• Title/Summary/Keyword: 문제해결전략

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Analysis of Strategies for Problem Solving Presented in Elementary School Mathematics Textbooks (초등학교 수학교과서에 나타난 문제해결 전략의 양식에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, Jin Ho
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.565-580
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    • 2002
  • 연구자들은 학생들에게 문제해결 전략을 지도하는 것이 학생들의 문제해결력을 신장시켜 준다는 보고하고 있다. 이와 같은 연구결과를 배경으로 수학 교과서를 통하여 문제해결 전략을 지도하려는 시도들이 미국을 비롯하여 한국에서도 있어 왔다. 본 논문은 문제해결 전략을 교과서에 제시할 수 있는 가능한 세 가지 모델들을 논의하고, 미국과 한국의 수학교과서에서 문제해결 전략을 제시하는 방법을 분석하였다. 한 가지 모델은 문제해결 전략에 한 단원을 할애하는 것이다. 두 번째 모델은 각 수학내용을 지도하는 단원에 문제해결 전략의 지도를 위한 하위단원을 할당하는 것이다. 마지막, 세 번째 모델은 문제해결 전략 지도를 위한 특정 단원이나 하위 단원을 설정하는 것이 아니라 가능한 많은 쪽에 전략을 제시하는 것이다. 위에 언급한 세 가지 가능한 모델을 바탕으로 미국과 한국의 초등학교 수학교과서에서 문제해결 전략을 제시하는 양상을 비교하였다. 이 비교를 위하여 각 학년별로 제시되는 모든 전략들을 교과서와 교사용 지도서를 토대로 추출하였다. 각 교과서에서 전략을 제시한 양식을 비교한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻게 되었다. 한국의 수학교과서는 전형적으로 첫 번째 모델의 양식으로 문제해결전략을 제시하고 있었다. 각 단원마다 별개의 문제해결 전략이 제시되었다. 또한, 학년별 지도 전략을 살펴보면 학년별로 연계성이 있게 전략이 제시 되었다기 보다는 학년별로 다른 다양한 전자의 지도에 중점을 둔 듯하다. 미국의 수학교과서는 두 번째 모델과 세 번째 모델의 중간적인 양식으로 문제해결 전략을 제시하고 있다. 즉, 각 단원마다 문제해결 전략 지도를 위한 하위 단원을 지정하였으며 필요한 경우에는 본 단원의 주 학습요소와 관련된 문제해결 전략은 단원 중에도 제시되고 있었다. 따라서, 차기 수학교과서 개정시기에는 세 번째 모델을 그 모형으로 삼아 문제해결 전략들을 제시하는 방안을 강구해야 할 것으로 기대된다.

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Perseverance or Pivot? The Role of Problem-Solving Strategies on Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation and New Problem-Solving (개인의 기업가지향성과 문제해결전략이 새로운 문제 도전에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jinyoung
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2018
  • When we face an unexpected challenge, should we stick to the original plan and persevere through the series of challenges? Or shall we pivot and transform our original plan into something new by taking into account the newly acquired information? This perennial question of perseverance versus pivot as two competing problem-solving strategies has puzzled our every day lives. In this study, based on the large-scale, nation-wide survey on entrepreneurship, I found that individual entrepreneurial orientation, which consists of innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness, promotes an individual's tendency to choose new problems to solve. Perseverance strategy was found to positively moderates the relationship between innovativeness and the tendency to choose new problems to solve, whereas the relationship between risk-taking and the tendency to choose new problems to solve was found to be negatively moderated by perseverance strategy. Pivot strategy, on the other hand, was found to be positively moderates the relationship between proactiveness and the tendency to choose new problems to solve. These findings contributes to the stream of individual entrepreneurial orientation research by empirically testing two competing problem-solving strategies of perseverance and pivot to show their interaction effects with entrepreneurial orientation. Also the findings of this study expand the potential outcome of entrepreneurial orientation by adding an individual's tendency to choose new problems to solve rather than what he or she has already experienced before.

