• Title, Summary, Keyword: 변형률 속도

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Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Sn-40Bi-X Alloys (Sn-40Bi-X 합금의 기계적 물성과 미세조직 분석)

  • Lee, Jong-Hyun;Kim, Ju-Hyung;Hyun, Chang-Yong
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.79-79
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    • 2010
  • 저온용 무연 솔더의 대표 조성으로 고려되고 있는 Sn-58Bi(융점: $138^{\circ}C$) 공정(eutectic) 조성은 우수한 강도에도 불구하고 연성(ductility) 측면에서의 문제점이 지속적으로 보고되고 있다. 따라서 이 합금계의 연성을 최대로 개선시킬 수 있으면서도 실제 상용화가 가능한 합금 조성의 개발 연구가 요청된다. 본 연구에서는 Sn-Bi 2원계 조성에서 최대의 연성을 나타내는 것으로 보고된 Sn-40Bi 조성에 미량의 합금원소를 첨가함으로써 최대의 연성을 확보하는 한편, 그 연성 특성이 변형속도에 어느 정도 민감한지를 인장 실험을 통해 결정하고자 하였다. 합금원소로는 0.1~0.5 wt%의 Ag, Mn, In, Cu를 선택하였으며, 인장 시편을 제조하여 $10^{-2}$, $10^{-3}$, $10^{-4}\;s^{-1}$의 3종류로 변형속도를 변형시켜가며 응력-변형 곡선(stress-strain curve)을 측정하였고, 조성별, 변형속도별로 최대인장강도(ultimate tensile stress, UTS) 및 연신율 결과들을 정리하였다. 합금원소를 첨가한 조성의 경우는 모든 시험 조건에서 Sn-40Bi보다 우수한 연신률을 나타내는 것으로 측정되었으나, $10^{-2}\;s^{-1}$의 빠른 변형속도에서는 그 향상 정도가 상대적으로 감소하는 경향이 관찰되었다. 특히 Sn-40Bi-0.5Ag 조성의 경우 느린 변형속도에서 특히 눈에 띄는 연신률 값을 나타내며, 모든 변형속도 조건에서 가장 우수한 연성을 나타내었다. 한편 Sn-40Bi-0.1Cu 조성의 경우 변형속도에 따른 연신률의 변화 정도, 즉, 변형속도에 따른 연신률의 민감도가 매우 커 $10^{-4}\;s^{-1}$ 속도에서는 Sn-40Bi-0.5Ag에 버금가는 연신률 값이 측정되었으나, $10^{-2}\;s^{-1}$ 속도에서는 가장 나쁜 연신률 특성을 보여주었다. Sn-40Bi-0.2Mn 조성은 최고의 연신률 향상 특성을 나타내지는 않았으나, In을 첨가한 경우보다는 대체적으로 우수한 연성을 나타내었다. 이상의 각 합금별 연성 특성은 인장시험 전의 미세조직 관찰 결과와 인장시험 후 파면부의 조직변화 관찰 결과로부터 해석되었다. 그 결과 석출상의 형성 여부, 인장 시험 중 재결정 조직의 형성 여부, 라멜라(lamellar) 조직의 분율과 라멜라 간격(lamellar spacing)의 정도 또는 $\beta$-Sn과 라멜라 조직 사이의 결정립계와 라멜라 조직 내 결정립계에서의 슬라이딩 모드(sliding mode) 변형 정도, 석출상의 크기와 분포 정도 등이 연신률 및 변형속도 민감도와 같은 연성 특성에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 인자인 것으로 분석되었다.

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Acquisition and Verification of Dynamic Compression Properties for SHPB of Woven Type CFRP (Woven Type CFRP의 SHPB에 대한 동적 압축 물성 획득 및 검증)

  • Park, Ki-hwan;Kim, Yeon-bok;Kim, Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 2020
  • Dynamic compressive material properties at high strain rates is essential for improving the reliability of finite element analysis in dynamic environments, such as high-speed collisions and high-speed forming. In general, the dynamic compressive material properties for high strain rates can be obtained through SHPB equipment. In this study, SHPB equipment was used to acquire the dynamic compressive material properties to cope with the collision analysis of Woven tpye CFRP material, which is being recently applied to unmanned aerial vehicles. It is also used as a pulse shaper to secure a constant strain rate for materials with elastic-brittle properties and to improve the reliability of experimental data. In the case of CFRP material, since the anisotropic material has different mechanical properties for each direction, experiments were carried out by fabricating thickness and in-plane specimens. As a result of the SHPB test, in-plane specimens had difficulty in securing data reproducibility and reliability due to fracture of the specimens before reaching a constant strain rate region, whereas in the thickness specimens, the stress consistency of the specimens was excellent. The data reliability is high and a constant strain rate range can be obtained. Through finite element analysis using LS-dyna, it was confirmed that the data measured from the pressure rod were excessively predicted by the deformation of the specimen and the pressure rod.

