• Title, Summary, Keyword: 반수치사농도

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ON THE EXTERMINATION OF POLYCLADS -Calcium hypochlorite($CaOCl_2$) treatment in the period of high water temperature- (납작벌레의 구제에 관하여 -고수온기에 있어서의 표백분($CaOCl_2$) 처리-)

  • YANG Han-Choon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.121-125
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    • 1974
  • Polyclads (Stylochus ijimai and Pseudostylochus obscurus) which damage oyster were treated with calcium hypochlorite to determine the TLm concentration. In this experiment the TLm and the extermination density as well as the growth of the oyster after the treatment were checked with following results: The higher the temperature and the longer the period of the treatment is, the lower the TLm is. The greater the concentration of sea water is, the higher TLm is because of the weakened action of calcium hypochlorite. When the oyster is treated by calcium hypochlorite at the oyster farm, its extermination concentration is 2.4-7.1 times higher than that of TLm in fresh water. The growth rate was not affected after the treatment.

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Biological Control of Cotton Caterpillar, Palpita indica Saunder (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with Entomopathogenic Nematodes (곤충병원성 선충을 이용한 목화바둑명나방(Palpita indica Saunder)의 생물적방제)

  • 김형환;추호렬;박정규;이상명;추영무
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2001
  • Entomopathogenic nematodes were effective in the control of the cotton caterpillar, Palpita indica Saunder. P. indica mortality was significantly different depending on nematode species, treatment concentration, and instar. S. carpocapsae Pocheon strain was more effective against P. indica than S. glaseri Dongrae strain, S. longicaudum Nonsan strain, Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan isolate, and H. bacteriophora Hamyang strain. When S. carpocapsae was treated with the rate of > 20 infective juveniles (ijs)/larva, mortality was ca. 100% at the 1st-4th instars of P. indica in 72h. $LC_{50}$ of entomopathogenic nematodes were significantly different depending on nematode species. The lowest $LC_{ 50}$ value was obtained by S. carpocapsae with 4.9-8.2 ijs in the 1st-prepupa while the highest $LC_{50}$ by Heterorhabditis sp. with 5.5-21.9 ijs, the shortest LT$_{50}$ value of P. indica was induced by S. carpocapsae when 20 ijs/larva were inoculated. The $LT_{50}$ s were 3.4-9.2h against the 1st-prepupa. The mortality of P. indica in fields was significantly different depending on field condition, nematode concentration, and leaf location. Mortality of P. indica by S. carpocapsae was higher at greenhouse,$ 3$\times$10^{9}$ ijs/ha and upper leaves than at field, 1$\times$10$^{9}$ ijs/ha and lower and middle leaves, respectively.

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점곤쟁이, Neomysis awatschensis에 대한 수종 중금속의 96시간-반수치사농도와 난부화율과의 관계

  • Jin, Pyung;Lee, Jung-A;Kim, Kyung-Sun;Kim, Jae-Won;Lee, Jung-Sik;Kim, Heung-Yoon;Lee, Bok-Kyu;Shin, Yoon-Kyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.224-225
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    • 2002
  • 환경오염원의 단기독성 생물검정 시험 결과로부터 중장기적인 생리적 저해영향을 파악하는 것은 검정해야 할 중요한 과제의 하나다. 효율성 때문에 단기독성시험을 위주로 하지만, 재생산에 관련되는 중ㆍ장기적 피해를 예측하는 것은 지난한 일이다. Tabata(1979)는 수산생물에 대한 각종 수질오염물질의 반수치사농도와 난부화에 미치는 장기영향한계농도와의 관계를 개관하여 단기와 장기간에 0.1∼0.001의 적용계수를 제시한바 있다. (중략)

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개량송사리, Oryzias latipes에 대한 수종 중금속의 96시간-반수치사농도와 난부화율과의 관계

