• Title, Summary, Keyword: 복합재료

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Isotopic Determination of Food Sources of Benthic Invertebrates in Two Different Macroalgal Habitats in the Korean Coasts (동위원소 분석에 의한 동해와 남해 연안의 상이한 해조류 군락에 서식하는 저서무척추동물 먹이원 평가)

  • Kang, Chang-Keun;Choy, Eun-Jung;Song, Haeng-Seop;Park, Hyun-Je;Soe, In-Soo;Jo, Q-Tae;Lee, Kun-Seop
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.380-389
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    • 2007
  • Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were analyzed in suspended particulate organic matter, macroalgae and macrobenthic invertebrates in order to determine the importance of primary organic matter sources in supporting food webs of rocky subtidal and intertidal macroalgal beds in the Korean coasts. Investigations were conducted at the inter tidal sites within Gwangyang bay, a semi-enclosed and eutrophicated bay, and the subtidal sites of the east coast, a relatively oligotrophic and open environment, in May and June 2005. Water-column suspension feeders showed more negative $\delta^{13}C$ values than those of the other feeding guilds, indicating trophic linkage with phytoplankton and thereby association with pelagic food chains. In contrast, animals of the other feeding guilds, including interface suspension feeders, herbivores, deposit feeders, omnivores and predators, displayed relatively less negative $\delta^{13}C$ values than those of the water-column suspension feeders and similar with that of macroalgae, indicating exclusive use of macroalgae-derived organic matter and association with benthic food chains. Most the macrobenthic species were considered to form strong trophic links with benthic food chains. In addition, the distribution of higher $\delta^{15}N$ values in macrobenthic consumers and macroalgae at the intertidal sites of Gwangyang Bay than those at the subtidal sites of the east coast suggests that anthropogenic nutrients may enhance the macroalgal production at the intertidal sites and in turn be incorporated into the particular littoral food web in Gwangyag Bay. These results confirm the dominant role of macroalgae in supporting rocky subtidal and intertidal food webs in the Korean coasts.

EVALUATING THE RELIABILITY AND REPEATABILITY OF THE DIGITAL COLOR ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR DENTISTRY (치과용 디지털 색상 분석용 기기의 정확성과 재현 능력에 대한 평가)

  • Jeong, Joong-Jae;Park, Su-Jung;Cho, Hyun-Gu;Hwang, Yun-Chan;Oh, Won-Mann;Hwang, In-Nam
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.352-368
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    • 2008
  • This study was done to evaluate the reliability of the digital color analysis system (ShadeScan, CYNOVAD, Montreal. Canada) for dentistry. Sixteen tooth models were made by injecting the A2 shade chemical cured resin for temporary crown into the impression acquired from 16 adults. Surfaces of the model teeth were polished with resin polishing cloth. The window of the ShadeScan handpiece was placed on the labial surface of tooth and tooth images were captured, and each tooth shade was analyzed with the ShadeScan software. Captured images were selected in groups, and compared one another. Two models were selected to evaluate repeatability of ShadeScan, and shade analysis was performed 10 times for each tooth. And, to ascertain the color difference of same shade code analyzed by ShadeScan, CIE $L^*a^*b^*$values of shade guide of Gradia Direct (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were measured on the white and black background using the Spectrolino (GretagMacbeth, USA), and Shade map of each shade guide was captured using the ShadeScan. There were no teeth that were analyzed as A2 shade and unique shade. And shade mapping analyses of the same tooth revealed similar shade and distribution except incisal third. Color difference (${\Delta}E^*$) among the Shade map which analyzed as same shade by ShadeScan were above 3. Within the limits of this study, digital color analysis instrument for dentistry has relatively high repeatability, but has controversial in accuracy.