Study on the Consolidation Characteristics of Marine Clay by CRS and Conventional Tests (일정변헝률 및 표준압밀시험을 이용한 해성점토의 압밀특성 연구)

  • Lee, U-Jin;Im, Hyeong-Deok;Lee, Won-Je
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 1998
  • A series of conventional tests and CRS consolidation tests with different rates of strain were performed to investigate the consolidation characteristics of marine clay. Preconsolidation pressures were evaluated by applying previously proposed methods for both the conventional tests and CRS tests results in order to check the legitimacy of those methods. The effects of strain rate on effective consolidation stress strain relationship, porewater pressure, and preconsolidation pressure were also discussed It was found that the effective stress strain relationship and the preconsolidation pressure are a function of strain rate imposed during consolidation test, but compression index isn't. The preconsolidation pressure ratio ($a_2=\sigma'_{pCRS}/\sigma'_{pConv}$)of marine clay appears proportional to the logarithm of strain rate, with average values ranging from 1.11 to 1.30 for strain rates between $1\timesx10^{-4} %/sec\; and\; 4\times10 %/sec$. The porewater pressure ratio during CRS teats does not exceed 6.0% except when the strain rate is $6.67\times10^{-4} %/sec$. Coefficient of consolidation or coefficient of permeability at normally consolidated range was not affected by the type of consolidation tests and the strain rate. Typical values of compression index (C.), coefficient of consolidation(c.), and coefficient of permeability (k.) at normally consolidated range were 0.56-0.95, $0.56\times10^{-4}~3.0\times10^{-4}cm2/sec,\; and\; 2.0\times10^{-8}~7.0\time10^{-4}cm/sec,$ respectively.

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Dynamic tensile behavior of PMMA (PMMA의 동적 인장 거동)

  • Lee, Ouk-Sub;Kim, Myun-Soo;Hwang, Si-Won
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.395-400
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    • 2001
  • The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar(SHPB) technique, a special experimental apparatus, has been used to obtain the material behavior under high strain rate loading condition. In this paper, dynamic deformation behaviors of the PMMA under high strain rate tensile loading are determined using SHPB technique.

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Application of the EPU Constitutive Equation to expanded Polypropylene under Dynamic Loading (동하중을 받는 발포 폴리프로필렌에 대한 EPU 구성 방정식 적용)

  • Jeong, Kwang Young;Kim, Byeong-Jun;Cheon, Seong S.
    • Composites Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2014
  • A constitutive equation, which was suggested for describing the compressive deformation behaviour of the expanded polyurethane, was applied to the expanded polypropylene under dynamic loading. This equation consists of seven parameters, five of which are obtained by fitting the stress strain curve obtained from the quasi-static compression test at the lowest base strain rate. The remaining two parameters are able to be determined by fitting the curve from the compression test at different two stage strain rates. In order to check the eligibility of the equation at high strain rate, the impact test was performed and the results were compared to the analytical constitutive equation results for the expanded polypropylene with expansion ratios of 30 and 40 times, respectively.

Determination of Dynamic Tensile Behavior of Al5052-H32 using SHPB Technique (SHPB 테크닉을 이용한 Al5052-H32의 동적 인장 거동 규명)

  • 이억섭;김면수;백준호
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.790-794
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    • 1997
  • Mechanical properties of the materials used for transportations and industrial machinery under high strain rate loading conditions such as seismic loading are required to provide appropriate safety assessment to those mechanical structures. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar(SHPB) technique with a special experimental behavior under high strain rate loading condition In this paper, dynamic deformation behaviors of A15052-H32 under high strain rate tensile loading are determined using the SHPB technique.

