• Title, Summary, Keyword: 변형률 속도

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Modelling of Principal Stress Rotation in Ko Consolidated Clay (Ko-압밀점토지반속 주응력회전 현상의 모형화)

  • Hong, Won-Pyo;Kim, Tae-Hyeong;Lee, Jae-Ho
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 1997
  • The isotropic single-hardening constitutive model has been applied to predict the behavior of soils during reorientation of principal stresses in the field. The predicted response by the model agrees well with the measured behavior for a series of torsion shear tests performed on hollow cylinder specimens of Ko consoildated clay along various stress -paths. This indicates that the soil behavior during reorientation of principal stresses can be predicted by using the model with application of simple informations given by isotropic compression tests and conventional consolidated-undxained triaxial compression tests. Isotropic elasto-plastic soil behavior has been served during primary loading from both the torsion shear tests and the predictions by the model. However, the directions of maj or principal strain increment given by the model have not coincided with the directions for tests during stress reversal, such as unloading and reloading, within isotropic yield surface for Ko consolidated stress. This indicates that kinematic hardening model instead of isotropic hardening model should be developed to predict the soil behavior during stress reversal. The experimental strain increment vectors in the work-space have been compared with the directions expected for associated and nonassociated flow rules.

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An Analysis of the Settlement Behavior of Soft Clayey Ground Considering the Effect of Creep during the Primary Consolidation (1차압밀과정중의 크리프의 영향을 고려한 연약 점성토지반의 침하거동 해석)

  • Baek, Won-Jin;Matsuda, Hiroshi;Choi, Woo-Jung;Kim, Chan-Kee;Song, Byung-Gwan
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2008
  • This paper is performed to examine the effect of creep during the primary consolidation and the applicability of the Yin's EVP (Elasto-Visco-Plastic) model. In ordinary consolidation theories using the elastic model, the primary consolidation process can be expressed but the secondary consolidation process cannot. It is due to the viscosity, which can express the secondary consolidation, and is sometimes related to the scale effect (difference of the thickness of clay layer between laboratory sample and field condition) such as hypotheses Type A and Type B shown by Ladd et al. (1977). Usually, the existence of the creep during the primary consolidation has been conformed and the Type B is well acceped. On the other hand, from the large-scaled consolidation tests the intermediate characteristic between Type A and Type B was proposed as Type C by Aboshi (1973). In this study, to clarify the effect of creep on the settlement-time relation during the primary consolidation in detail, Type B consolidation tests were performed using the separate-type consolidation test apparatus for a peat and clay. Then the test results were analyzed by using Yin's EVP Model (Yin and Graham, 1994). In conclusion, followings were obtained. At the end of primary consolidation, the compression for the subspecimens should not be the same because of the difference of the excess pore water pressure dissipation rate. And the average settlement measured by the separate-type consolidometer coincides with the analyzed one using the Yin's EVP model. As for the dissipation of the excess pore water pressure, however, the measured excess pore water pressure dissipates faster compared with the Yin's model.

Effect of Water on the Lightweight Air-Mixed Soil Containing Silt Used for Road Embankment (도로성토체로 사용된 실트질 계열의 경랑기포혼합토에 대한 물의 영향)

  • Hwang, Joong-Ho;Ahn, Young-Kyun;Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2010
  • This study was especially conducted to find out the characteristics of the lightweight air-mixed soil (slurry density 10 kN/$m^3$) containing silt related to water. Compression strength, permeability, and capillary height of the lightweight air-mixed soil were studied, and also to support these studies, the structure of that soil was analyzed in detail. Air bubbles of various sizes are inside the lightweight air-mixed soil, and its distribution in a location is almost constant. A numerous tiny pores are inside the air bubbles so that the lightweight air-mixed soil can be saturated with water. Porosity is also estimated through the image analysis. Peak strength of the lightweight air-mixed soil is not dependent on water, but behavior of stress-strain is affected by the water. Permeability is about $4.857{\times}10^{-6}cm/sec$, which is a little bit higher than the clay's permeability. Capillary rise occurs rapidly at the beginning of the test until the lapse of 100 minutes and then its increase rate becomes slow. The capillary rise causes the increase of the density of the lightweight air-mixed soil, and thus it is required to pay attention to this phenomenon during structure design and maintenance of the lightweight air-mixed soil.