Geographic Distribution of Periphyton Diatom Species: A Case Study of Achnanthes convergens in Nakdong River Basin (낙동강 수계 청수성 부착조류의 공간분포 특성에 관한 연구: Achnanthes convergens 를 사례로)

  • Jo, Myung-Hee;Byun, Myeung-Sub;Sim, Jun-Seok;Jang, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.175-194
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    • 2014
  • This study attempts to identify the spatial distributions of Achnanthes convergens, and elucidate the environmental factors that affect the Periphyton diatom habitat. Data in 250 points of Nakdong river basin are collected between April(primary) and September(secondary) 2012, with the National Institute of Environmental Research's support. We define "clean area" over 10% of Achnanthes convergens appearance, and the others as "non-clean areas". Spatial statistics of Kriging, Hotspot, LISA are used in this study. Results show that 1) 56 points are identified as clean areas in the primary survey, while 41 points are discovered in the following survey; 2) using water quality variables, density of turbidity(clean $101.83{\mu}s/cm$; non-clean $598.48{\mu}s/cm$) and conductivity(clean 1.95 NTU; nonclear 5.58 NTU) are five-fold lower in clean-areas; 3) Habitat and Riparian Factors in Nakdong basin illustrate that natural sand bar, diversity of velocity, sediment condition, levee material, riverside land affect Achnanthes convergens; 4) Hotspots of Achnanthes convergens are located in watersheds, including upper Andong Dam, upper Imha dam, Wi-cheon, Miryang river, Nam river and Hwang river whereas mainstream/downstream of Nakdong river and Keumho river watershed are shown as coldspots.

Study on Oxidation and Coercivity of Nd2Fe14B Compound Crystal (Nd2Fe14B 화합물 결정의 산화 및 보자력에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, H.W.;Yu, J.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.85-90
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    • 2012
  • Oxidation of the $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ compound crystal and its effect on the coercivity of the fine $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ crystal particles were investigated. Oxidation kinetics of the $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ compound crystal was investigated using an excessively grown $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ grains in the $Nd_{15}Fe_{77}B_8$ alloy ingot. Oxidation of the $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ compound crystal occurred by dissociation of the phase into multi-phase mixture of ${\alpha}$-Fe, $Fe_3B$, and Nd oxides. Oxidation rate of the $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ compound crystal showed no dependence on the crystallographic direction. The oxidation reaction was modeled according to simple linear relationship. Activation energy for the oxidation of $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ compound crystal was calculated to be approximately 26.8 kJ/mol. Fine $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ crystal particles in near single domain size was prepared by ball milling of the HDDR-treated $Nd_{15}Fe_{77}B_8$ alloy, and these particles were used for investigating the effect of oxidation on the coercvity. The near single domain size $Nd_2Fe_{14}B$ crystal particles (${\fallingdotseq}0.3\;{\mu}m$) had high coercivity over 9 kOe. However, the coercivity was radically reduced as the temperature increased in air (<2 kOe at $200^{\circ}C$). This radical coercivity reduction was attributed to the soft magnetic phases, ${\alpha}$-Fe and $Fe_3B$, which were formed on the surface of the fine particles due to the oxidation.

Establishment of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line Expressing Dual Reporter Genes: Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) (나트륨 옥소 공동수송체 유전자와 녹색 형광 유전자의 이중 리포터 유전자를 발현하는 간암세포주 확립)

  • Kwak, Won-Jung;Koo, Bon-Chul;Kwon, Mo-Sun;Lee, Yong-Jin;Lee, Hwa-Young;Yoo, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Te-Oan;Chun, Kwon-Soo;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Lee, Sang-Woo;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Lee, Jae-Tae
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Dual reporter gene imaging has several advantages for more sophisticated molecular imaging studies such as gene therapy monitoring. Herein, we have constructed hepatoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and the functionalities of the genes were evaluated in vivo by nuclear and optical imaging. Materials and Methods: A pRetro-PN vector was constructed after separating NIS gene from pcDNA-NIS. RSV-EGFP-WPRE fragment separated from pLNRGW was cloned into pRetro-PN vector. The final vector expressing dual reporter genes was named pRetro-PNRGW. A human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected by the retrovirus containing NIS and EGFP gene (HepG2-NE). Expression of NIS gene was confirmed by RT-PCR, radioiodine uptake and efflux studies. Expression of EGFP was confirmed by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscope. The HepG2 and HepG2-NE cells were implanted in shoulder and hindlimb of nude mice, then fluorescence image, gamma camera image and I-124 microPET image were undertaken. Results: The HepG2-NE cell was successfully constructed. RT-PCR showed NIS and EGFP mRNA expression. About 50% of cells showed fluorescence. The iodine uptake of NIS-expressed cells was about 9 times higher than control. In efflux study, $T_{1/2}$ of HepG2-NE cells was 9 min. HepG2-NE xenograft showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots and higher iodine-uptake compared to those of HepG2 xenograft. Conclusion: A hepatoma cell line expressing NIS and EGFP dual reporter genes was successfully constructed and could be used as a potential either by therapeutic gene or imaging reporter gene.