  • Jin, Pyung;Lee, Jung-A;Kim, Kyung-Sun;Kim, Jae-Won;Lee, Jung-Sik;Kim, Heung-Yoon;Lee, Bok-Kyu;Shin, Yoon-Kyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.226-227
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    • 2002
  • 환경오염원의 단기독성 생물검정 시험 결과로부터 중장기적인 생리적 저해영향을 파악하는 것은 검정해야 할 중요한 과제의 하나다. 효율성 때문에 단기독성시험을 위주로 하지만, 재생산에 관련되는 중ㆍ장기적 피해를 예측하는 것은 지난한 일이다. Tabata(1979)는 수산생물에 대한 각종 수질오염물질의 반수치사농도와 장기영향한계농도와의 관계를 개관하여 단기와 장기간에 0.1∼0.001의 적용계수를 제시한바 있다. (중략)

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개량송사리, Oryzias latipes에 대한 수종 중금속의 96시간-반수치사농도와 성장률과의 관계

  • Jin, Pyung;Lee, Jung-A;Kim, Kyung-Sun;Kang, Ju-Chan;Lee, Jung-Yeol;Park, Ki-Young;Kim, Heung-Yoon;Shin, Yoon-Kyung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.230-231
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    • 2002
  • 환경오염원의 단기독성 생물검정 시험 결과로부터 중장기적인 생리적 저해영향을 파악하는 것은 검정해야 할 중요한 과제의 하나다. 효율성 때문에 단기독성시험을 위주로 하지만, 생산량에 관련되는 중ㆍ장기적 피해를 예측하는 것은 매우 어려운 문제다. Tabata(1997)는 수산생물에 대한 각종 수질오염물질의 반수치사농도와 성장에 미치는 장기영향한계농도와의 관계를 개관하여 단기와 장기간에 0.1∼0.001의 적용계수를 제시하였다. (중략)

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Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Phenol to Mysid, Archaeomysis kokuboi (곤쟁이, Archaeomysis kokuboi에 미치는 phenol의 급성 및 만성독성)

  • KIM Jeong-Seon;CHIN Pyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 1995
  • Acute and chronic toxicity of phenol on the mortality, long-term survival and respiration rates of the mysid, Archaeomysis kokuboi adult and juvenile were examined. This experiment was condurted by static bioassay procedure with the different salinity at $25^{\circ}C$ In lethal test, the test animals were exposed to 6 different phenol concentrations to determine $LC_{50}$ and I$LT_{50}$ (median lethal concentration and time) values. The $LC_{50}$ values with the exposure time for the mysid adult ranged from 31.31ppm to 1.49ppm phenol and for the mysid juvenile ranged from 6.90ppm to 0.26ppm in all experimental groups. Mortality was increased with the decrease of salinity, The $96hr-LC_{50}$ values at 16, 24 and $32\%o$ salinity for the mysid adult were 1.49, 2.71 and 4.53ppm phenol, white the values for the mysid juvenile were 0.26, 0.56 and 0.71ppm, respectively. The ratios of $96hr-LC_{50}$ values for the mysid adult to those for the mysid juvenile at 16, 24 and $32\%p$ salinity were 5.73, 4.84 and 6.38, respectively. The mysid juveniles were more sensitive to phenol than the mysid adults. Compared $LT_{50}$ values for the mysid adult with those for the mysid juvenile, the $LT_{50}$ values for the mysid adult ranged from 384.7 to 29.0 hours at 1.7-127ppm phenol concentrations and for the mysid juvenile ranged from 132.2 to 18.7 hours at 0.5~6.Oppm phenol concentrations. The lowest $LT_{50}$ values for the mysid adult and juvenile were showed at the combination of the highest experimental concentration of phenol and the lowest experimental salinity. The mysid juveniles showed lower $LT_{50}$ values than those of adults. The chronic effects of phenol on the mysid at the sublethal effective concentration of phenol were lower in the $32\%o$ salinitr group than 16 or $24\%o$ salinity groups. Oxygen consumption rates of the mysid adult were decreased with the increase of phenol concentration and exposure time, and decreased significantly in lower salinity at the same concentration or phenol.

