• Title/Summary/Keyword: 문제유형

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초등학교 수학 문제해결 교육에 관한 연구

  • Bang, Seung-Jin;Lee, Sang-Won;Hwang, Dong-Ju
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.14
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2001
  • ${\cdot}$중등학교 수학교육에 있어서 문제해결에 대한 관심은 전세계적으로 점점 높아지고 있다. 우리 나라 에서는 문제해결 교육을 제 4차 교육과정 개정부터 시작하여 제 7차 교육과정에서도 아주 중요시 하고있다. 이렇게 교육과정의 변화에도 불구하고 수학 교육헌장에서 교사들의 문제해결에 대하여 갖는 인식도나 실천적 의지는 매우 부족하다. 이런 관점에서 첫째는 문제해결력에 관한 제 7차교육과정의 교과서를 분석함으로써 문제해결 지도에 사용되고 있는 문제의 유형을 분석하였다. 둘째는 교사들의 설문지를 통하여 수학 교육에서 문제해결을 위한 교사의 신념을 조사하여 교육 현장에서 문제해결력의 문제점을 분석하여 앞으로의 개선책을 알아본다.

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The Types and Characteristics of Science Inquiry Problems: An Analysis Based Upon the Laudanian Philosophy of Science (과학 탐구 학습 문제의 유형 및 특성 분석 연구: 라우든(Laudan)의 과학 철학을 바탕으로)

  • Kim, Chan-Jong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 1993
  • Scientificc inquiry has been a major goal and a vehicle to teach science in schools since Curriculum Reform Era. Based upon the Laudanian philosophy of science, scientific inquiry problems were classified and their characteristics were identified. Science inquiry problems could be classified as empirical and conceptual problems. Empirical problems consist of unsolved, solved, and anomalous problems. Internal and external conceptual problems are included in conceptual problems. Effective teaching methods for solving empirical and conceptual science problems are discussed. The implications of Laudanian philosophy of science for science teaching were also discussed.

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A Design and Implementation of Dynamic Test Generating System (동적인 문제 출제 시스템의 설계 및 구현)

  • 최돈은;서현진;박기석;이재영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.690-692
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    • 2000
  • 인터넷의 빠른 보급으로 인해 사이버 교육 사이트가 늘어나고 있다. 사이버 교육의 장점은 언제 어디서나 손쉽게 인터넷 사이트에 접속하여 교육을 받을 수 있다는 점이다. 그러나, 사이버 교육에는 해결해야 할 문제점들이 있는바, 그 문제점 중의 하나는 학생의 수학 능력을 평가하는 것이다. 본 논문에서는 출제자가 컴퓨터로 입력한 문제에 대한 정보와 출제 기준을 구문분석하고, 정해진 형식에 맞추어 서버를 통해 저장해둠으로써 각각의 학습자가 편리한 시간에 통신에 접속하여 응시할 때마다, 출제자가 학습자에게 요구하는 평가형식으로 저장된 문제정보를 불러와서, 매번 다른 유형의 문제들을 화면상에 출력시킨다. 어떤 경우에도 새로운 문제 유형으로 시험을 공정하고 효과적으로 평가할 수 있도록 구현되어졌다. 시험평가부에서 시험문제에 대한 해설을 덧붙여 시험후의 학습 효과를 이룰수 있도록 했다.

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Analysis of Highschool Students' Error types and Correction in Learning Function (고등학생들의 함수단원 학습과정에서 나타나는 오류유형 분석과 교정)

  • Yang, Ki-Yeol;Jang, You-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-43
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    • 2010
  • This study is to investigate how much highschool students, who have learned functional concepts included in the Middle school math curriculum, understand chapters of the function, to analyze the types of errors which they made in solving the mathematical problems and to look for the proper instructional program to prevent or minimize those ones. On the basis of the result of the above examination, it suggests a classification model for teaching-learning methods and teaching material development The result of this study is as follows. First, Students didn't fully understand the fundamental concept of function and they had tendency to approach the mathematical problems relying on their memory. Second, students got accustomed to conventional math problems too much, so they couldn't distinguish new types of mathematical problems from them sometimes and did faulty reasoning in the problem solving process. Finally, it was very common for students to make errors on calculation and to make technical errors in recognizing mathematical symbols in the problem solving process. When students fully understood the mathematical concepts including a definition of function and learned procedural knowledge of them by themselves, they did not repeat the same errors. Also, explaining the functional concept with a graph related to the function did facilitate their understanding,

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A Study on the Application of Context Problems and Preference for Context Problems Types (유형별 맥락문제의 적용과 그에 따른 유형별 선호도 조사)