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Investigation of Tensile Strain Rate Effects on Composite Material for Aircraft Structural Survivability Assessment (항공기 구조생존성 평가를 위한 복합재의 변형률 속도 영향성 분석)

  • Seo, Bo-hwi
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2018
  • Hydrodynamic ram phenomenon could be generated by external threats such as impact and blast in the aircraft. High strain rate deformation caused by the hydrodynamic ram phenomenon is one of the main factors to influence structural survivability. Mechanical properties of composite structure change rapidly under conditions of high strain rate. Therefore, it is necessary to experimentally investigate the influence of strain rates for aircraft structural survivability. In this paper, tensile tests of composite material were conducted for low and high strain rates to investigate the influence of the various strain rates. Tensile modulus increases more compared to tensile strength at high strain rate under hydrodynamic ram condition. Regression analysis was conducted to predict tensile modulus at various strain rates because it is one of the main damaging factors for composite structures under high strain rate conditions. Also, the mechanical properties of composite materials were acquired and analyzed under high strain rate conditions. It is hypothesized that the results from this study would be used for designing aircraft composite structures and evaluation considering structural survivability.

Reliability Assessment of Impact Tensile Testing Apparatus using a Drop-bar Striker for Intermediate Strain-rate Range and Evaluation of Dynamic Deformation Behaviors for a Carbon Steel (중간 변형률속도용 낙추식 충격 인장시험 장치의 신뢰성 확보 및 탄소강의 동적변형거동 평가)

  • Bae, Kyung Oh;Kim, Dae Woong;Shin, Hyung Seop;Park, Lee Ju;Kim, Hyung Won
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 2016
  • Studies on the deformation behavior of materials subjected to impact loads have been carried out in various fields of engineering and industry. The deformation and fracture of members for these machines/structures are known to correspond to the intermediate strain-rate region. Therefore, for the structural design, it is necessary to consider the dynamic deformation behavior in these intermediate strain-rate ranges. However, there have been few reports with useful data about the deformation and fracture behavior at intermediate strain-rate ranges. Because the intermediate strain-rate region is located between quasi-static and high strain-rate regions, it is difficult to obtain the intermediate strain-rate using conventional reasonable test equipment. To solve this problem, in this study, the measurement reliability of the constructed drop-bar impact tensile test apparatus was established and the dynamic behavior at the intermediate strain-rate range of carbon steels was evaluated by utilizing the apparatus.

Evaluation of Dynamic Deformation Behaviors in Metallic Materials under High Strain-Rates Using Taylor Bar Impact Test (Taylor 봉 충격시험을 통한 고 변형률속도하 금속재료의 동적변형거동 평가)

  • Bae, Kyung Oh;Shin, Hyung Seop
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.791-799
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    • 2016
  • To ensure the reliability and safety of various mechanical systems in accordance with their high-speed usage, it is necessary to evaluate the dynamic deformation behavior of structural materials under impact load. However, it is not easy to understand the dynamic deformation behavior of the structural materials using experimental methods in the high strain-rate range exceeding $10^4\;s^{-1}$. In this study, the Taylor bar impact test was conducted to investigate the dynamic deformation behavior of metallic materials in the high strain-rate region, using a high-speed photography system. Numerical analysis of the Taylor bar impact test was performed using AUTODYN S/W. The results of the analysis were compared with the experimental results, and the material behavior in the high strain-rate region was discussed.

Study on the Strain-Rate Effect using Elastoplastic-Viscoplastic Constitutive Model. (점탄소성 구성모델을 이용한 변형을 속도의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ki-Sun;Kim, Dae-Kyu;Lee, Woo-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.327-334
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    • 2000
  • 응력-변형률 관계의 모델링에 있어서 creep, stress relaxation, strain rate effect 등의 묘사는 중요한 지반거동중의 하나인 시간 의존적 거동의 simulation은 있어서 대단히 중요한 요소라 할 수 있다. 특히 지반은 변형률 속도에 대하여 때로는 매우 다른 거동 특성을 보이기 때문에 지반의 모델링에 있어서 변형율 속도를 고려한 구성방정식의 제시는 큰 비중을 차지한다 하겠다. 본 연구에서는 변형율에 따라 변화하는 지반의 거동특성을 보다 현실에 가깝게 묘사하기 위한 구성모델을 제시하였다. 이를 위하여 Bounding Surface Model의 점탄소성 부분을 Perzyna(1966)와 Adachi and Oka(1982)의 구성방정식 이론을 이용하여 발전시켰다. 제안된 구성모델은 기존의 모델에 비하여 다양한 변형율 속도에 적용할 수 있는 모델 정수를 비교적 간단히 결정할 수 있다는 장점이 있으며, 변형율 속도의 영향뿐 아니라 creep, stress relaxation등의 현상도 잘 simulation 할 수 있다. 본 모델은 후에 엄격히 실시되는 실내시험을 통하여 검증될 예정이다.

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