A Study On The Recognition of Elementary School Teachers′ Problem-solving Strategy (초등학교 현장 교사의 문제해결 전략의 인지도)

  • 최순만
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is twofold: (i) to argue the importance of problem solving strategy in education and (m to propose an efficient way to use the problem-solving strategy, which is based on the survey to find out how well elementary school teachers recognize the importance of the strategy. Forty elementary school teachers participated in the survey. The result of the survey shows that they do not use various strategies when they solve problems. It also shows that the rate of wrong answers the teachers get when solving problems is pretty high because they adopt a wrong strategy. It is prerequisite that teachers recognize the importance of the strategy when solving problems and put into practice various strategies in order to help their students improve their problem-solving abilities.

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Analysis of Teacher's Verbal Interactions and Problem Solving Strategies in Young Children's Environmental Education Using Language Network Analysis Methods (언어네트워크 분석방법을 활용한 유아환경교육에서 교사의 언어적 상호작용과 문제해결전략 분석)

  • Choi, Yoon-Ji
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.147-158
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of this study is to perform of composition of young children teacher's verbal interactions and problem solving strategies by semantic network analysis. The data was collected the narrative of teacher in young children's environmental education. Additionally, this study used categories as a unit of analysis in order to find out structural characteristics. The results of this study were as follows. First, teacher's verbal interactions, providing information was the most cental, high influence appeared along with integration. Second, teacher's problem solving strategies, suggestion was the most cental, high influence appeared along with divergent thinking. Third, teacher's verbal interactions and problem solving strategies, suggestion was the most cental, providing information and divergent thinking appeared a strong connection. Besides, suggestion and decision were mediated by concern of problem, assessment appeared connection. Through these results from this study it is suggested that in order to interact and support problem solving process in young children's environmental education, teacher education to respond and understand contextually with young children is necessary.

An Analysis on Elementary Students' Error Types of Word Problem Solving Strategy (초등학생들의 문제해결전략에 따른 오류 유형 분석)

  • Kim, Young A;Kim, Sung Joon
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.113-139
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to provide informations about cause of failures when students solve word problems by analyzing what errors students made in solving word problems and types of error and features of error according to problem solving strategy. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: First, $5^{th}$ grade students preferred the expressions, estimate and verify, finding rules in order when solving word problems. But the majority of students couldn't use simplifying. Second, the types of error encountered according to the problem solving strategy on problem based learning are as follows; In the case of 'expression', the most common error when using expression was the error of question understanding. The second most common was the error of concept principle, followed by the error of solving procedure. In 'estimate and verify' strategy, there was a low proportion of errors and students understood estimate and verify well. When students use 'drawing diagram', they made errors because they misunderstood the problems, made mistakes in calculations and in transforming key-words of data into expressions. In 'making table' strategy, there were a lot of errors in question understanding because students misunderstood the relationship between information. Finally, we suggest that problem solving ability can be developed through an analysis of error types according to the problem strategy and a correct teaching about these error types.

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문제해결을 통한 수학적 일반성의 발견

  • Kim, Yong-Dae
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.15
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2003
  • 수학 학습의 목표를 수학적 사고력의 신장이라는 측면에서 보았을 때 이를 위하여 문제에 대한 다양한 해법을 찾는 활동은 중요하다. 문제에 대한 다양한 접근은 문제해결의 전략을 학습시키고 사고의 유연성을 길러줄 수 있는 방법이 된다. 문제에 대한 다양한 해법을 찾는 과정에서 이미 알고 있는 지식이 어떻게 응용되는지를 알게 된다. 특히 기하 문제에 대한 다양한 접근은 문제해결의 전략을 학습시킬 수 있는 좋은 예가 된다. 본고에서는 문제해결을 통한 수학적 일반성을 발견하기 위한 방법으로서 문제에 대한 다양한 해법을 연역과 귀납에 의하여 일반화하는 과정을 탐색하고자 한다. 특히 수학 문제에 대한 다양한 해법을 찾는 것은 문제해결 전략으로서 뿐만 아니라 창의적 사고의 신장 측면에서 시사점을 던져준다.

