• Title/Summary/Keyword: 모유수유

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Non-nutritive Sucking Habits of Preschool Children in Daejeon (대전지역 미취학 어린이의 비수유성 빨기 습관에 대한 조사 연구)

  • Bak, Seunghyo;Lee, Nanyoung;Lee, Sangho;Jeong, Hyeran
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking in preschool children in Daejeon. This study assessed the relationship between contributing factors influencing the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking. Also, the effects of non-nutritive sucking on the primary dentition were investigated. The study included 841 children 18~65 months of age that visited a pediatric private dental clinic for oral examination. Both children and their guardians were surveyed. It was found that 32.8% of children exhibited non-nutritive sucking, and 37.7% of females displayed this behavior. The number of females showing this behavior was significantly greater than that of males. The prevalence decreased significantly with the breast-feeding period, and there was no association with either birth rank or maternal occupation. Finger sucking (62.6%) was more prevalent and of longer duration than pacifier sucking (37.4%). Malocclusion of the primary dentition was associated with the duration of this behavior.

Changes in Specific Gravity, Total Solid and Protein Contents of Human Milk During the Course of Lactation in Korean Women (한국인 모유의 수유기간별 비중, 충고형분 및 단백질 함량의 변화)

  • 이종숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 1988
  • The lonitudinal determination of specific gravity, total solid and protein contents of human milk were carried out in 27 Korean women. Human milk samples from the subjects were collected at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150th days of lactation. 1) The average values of specific gravity of the milk was 1, 0281 (S.D. 0.0018, n=12), with a range of 1.0200-1.0383. 2) The average values of total soild of the milk was 12.07g/100ml(S.D. 0.38, n=112), with a range of 9.36-15.88g/100ml. 3) The average values of protein content of the milk was 1.20g/100ml (S.D. 0.14, n=112), with a range of 1.09-1.46g/100ml. A slight decrease of specific gravity and protein content in human milk was found during the course of lactation, but significant decrease was not found in total solid content.

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Breast-feeding and Obesity in Early Childhood - Based on the KNHANES 2008 through 2011- (영유아기 수유 유형과 모유 수유 기간에 따른 유아기 비만 양상 분석 - 2008~2011 국민건강영양조사 자료에 근거 -)

  • Yon, Miyong;Lee, Haeng-Shin;Kim, Dohee;Lee, Jeeyeon;Nam, Jiwoon;Moon, Gui-Im;Hong, Jinhwan;Kim, Cho-Il
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.644-651
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    • 2013
  • Although there has been a significant increase in breast-feeding (BF) rate in Korea, it is plateaued since 2008 and still low compared with that of other countries. Because BF has been related to lower obesity prevalence in many studies and the increase in childhood obesity became evident in Korea, we wondered if a relatively lower BF rate has anything to do with this increase. Therefore, we looked into the relationship between mode & duration of BF during infancy and weight status of toddlers using the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 through 2011. Number of 2-3 year old toddlers with complete information on BF, anthropometry and normal birth weight was 674. While 87% of them were ever-breastfed, 6.2% each of them were either obese or overweight based on the Standard Growth Chart for Korean Children. Not only the obesity prevalence was different among groups of different mode of feeding, but also the mean duration of BF was significantly longer in normal weight group (9.2 mo.) compared with obese group (5.5 mo.). Accordingly, overweight and obesity prevalence of the toddlers breast-fed for 12 months or longer was significantly lower than that of the toddlers breast-fed for less than 12 months (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.87). This study revealed that both BF and duration of BF affect the childhood obesity and, BF for 12 months or longer should be encouraged more aggressively as one of the main strategies to prevent and/or decrease childhood obesity in Korea.

A case of acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica with a normal serum zinc level but a low level in the hair (혈중 아연 농도는 정상이나 모발 검사에서는 감소된 아연 농도를 보인 일과성 장병성 선단 피부염 1례)

  • Oh, Kyung Il;Kim, Jung Hee;Lee, Ji Eun;Lim, Dae Hyun;Son, Byong Kwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.209-212
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    • 2007
  • Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of early infancy, and is characterized by periorificial dermatitis, alopecia, and intractable diarrhea. Serum zinc levels are usually low in untreated patients and the oral administration of zinc sulfate can clear skin lesions and other symptoms. Although premature and cow's milk-fed infants are at particular risk of developing AE, there have been a few reports about AE in term and breast-fed infants. We report a case of transient AE in a 4-month-old breast-fed infant. This patient suffered from diarrhea and dermatitis for more than a month. Her skin lesions were erythematous, scaly, crusted, psoriasiform, eczematous, with an eruption at the chin, and a periorificial disposition with involvement of the flexural areas of lower extremities. Her serum zinc level was almost normal at $129{\mu}g/dL$ (reference range: $60-121{\mu}g/dL$), but the zinc level in her hair was low: 8 mg percent (reference range: 10-21 mg percent). Skin biopsy findings were consistent with AE. Seven days after zinc supplementation, the skin lesions and diarrhea improved. The authors recommend that a clinical trial of zinc supplementation be considered in cases where there are suspicious of AE, even when the serum zinc level is normal.