A license plate area segmentation algorithm using statistical processing on color and edge information (색상과 에지에 대한 통계 처리를 이용한 번호판 영역 분할 알고리즘)

  • Seok Jung-Chul;Kim Ku-Jin;Baek Nak-Hoon
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.13B no.4
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 2006
  • This paper presents a robust algorithm for segmenting a vehicle license plate area from a road image. We consider the features of license plates in three aspects : 1) edges due to the characters in the plate, 2) colors in the plate, and 3) geometric properties of the plate. In the preprocessing step, we compute the thresholds based on each feature to decide whether a pixel is inside a plate or not. A statistical approach is applied to the sample images to compute the thresholds. For a given road image, our algorithm binarizes it by using the thresholds. Then, we select three candidate regions to be a plate by searching the binary image with a moving window. The plate area is selected among the candidates with simple heuristics. This algorithm robustly detects the plate against the transformation or the difference of color intensity of the plate in the input image. Moreover, the preprocessing step requires only a small number of sample images for the statistical processing. The experimental results show that the algorithm has 97.8% of successful segmentation of the plate from 228 input images. Our prototype implementation shows average processing time of 0.676 seconds per image for a set of $1280{\times}960$ images, executed on a 3GHz Pentium4 PC with 512M byte memory.

Behaviour of Reinforced Earth Wall with Steel Framed-Facing based on Field Test (현장시험을 이용한 강재틀 보강토옹벽의 안정성 평가)

  • Lee, Kwang-Wu;Cho, Sam-Deok;Han, Jung-Geun;Hong, Ki-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2011
  • This paper describes the stability evaluation of reinforced earth wall with steel framed-facing based on field test. The reinforced earth wall with steel framed-facing is composed of wall facing, reinforcement and backfill soil. The wall facing is assembled by steel frames and the aggregates are filled in that. The reinforcement is steel strip type based on bearing resistance. Field test is conducted to evaluate for two separate sections and the measurement is conducted according to construction elapsed time of structure for earth pressure, horizontal displacement of wall facing and reinforcement strain. The evaluation results show that the measured earth pressure is less than theoretical earth pressure due to dispersion effect of earth pressure by the applied reinforcement. Also, the horizontal displacement of wall facing satisfied a empirical criteria and the measured strain of reinforcement had nearly no effect on stability of structure. Therefore, the reinforced earth wall with steel framed-facing has a structural stability and it can be commonly used in field.

A Study of Strength Reduction Factor Preparation for Circular Concrete Columns confined by Carbon Sheet Tube (카본시트튜브로 구속된 원형 콘크리트 기둥의 강도감소계수 제안에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.106-112
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    • 2016
  • In this study, circular concrete column specimens confined by carbon sheet tube with different winding angles and different number of carbon sheet plies(3T, 5T and 7T) were tested to propose design equations and a strength reduction factor. Specimens were designed by 300 mm diameter and 600 mm height with $90^{\circ}{\pm}0^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}{\pm}30^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}{\pm}45^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}{\pm}60^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}{\pm}75^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}{\pm}90^{\circ}$ carbon fiber angles. A 10,000 kN UTM was used for compressive strength test of specimens by displacement control method with 0.01 mm/sec velocity. Estimation equations of compressive strength and ultimate strain of circular concrete column specimens confined by carbon sheet tube using a regression analysis and a strength reduction factor to apply ultimate strength design method of concrete were proposed. The strength reduction factor(${\phi}$) of circular concrete columns confined by carbon sheet tube was estimated as 0.64 by the Monte Carlo Analysis Method. Manufacture and construction process have to be perfectly managed by construction managers because the structural capacities of carbon tubes were depends on construction abilities of manufacturing operators.

Behavior Analysis of Concrete Structure under Blast Loading : (I) Experiment Procedures (폭발하중을 받는 콘크리트 구조물의 실험적 거동분석 : (I) 실험수행절차)