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Examining teachers' noticing competency on students' problem-solving strategies: Focusing on errors in fraction addition and subtraction with uncommon denominators problems (학생의 문제해결전략에 대한 교사의 노티싱 역량 분석: 이분모 분수의 덧셈과 뺄셈에서 나타난 오류를 중심으로)

  • Son, Taekwon;Hwang, Sunghwan
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.229-247
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    • 2021
  • Students' mathematical thinking is represented via various forms of outcomes, such as written response and verbal expression, and teachers could infer and respond to their mathematical thinking by using them. This study analyzed 39 elementary teachers' competency to notice students' problem-solving strategies containing mathematical errors in fraction addition and subtraction with uncommon denominators problems. Participants were provided three types of students' problem-solving strategies with regard to fraction addition and subtraction problems and asked to identify and interpret students' mathematical understanding and errors represented in their artifacts. Moreover, participants were asked to design additional questions and problems to correct students' mathematical errors. The findings revealed that first, teachers' noticing competency was the highest on identifying, followed by interpreting and responding. Second, responding could be categorized according to the teachers' intentions and the types of problem, and it tended to focus on certain types of responding. For example, in giving questions responding type, checking the hypothesized error took the largest proportion, followed by checking the student's prior knowledge. Moreover, in posing problems responding type, posing problems related to student's prior knowledge with simple computation took the largest proportion. Based on these findings, we suggested implications for the teacher noticing research on students' artifacts.

Development and Application of a Smart Learning System based on Problem-solving Strategies for Children with Learning Disabilities (학습장애학생을 위한 문제해결기반 스마트러닝 시스템의 개발 및 적용)

  • Jang, Han;Jun, Woochun
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.463-470
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this thesis is to develop and implement a smart learning system based on problem-solving strategy for children with learning disabilities. The proposed system is developed to increase general study ability and problem-solving ability of children with learning disabilities. The proposed system has the following characteristics. First, the general study ability and problem-solving ability can be increased by adopting problem-solving strategy. Second, both smart application and SNS can be used in the proposed system. Third, study self-efficacy can be increased by adopting step-by-step learning. The following results are obtained after applying the proposed system to some children with learning disabilities. First, their general study ability is increased. Second, their problem-solving ability is increased. Third, confidence in self-efficacy, sense of accomplishment, and self-confidence in study are improved. In additions, utilization ability in information and information equipment is also increased.

Creation and Elaboration of Problem Space Depending on Students' Attitudes toward the Task and Thinking Skills (학생의 과제에 대한 태도와 사고력에 따른 문제공간의 형성과 정교화)

  • Kim, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2009
  • Inquiry has been emphasized in science classrooms, but the problems shown in the inquiry are somewhat different with ones that students usually meet and experience in everyday life. The purpose of this study is to investigate how attitudes toward the task and thinking skills affect students' problem solving process, especially, the way of creating a problem space and elaborating problem solving strategies when they have little schema. The difference in students' problem solving strategies of Lego Robotics class, one of the summer programs for $4^{th}-6^{th}$ grade gifted students, which is new to them, was investigated. The results are as follows: (1) The difference in attitudes toward the task, or selection and identification of the missions, and the perception of operators, affected creating a different problem space. (2) Different level of thinking skills, or analytical and flexible thinking, efficient elaborative skill, and application of schema affected a different level of elaboration of the problem space and resulted in asuccess rate of problem solving. (3) Different initial problem space resulted in different problem solving strategies. But without thinking skills, students could not elaborate problem solving strategies efficiently. Several instructional recommendations to promote scientific inquiry were suggested based on the results.

An Analysis on Contents Related to Problem Solving in the 7th Elementary Mathematics Curriculum and Instructional Materials (문제해결과 관련된 제7차 초등학교 수학과 교육과정 및 교과용 도서 분석)

  • Pang, Jeong-Suk;Kim, Sang-Hwa
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.341-364
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    • 2006
  • This paper analyzed contents related to problem solving in the 7th elementary mathematics curriculum in conjunction with main changes in the next curriculum under discussion. This paper then provided detailed analyses of textbooks and workbooks in terms of principal contents, problem solving strategies, content areas, and problem types in order to look closely at how such instructional materials would put the vision of the curriculum into action. It is expected that many issues and suggestions stemming from the analyses will serve basic information to develop next curriculum and its concomitant instructional materials in a way to fostering students' problem solving ability.

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