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Toxicological Analysis of the Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, and the Symbiotic Bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophilus on Beneficial Insects and Mammals (유용곤충과 포유류에 대한 곤충병원선충(Steinernema carpocapsae)과 공생세균(Xenorhabdus nematophilus)의 독성)

  • Park, Young-Jin;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Jin;Yang, Kyung-Hyung;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 2001
  • Toxicological studies of two potential biological control agents, the entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae) and the symbiotic bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophilus) were conducted against two beneficial insects and one mammal species. Two microbial agents varied in their toxicities between two insect species: an ant, Pristomyrmex pungens, and silkworm, Bombyx mori. In oral toxicity test, the symbiotic bacteria resulted in significant lethal [half lethal concentration of $1.4$\times$10^3$colony-forming units (cfu)/ml] on the ants, while they gave little lethal effect (half lethal concentration of more than $10^{8}$ cfu/ml) on the silkworms. The nematodes, however, gave significant lethal effect [half lethal concentration of 4 infected juveniles (IJs)/ml] on the silkworms, while they did little lethal effect (half lethal concentration of 150,000 IJs/ml) on the ants in topical assays. Both the nematodes and the bacteria did not give lethal effect to the albino rats, Rattus norvegicus, when they were fed orally into the rats. Also, any of these microbial agents were not detected in the internal organs of the treated rats.

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Insecticide Susceptibility in the Different Larva of Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litural Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Collected in the Soybean Fields of Milyang, Korea (밀양산 콩포장 담배거세미나방 유충의 약제에 대한 감수성)

  • 배순도;최병렬;송유한;김현주
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2003
  • The susceptibility of the different larval stages of Spodoptera litura to nine insecticides was evaluated using the perilla leaf-dipping method. Median lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) was increased with larval development in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5.6 ppm, 9.9 ppm to 27.9 ppm, 9.6 ppm to 125.1 ppm and 24.3 ppm to 546.6 ppm in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar, respectively. The tolerance ratio (TR), which is the TR of 90 percent lethal concentration (LC/ sub 90/) to the recommended concentration, was 0.04 to 0.8 in the 1 st, 0.2 to 7.5 in the 2nd, 0.7 to 115.3 in the 3rd and 1.2 to 485.4 in the 4th instars. Lower D$LC_{50}$ and DTR, which is the difference between the $LC_{50}$ and the TR of 4th and other instars, respectively, were observed in chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos and EPN while higher ones were lufenuron, chlorfluazuron and teflubenzuron. These results mean that insecticides with lower D$LC_{50}$ and DTR are effective in controlling larva of S. litura collected in Milyang, Korea.

Studies on the Insecticide Resistance of the German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) II. Resistant Developments and Cross resistance (바퀴(Blattella germanica L.)의 살충제 저항성에 관한 연구. 2. 저항성 발현 및 교차저항성)

  • 방종렬;이형래;김정화
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 1993
  • The German cockroach (Blattella germanical L.) populations were successively selected with chlorpyrifos and permethrin for xis generations. The resulting resistant strains, $R_{chlorpyrifos}$(Rc) and $R_{permethrin}$(Rp) were observed resistant development and the cross-resistance. The result indicated that the values of $LC_{50}$ were increased 3.32 and 2.10 times from the susceptible strain, respectively. In the Rc strains, the values of the $LC_{50}$ of fenvalerate, propoxur, permethrin were to 3.89, 2.97, and 1.31 times higher than that of the suseptible, respectively. In the Rp strains, the values of the $LC_{50}$ of fenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and propoxur showed 5.23, 1.42, and 1.80 times cross-resistance.

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Death Rate and Bioaccumulation on the Early Development of Mitten Crab by Treatment of Cadmium and Mercury (카드뮴과 수은 폭로시 참게(mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis) 유생의 사망률과 생물농축)

  • Lee Bok-Kyu;Huh Man Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was studied to obtain basic environmental effects and biological information on the early growth of larval mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Mitten crabs were maintained for each larval stage with solutions containing 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 ppm of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The relationship between survival rate of mitten crabs and metal content in the growth chamber showed a positive correlations. However, it showed a significant difference in the 96 $hr- LC^{50}$ values of Cd and Hg for the E. sinensis larvae from the first zoea larva to juvenile. Hg was more toxic to E. sinensis larval than Cd. When Cd and Hg are released into the water, they enter E. sinensis larval and are biological magnified. These results of survival rate and bioaccumulation are very important when considering the survival of the mitten crab.