A Diagnostic Algorithm of Newborn Screening for Galactosemia (갈락토스혈증의 신생아 선별검사 후 진단 알고리즘)

  • Sohn, Young Bae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2015
  • Classic galactosemia (OMIM #230400) is an autosomal recessive inherited metaboic disorder caused by a deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT, EC2.7.7.12) due to mutations in the GALT gene. If untreated, classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disease presenting with poor feeding, vomiting, jaundice, liver failure, increased bleeding tendency, and septicemia leading to death within a few days after birth. Since 2006, expansion of newborn screening has been enabled the early diagnosis and early intervention of classic galactosemia in Korea. However, newborn screening, followup testing for confirmatory diagnosis and intervention for galactosemia continue to present challenges. In Korea, the prevalence of the classic galactosemia is considered relatively low compared to that of western countries. And the genotype is also clearly different from those of other population. Therefore, our own guideline for confirmatory diagnosis and intervention is needed. Here, the diagnostic algorithm for galactosemia after positive newborn screening result in Korea has been proposed. Considering the low prevalence and different mutation spectrum in Koreans, the early mutation analysis of GALT gene could be a useful tool for the accurate diagnosis and making any treatment decision.

A Case of Urticaria occurred to a Breastfeeding Patient in Postpartum Period Treated with Korean Medicine (모유 수유 중인 산욕기 환자의 두드러기 치험 1례)

  • Kang, Dong-Won;Kang, Se-Hyun;Park, Jung-Gun;Hwang, Deok-Sang;Kim, Yoon-Bum;Kim, Kyu-Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.140-149
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : The aim of this study is to report the effect of herbal medicine and acupuncture on a breastfeeding woman's postpartum urticaria which was unresponsive to a 1st generation antihistamine and a topical steroid. Methods : Wheals and pruritus occurred to a 36-year-old breastfeeding woman 2 days after the parturition. Symptoms were unresponsive to about a week of systemic antihistamine and topical steroid treatments. GamiSamul-tang herbal decoction was administered three times a day for the first 21 days and twice a day for the next 10 days of the treatment. Acupuncture treatment was applied to 12 acupoints (both sides of LI04, LR03, ST36, LI11, SP10, SP6) for 15 minutes once a week, 5 times in total. The patient's symptom was evaluated with Weekly Urticaria Activity Scale (UAS7) and Visual Analogue Scale for Worst Pruritus within 24 hours ($VAS_{Pruritus}$) each time the patient visited out-patient department. Results : The scores of UAS7 and $VAS_{Pruritus}$ at the baseline were 38 and 8.2 respectively. 10 days after the herbal medicine and acupuncture treatment began, both decreased to 0 and wheal, pruritus, erythema didn't appeared again for the rest of the follow up periods. Conclusions : This study shows the possibility of using GamiSamul-tang and acupuncture to treat postpartum urticaria.

Nutritional Status of Korean Toddlers: From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007~2009 (한국 유아의 영양 섭취 현황: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사를 바탕으로)

  • Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Sun-Gun;Kim, Shin-Hye;Song, Yoon-Ju;Chung, Ju-Young;Park, Mi-Jung
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the feeding patterns, use of dietary supplements, and nutrient intake of Korean toddlers. Methods: We used data for 930 toddlers who participated in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2009. Feeding patterns and use of dietary supplements were assessed using standardized questionnaires, and nutrition intake was assessed using the 24 hr recall method. Results: In 2007~2009, 48.7% of toddlers used dietary supplements. Most parents (95.4%) initiated a regime of dietary supplements for their children following the advice of friends or relatives. Only 0.4% of parents followed the advice given by their doctors for dietary supplements use. In the survey of nutrient intake for toddlers, the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake was 53.9% for subjects aged 1 year, 55.2% for 2 years and 65.6% for subjects aged 3 years. The prevalence of inadequate iron intake was 52.0% for subjects aged 1 year, 48.7% for 2 years and 48.4% for subjects aged 3 years. In the survey performed on feeding patterns of toddlers during the infant period, mixed feeding accounted for 57.4%, breast feeding for 32.2%,and formula feeding for 10.4%. Sixty-five percent of toddlers began weaning between 4 and 6 months. Conclusions: This study indicated that a number of toddlers were at risk of inadequate calcium and iron intake. The role of professionals in counseling for qualified dietary intake and dietary supplement use is therefore necessary for Korean toddlers.