  • Kim, Sung-Joon;Moon, Jeong-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.141-161
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    • 2006
  • In this study, we classified word problems related to real life presented in elementary mathematics textbooks into five types of context problems(location, story, project, scrap, theme) suggested by Freudenthal(1991), and applied context problems to mathematics class to analyze the influence on students' mathematical belief and attitude. Also, we examined the types of context problems preferred according to academic performance and the reasons of preference within a group experiencing context problems. The results of the study are as follows. First, almost lessons in the mathematics textbook presents word problems related to real life, but the presenting method is inclined to a story type. Also, the problems with a story type are presented fragmentarily. Therefore, although these word problems are familiar to the students, they don't include contextual meanings and cannot induce enough mathematical motives and interests. Second, a lesson using context problems give a positive influence on their mathematics belief and attitude. It is also expected to give a positive influence on students' mathematics learning in the long run. Third, the preferred types of context problems and the reasons of preference are different according to the level of academic performance within the experimental group.

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PARENT-ADOLESCENT AGREEMENT IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENTS:COMPARISON OF FACTOR STRUCTURES OF K-CBCL AND YSR (문제행동에 대한 청소년 자신과 부모 평가간의 관계:K-CBCL과 YSR의 하위요인 구조 비교)

  • Ha, Eun-Hye;Lee, Soo-Jung;Oh, Kyung-Ja;Hong, Kang-E
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 1998
  • The present study compared the self report and parental report on the behavior problems of adolescents as a way to explore similarities and differences in the ways that adolescents and their parents conceptualize behavior problems of adolescents. Specifically, K-CBCL and YSR data from 3271 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 were subjected to factor analyses. Five factors;Depression/Anxiety/Withdrawal, Aggressiveness, Somatic Symptom, Disruptiveness, Attention Getting were obtained from the YSR data with the first factor, Depression/Anxiety/Withdrawal explaining 14.23% of the total variance. K-CBCL data yielded somewhat different factor structure with Aggression/Delinquency as the first factor explaining 14.08% of the total variance, followed by Somatic Symptoms, Social Withdrawal, Disruptiveness, and Depression/Anxiety. Total K-CBCL and YSR score showed a moderate correlation(r=.51), and correlation between pairs of comparable K-CBCL and YSR factor scores were also moderate. Regression analyses of the variables contributing to the total problem score of the K-CBCL and YSR suggested that social competence and academic achievement are two important sources of influence on the evaluation of behavior problems both in self-report and parental report. However, externalizing problems such as aggressiveness/delinquency appeared to be more salient for parents, while adolescents themselves appeared to be more concerned with internalizing problems such as depression/anxiety. Implications of these subtle differences for assessment of adolescent behavior problems were discussed.

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Development and Application of the Butterfly Algorithm Based on Decision Making Tree for Contradiction Problem Solving (모순 문제 해결을 위한 의사결정트리 기반 나비 알고리즘의 개발과 적용)

  • Hyun, Jung Suk;Ko, Ye June;Kim, Yung Gyeol;Jean, Seungjae;Park, Chan Jung
    • The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2019
  • It is easy to assume that contradictions are logically incorrect or empty sets that have no solvability. This dilemma, which can not be done, is difficult to solve because it has to solve the contradiction hidden in it. Paradoxically, therefore, contradiction resolution has been viewed as an innovative and creative problem-solving. TRIZ, which analyzes the solution of the problem from the perspective of resolving contradictions, has been used for people rather than computers. The Butterfly model, which analyzes the problem from the perspective of solving the contradiction like TRIZ, analyzed the type of contradiction problem using symbolic logic. In order to apply an appropriate concrete solution strategy for a given contradiction problems, we designed the Butterfly algorithm based on decision making tree. We also developed a visualization tool based on Python tkInter to find concrete solution strategies for given contradiction problems. In order to verify the developed tool, the third grade students of middle school learned the Butterfly algorithm, analyzed the contradiction of the wooden support, and won the grand prize at an invention contest in search of a new solution. The Butterfly algorithm developed in this paper systematically reduces the solution space of contradictory problems in the beginning of problem solving and can help solve contradiction problems without trial and errors.

