the presence of microcytosis, a level of ferritin <10.0 ng/dL, transferrin saturation <15%, or an 1 g/dL increase in the level of hemoglobin after iron administration. The questionnaire made inquiries into their weaning practices. Results : In 111 infants and young children aged from six to 40 months, the average level of Hb was $9.5{\pm}1.0g/dL$. The prevalence of ferritin level (>10 ng/dL) was 48.6%, in spite of IDA. Seventy-four infants (66.7%) began to wean between four and six months, and 37 infants (33.3%) after seven months of age. The main food given after weaning was rice gruel. The weaning periods showed a significant relationship to the severity of anemia (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the severity of anemia in terms of the educational levels of the mothers. Fifty-five mothers (49.5%) gave a wrong answer to a questionnaire describing that breast-fed infants aged over four months need to be fed with iron-sufficient food. Of all mothers, 49.6% took one month or more to complete the weaning process and 20% took three months or more. Conclusion : Many infants and young children with IDA have been provided with non-iron fortified foods and inadequate weaning. To improve nutritional status, especially among infants with iron deficiencies, nutritional education for mothers with infants at the weaning age must be increased and related programs must be implemented effectively.

A Study on Risk Factors of Recurrent Otitis Media (소아 재발성 중이염의 위험인자에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun Jin;Kwon, Young Ran;Song, Kang Hoon;Jang, Won Nyung;Lee, Jin;Chang, Jin Keun;Cha, Sung Ho
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : Recurrent otitis media (ROM) is usually defined as ${\geq}$3 distinct and well-documented episodes within 6 months or ${\geq}$4 episodes within 12 months. ROM is sufficiently important to warrant consideration of chemoprophylaxis, tympanostomy tube placement. There also is evidence that children with ROM are at risk for both hearing loss and speech delay. However, studies of ROM have been notably insufficient. In addition, even though environmental, racial, and sociocultural differences can affect risk factors, few studies have been conducted with regard to recurrent otitis media in Korea. Methods : This study was conducted from July 2009 to January 2010 with infants and children who were younger than 60 months old, who visited the out-patient clinics at Han-Il General Hospital and Kyunghee University Hospital. Data were collected by interview using a pre-formed sheet. Among a total of 892 infants and children, 457 were excluded, and the remaining 435 were allocated to 104 with ROM and 331 as a control group. Results : Attendance at daycare centers (P<0.001, OR=2.85), allergic rhinitis (P=0.026, OR=2.32), past history of bronchiolitis (P=0.003, OR=2.33), and low socioeconomic status (P=0.005, OR=2.00) were found to have a close significant correlation with ROM. Risk factors such as sex, having a sibling, breast-feeding, use of pacifiers, atopy, pneumococcal vaccination, influenza vaccination, smoking of parents, and indoor smoking are not relevant. Conclusion : Attendance at daycare centers, allergic rhinitis, past history of bronchiolitis, and low socioeconomic status have been identified as risk factors for ROM.

Nutritional Assessment and the Effectiveness of Dietary Counseling in Infants and Young Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia (철결핍성 빈혈을 가진 영유아에서 영양학적 평가 및 영양상담 효과)

  • Kim, Ja Kyoung;Ko, Eun Young;Lee, Yu Jin;Jun, Yong Hun;Kim, Soon Ki
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Iron deficiency is still the most common nutrient deficient disorder despite the improvement in general health and nutrition. This study is designed to evaluate the dietary history of infants and young children with iron deficiency anemia(IDA) and the effects of nutritional counseling. Methods : This study was conducted on 120 children from 6 to 36 months of age with IDA. Their parents completed a questionnaire and took counsel for nutrition. IDA was defined as Hb <11.0 g/dL, ferritin <10 ng.mL or transferrin saturation <15%, or Hb increase >1 g/dL after iron preparation. The questionnaire consisted of their feeding patterns, weaning time and kinds of food. Results : In the 120 infants and young children aged from 6 to 36 months, the parents of 82 cases was counseled about nutrition. Fifty six infants among 82 cases have started weaning and the main foods of weaning were rice and/or rice gruel. Nutritional problems in weaning were that some children over one year of age were using a bottle, and parents restricted weaning food at will because of allergic disease or chronic disease. Most parents were satisfied with the nutritional counseling given from a clinical dietitian and showed good compliance. Conclusion : Many infants and young children with IDA were provided with non iron-fortified foods and made an inadequate wean. Most parents were satisfied with the nutritional counseling and showed good compliance. The need of dietary counseling was required for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia because of inadequate weaning.

A review of the contents about childhood health care in middle & high school textbooks (중·고등학교 교과서에 실린 소아 관련 정보의 조사)

  • Kim, Jung Hun;Park, Sung Won;Shin, Son Moon;Sung, In Kyung;Park, Mi Jung;Chung, Yoo Mi;Ha, Jeong Hun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.340-347
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to investigate the material in middle school and high school textbooks covering child care and children's health for medically inaccurate content and to make sure that the correct information is given to students. Methods : We have examined 47 kinds of textbooks on the subjects 'Home economics' and 'Technology and home economics' published in 2007 to find out how much importance is placed on children's health and childcare and to search for incorrect definitions, inaccurate facts or insufficient explanations. We have also analyzed the credentials of the writers of these textbooks. Results : Textbooks of middle school cover psychological and physical changes during adolescence and nutrition, and those of high school cover marriage and childcare. These materials covering health made up 27.5%, 11.7% of middle & high school texts. Age definitions of neonate and infant were incorrect. Inaccurate facts were mostly about fontanelles, primitive reflexes, breastfeeding and weaning. There also were wrong informations on the umbilical cord care and developmental milestones during infancy. The childhood immunization schedules and the growth curves were not up to date. Most of the authors major in home economics and the others were school teachers. There was no evidence of any review by a medical society or an expert. Conclusions : When writing about children's health and childcare in textbooks, a board-certified pediatrician or The Korean Pediatric Society should be consulted to provide accurate medical information to middle and high school students.