  • Yi, Na Hyun;Kim, Sung Bae;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay;Choi, Jong Kwon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.5A
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    • pp.557-564
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    • 2009
  • In recent years, there have been numerous explosion-related accidents due to military and terrorist activities. Such incidents caused not only damages to structures but also human casualties, especially in urban areas. To protect structures and save human lives against explosion accidents, better understanding of the explosion effect on structures is needed. In an explosion, the blast overpressure is applied to concrete structures as an impulsive load of extremely short duration with very high pressure and heat. Generally, concrete is known to have a relatively high blast resistance compared to other construction materials. However, information and test results related to the blast experiment of internal and external have been limited due to military and national security reasons. Therefore, in this paper, to evaluate blast effect on reinforced have concrete structure and its protective performance, blast tests are carried out with $1.0m{\times}1.0m{\times}150mm$ reinforce concrete slab structure at the Agency for Defence Development. The standoff blast distance is 1.5 m and the preliminary tests consists with TNT 9 lbs and TNT 35 lbs and the main tests used ANFO 35 lbs. It is the first ever blast experiment for nonmilitary purposes domestically. In this paper, based on the basic experiment procedure and measurement details for acquiring structural behavior data, the blast experimental measurement system and procedure are established details. The procedure of blast experiments are based on the established measurement system which consists of sensor, signal conditioner, DAQ system, software. It can be used as basic research references for related research areas, which include protective design and effective behavior measurements of structure under blast loading.

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Clinical Use and Complications of Percutaneous Central Venous Catheterization in Very Low Birth Weight Infants (극소 저출생 체중아에서 경피 중심정맥 도관의 유용성과 합병증)

  • Kim, Hyang;Kim, Sun Hui;Byun, Hyung Suck;Choi, Young Youn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.9
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    • pp.953-959
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The administration of total parenteral nutrition(TPN) has become a standard procedure in the management of nutritionally deprived and critically low birth weight neonates. Sepsis remains the most frequent serious complication during TPN, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and complications of percutaneous central venous catheterization(PCVC) in very low birth weight infants. Methods : A total of 56 very low birth weight infants below 1,500 g during the period from January 1998 to December 2003 were enrolled and their medical records reviewed. Study group(n=32) included the babies who had undergone PCVC and a control group(n=24) included babies who had not undergone PCVC. We compared the study group with the control group for factors such as subject characteristics and catheter-related complications. Results : There was no difference in subject characteristics, such as birth weight, gestational week, respiratory distress syndrome, duration of ventilator therapy, duration from tube to complete oral feeding, days at TPN and its total duration, body weight at discontinuation of TPN and the days taken to reach to 2,000 g. However, the morbidity rate due to patent ductus arterious, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, osteopenia, cholestasis, and sepsis showed no difference. The study group with infants below 1,000 g showed a higher incidence of sepsis compared to the control group of the same weight group. The study group with infants between 1,000 to 1,500 g showed significantly higher incidences of intraventricular hemorrhage and took longer reach the a body weight of 2,000 g. Conclusion : Considering the high incidence of sepsis in the PCVC group, every attempt should be made to minimize the length of TPN therapy and encourage early enteral feeding. We also recommend the use of PCVC carefully in patients requiring prolonged nutritional support.

A Dynamic Behavior Evaluation of the Curved Rail according to Lateral Spring Stiffness of Track System (궤도시스템의 횡탄성에 따른 곡선부 레일의 동적거동평가)

  • Kim, Bag-Jin;Choi, Jung-Youl;Chun, Dae-Sung;Eom, Mac;Kang, Yun-Suk;Park, Yong-Gul
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.517-528
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    • 2007
  • Domestic or international existing researches regarding rail damage factors are focused on laying, vehicle conditions, driving speed and driving habits and overlook characteristics of track structure (elasticity, maintenance etc). Also in ballast track, as there is no special lateral spring stiffness of track also called as ballast lateral resistance in concrete track, generally, existing study shows concrete track has 2 time shorter life cycle for rail replacement than ballast track due to abrasion. As a result of domestic concrete track design and operation performance review, concrete track elasticity is lower than track elasticity of ballast track resulting higher damage on rail and tracks. Generally, concrete track has advantage in track elasticity adjustment than ballast track and in case of Europe, in concrete track design, it is recommended to have same or higher performance range of vertical elastic stiffness of ballast track but domestically or internationally review on lateral spring stiffness of track is very minimal. Therefore, through analysis of service line track on site measurement and analysis on performance of maintenance, in this research, dynamic characteristic behaviors of commonly used ballast and concrete track are studied to infer elasticity of service line track and experimentally prove effects of track lateral spring stiffness that influence curved rail damage as well as correlation between track elasticity by track system and rail damage to propose importance of appropriate elastic stiffness level for concrete and ballast track.

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