Children's Mental Models of the Free-fall of Objects (물체의 자유낙하에 대한 아동의 정신모형 연구)

  • Lee, Myung-Ja
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.389-399
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to identify children's mental models of the free-fall objects. This study examined children's prediction and observation about the free-fall of objects. The experimental procedure involved conducting interviews with first-, third-, fifth-, and seventh grade students. The interview had three phases: Prediction, explanation, and observation. During the prediction phase, the object pairs which varied on the dimensions of size, weight, shape, color were presented to students. The students were asked to predict what would happen if the objects were dropped simultaneously. During the explanation phase, the students were asked to explain how they arrived at their answers. During the observation phase, the students observed the free-fall of the object pairs and were asked to describe what they saw. The results showed as follows. (1) Fifth-and seventh grade students made more correct predictions than first- and third grade students. (2) The conflict problems, object pairs involving the dimensions of size and weight, were the most difficult for students to accurately predict. (3) With regard to observations, there was a non-significant effect of grade, indicating equivalence in the number of correct observations made by first-, third-, fifth-, and seventh graders. (4) The conflict problems were the most difficult for students to correctly observe. (5) First- and third grade students showed a significant difference between prediction and observation about the free-fall of objects. However. no difference was found in the fifth- and seventh grade students.

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Change in Solving Process According to Problem Type - Centered on Reaction toward Linear Equations of Seventh Grade Students - (문제 유형에 따른 풀이과정에서의 변화 - 중학교 1학년 학생들의 일차방정식에 대한 반응을 중심으로 -)

  • Seo, J.J.
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.445-474
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    • 2010
  • The results of performing first survey after learning linear equation and second survey after 5 months to find out whether there is change in solving process while seventh grade students solve linear equations are as follows. First, as a result of performing McNemar Test in order to find out the correct answer ratio between first survey and second survey, it was shown as $p=.035^a$ in problem x+4=9 and $p=.012^a$ in problem $x+\frac{1}{4}=\frac{2}{3}$ of problem type A while being shown as $p=.012^a$ in problem x+3=8 and $p=.035^a$ in problem 5(x+2)=20 of problem type B. Second, while there were students not making errors in the second survey among students who made errors in the solving process of problem type A and B, students making errors in the second survey among the students who expressed the solving process correctly in the first survey were shown. Third, while there were students expressing the solving process of linear equation correctly for all problems (type A, type B and type C), there were students expressing several problems correctly and unable to do so for several problems. In conclusion, even if a student has expressed the solving process correctly on all problems, it would be difficult to foresee that the student is able to express properly in the solving process when another problem is given. According to the result of analyzing the reaction of students toward three problem types (type A, type B and type C), it is possible to determine whether a certain student is 'able' or 'unable' to express the solving process of linear equation by analyzing the problem solving process.

A Study on the Inter-Relational Interpretation of Street Plant Issues - Focus on Central Park Road in Incheon Metropolitan City - (가로수관련 문제유형의 관계론적 해석 - 인천광역시 중앙공원길을 중심으로 -)

  • Hong, Youn-Soon;Chung, Doo-Yong;Choi, Kang-Rim
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.80-89
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    • 2008
  • Generally, trees lining the streets are the most easily accessible green areas in the city and constitute the smallest basic unit in the formation of the urban linear green axis. This study attempts to interpret issues related to city trees from a comprehensive and relational viewpoint. The site of this study is Central Park Street in front of Incheon Metropolitan City Hall. This street is representative of those in Incheon City. This study is an inter-relational interpretation of issues by measuring the vitality of these trees. The following are results of this study: First, the vitality of city trees is higher in those trees growing in natural ground than those growing in plant gratings. This observation can lead to budget savings and increased natural areas in the city. Also, if planter and multi-layering planting methods are introduced where damage to trees is predicted, variation to urban landscape can be achieved while linking to reinforced rearing foundation of street-side trees. Second, there is need for a holistic approach to caring for street-side trees regarding the damage caused by drastic pruning and strong street lights. The typical functions of these trees, like supplying freshness in summer, absorbing solar radiation, and controlling the urban micro-climate are closely related to the vitality of the trees. Accordingly, the function and ecology should be understood holistically, not separately. In this aspect, the functional and ecological use of the multi-layering planting method is effective in protecting pedestrians from vehicles as well. Third, the fallen leaves of monotonous rows of trees have different ecological and functional effects. Not only is the index of greenness in the urban setting increased, but there are also aesthetic and symbolic effects. Fourth, in spite of being the street along which Incheon Metropolitan City Hall, major administrative buildings and Central Park are located, this street does not have its own special identity to discriminate it from other streets. It fulfills only functional criteria based on uniformity. If there is no paradigm shift from today's street system based on vehicles, the role of landscape architecture will be very passive in regards to street-side trees, the minimum unit of urban green. Fifth, on this particular street, many trees were planted in December, which reflects a deficiency of short and long-term strategy, like a street-tree master plan. In this aspect, we still lack a mature culture concerning these trees as a basic unit in urban greenery. Furthermore, there needs to be cultural introspection concerning present administrative practices.