Effects for kangaroo care: systematic review & meta analysis (캥거루 케어가 미숙아와 어머니에게 미치는 효과 : 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Lim, Junghee;Kim, Gaeun;Shin, Yeonghee
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.599-610
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    • 2016
  • This paper reports the results of a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis research to compare the effect of Kangaroo care, targeting mothers and premature infants. A randomized clinical trial study was performed until February 2015. The domestic literature contained the non-randomized clinical trial research without restriction according to the level of the study design. A search of the Ovid-Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and KoreaMed, the National Library of KOREA, the National Assembly Library, NDSL, KISS and RISS. Through the KMbase we searched and combined the main term ((kangaroo OR KC OR skin-to-skin) AND (care OR contact)) AND (infant OR preterm OR Low Birth Weight OR LBW), ((kangaroo OR kangaroo OR kangaroo) AND (care OR nursing care OR management OR skin contact)) was made; these were all combined with a keywords search through the selection process. They were excluded in the final 25 studies (n=3051). A methodology checklist for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed by SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) was utilized to assess the risk of bias. The overall risk of bias was regarded as low. In 16 studies that were evaluated as a grade of "++", 9 studies were evaluated as a grade of "+". As a result of meta-analysis, kangaroo care regarding the effects of premature mortality, severe infection/sepsis had an insignificant effect. Hyperthermia incidence, growth and development (height and weight), mother-infant attachment, hypothermia incidence, length of hospital days, breast feeding rate, sleeping, anxiety, confidence, and gratification of mothering role were considered significant. In satisfaction of the role performance, depression and stress presented contradictory research results for individual studies showing overall significant difference. This study has some limitations due to the few RCTs comparing kangaroo care in the country. Therefore, further RCTs comparing kangaroo care should be conducted.

Survey on the Awareness of Guardians of Young Infants on the Weaning of Food in Pohang and Gyeongju Area (두 종합 병원을 방문한 영유아 양육자의 이유식에 대한 인지도 조사)

  • We, Hyun Woo;Seo, Yu Kyung;Kim, Ae Suk;Lee, Sun Ju;Cho, Sung Min;Lee, Dong Seok;Kim, Doo Kwun;Choi, Sung Min
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate the awareness of the weaning of food using questionnaires, and the relationship with the weight gain in young infants. Methods: From September 2005 to December 2005, we performed a survey on 141 guardians of young infants aged from 6 to 18 months, who visited the pediatric out-patient department at Dongguk University Medical Center. We calculated the total score for each responder from ten questions on the weaning of food and assessed the body weight percentile of each of the young infants. Results: The most commonly reported information source for weaning food was 'the friends around' by 62 respondents (44.0%); 54 (38.3%) responded that the definition of weaning food was the preparatory step before starting a solid diet. Most used a spoon (90.8%) to feed when weaning food with a thin gruel of rice (78.7%). The time for weaning of food was before breast or infant formula feeding (55.3%). Addition of cow's milk was around 12 months (77.3%). The mean score was 6.21; however this did not show a statistically significant correlation with weight gain in young infants. Conclusion: The overall awareness of weaning of food has improved; however, information from doctors has decreased. Although the relationship between the awareness of weaning of food and the growth of young infants was not statistically significant, further studies on weaning of food, with larger and controlled sample sizes may provide important information.

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Potentials of Synbiotics for Pediatric Nutrition and Baby Food Applications: A Review (소아 영양 및 유아식 응용을 위한 신바이오틱스의 잠재력: 총설)

  • Jung, Hoo Kil;Kim, Sun Jin;Seok, Min Jeong;Cha, Hyun Ah;Yoon, Seul Ki;Lee, Nah Hyun;Kang, Kyung Jin
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2015
  • Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic substances as well as microorganisms were added to infant formula in an attempt to influence the intestinal microflora with an aim to stimulate the growth of lactic acid bacteria, especially bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Over the last 10 years, new synbiotic infant formulas containing probiotics and prebiotics have been proposed in order to simulate the effect of breast-feeding on the intestinal microflora. Owing to their synergistic effect, the new synbiotics are expected to be more helpful than using probiotics and prebiotics individually. Maintenance of the viability of the probiotics during food processing and the passage through the gastrointestinal tract should be the most important consideration, since a sufficient number of bacteria ($10^8cfu/g$) should reach the intended location to have a positive effect on the host. Storage conditions and the processing technology used for the manufacture of products such as infant formula adversely affect the viability of the probiotics. When an appropriate and cost-effective microencapsulation methodology using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and substances with high biological value are developed, the quality of infant formulas would improve. The effect of probiotics may be called a double-effect, where one is an immunomodulatory effect, induced by live probiotics that advantageously alter the gastrointestinal microflora, and the other comprises anti-inflammatory responses elicited by dead cells. At present, a new terminology is required to define the dead microorganisms or crude microbial fractions that positively affect health. The term "paraprobiotics" (or ghost probiotics) has been proposed to define dead microbial cells (not damaged or broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e., cell extracts with complex chemical composition) that are beneficial to humans and animals when a sufficient amount is orally or topically administered. The fecal microflora of bottle-fed infants is altered when the milk-based infant formula is supplemented with probiotics or prebiotics. Thus, by increasing the proportion of beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, prebiotics modify the fecal microbial composition and accordingly regulate the activity of the immune system. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused on the improvement of infant formula quality such that its beneficial effects are comparable to those of human milk, using prebiotics such as inulin and oligosaccharides and potential specific probiotics such as bifidobacteria, which selectively stimulate the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the microflora and the indigenous intestinal metabolic activity of the microflora.

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