Breeding status and nest site characteristics of Black-faced Spoonbills Platalea minor on Chilsando Islands, Korea (칠산도의 저어새 번식 현황과 둥지장소 특성)

  • Kwon, In-Ki;Kang, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Sup;Lee, Ji-Yeon;Kim, In-Kyu;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.703-709
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    • 2015
  • A breeding pair of the Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor was firstly recorded on Chilsando Islands, Younggwang, Jeollanamdo Province in 1991. Since the mid 2000s, breeding population on the breeding sites has gradually increased. This study was conducted to identify breeding status and nest site characteristics of the species from May to August, 2013 on Chilsando Islands. We recorded number of nests, length and width of the nest base, slope around the nests, nest materials, distances from the nearest nest, presence of nest cover and nesting area. In 2013 breeding season, 25 of 49 nests produced at least one successful fledging. A total of 55 youngs were successfully fledged and number of fledging per nest was 2.20 individuals. Nesting area was $77.8m^2$ and $93.4m^2$ for Sansando and Yuksando Islet, respectively. Soil and soil mixed with tree root were preferred for substrate of nest base over rock and Brassica napus was dominantly selected as nest materials by Black-faced Spoonbills. Nest characteristics of 22 nests in Sasando and Yuksando Islet varied $49.59{\pm}6.53cm$(mean${\pm}$SD) for length of nest base, $41.00{\pm}5.82cm$ for width of nest base, $20.85{\pm}9.96^{\circ}$ for slope above the nest, $34.09{\pm}17.75^{\circ}$ for slope below the nest and $130.82{\pm}84.17cm$ for distances from the nearest nest. Fifteen pairs (68.2%) occupied where nest cover existed. Nest cover were located in front of the nest for 5 pairs, back of the nest for 9 pairs and both front and back of the nest for 1 pair.

Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Enzymatic and Methanolic Extracts from Ecklonia cava Stem and Leave (감태(Ecklonia cava) 줄기 및 잎의 효소적 추출물과 메탄올 추출물에 의한 항산화 활성비교)

  • Lee, Seung-Hong;Kim, Kil-Nam;Cha, Seon-Heui;Ahn, Gin-Nae;Jeon, You-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.1139-1145
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    • 2006
  • In this study, antioxidant activities of enzymatic and methanolic extracts from E. cava stem and leave were evaluated by measuring the scavenging activities on 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and the inhibitory effects on DNA damage induced by oxidative stress of cells. Enzymatic extracts were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of both stem and leave using food grade five different carbohydrases (Viscozyme, Celluclast, AMG, Termamyl, Ultraflo) and five proteases (Protamex, Kojizyme, Neutrase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase). The enzymatic extracts were lower than methanolic extracts in polyphenol contents, but higher in extraction yield by approximately 30%. The enzymatic extracts were superior to methanolic extracts in DPPH and H2O2 scavenging activities and DNA damage protective effect. There were no significant antioxidant activity difference between stem and leave, but the extracts of leave were relatively better than those of stem. In this study it is suggested that E. cava stem as well as its leave would be a good raw materials for antioxidants compound extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis would be a good strategy to prepare antioxidant extracts from seaweeds.

Sintering Properties of Renewed ${Al_2}{O_3}$Ceramics with Particle Size and Addition Amount of Recycling Powder (재활용원료의 첨가량과 입경에 따른 재생 ${Al_2}{O_3}$ 세라믹스의 소결 특성)

  • 신대용;한상목;김경남
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.38 no.12
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    • pp.1123-1131
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    • 2001
  • The sintering behaviors of the renewed $Al_2$O$_3$ceramics were investigated as functions of the addition amount and particle size of recycling $Al_2$O$_3$powder, such as crushed powder of structural $Al_2$O$_3$ceramics and waste $Al_2$O$_3$adsorbent, were investigated. Pure $Al_2$O$_3$sample was fabricated by sintered at 1,$650^{\circ}C$ for 5h and it was crushed into powder (-40${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$and +40${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in particle size) by thermal shock treatment and crushing. Then, 10~50wt% of crushed $Al_2$O$_3$powder and waste $Al_2$O$_3$adsorbent were mixed with pure $Al_2$O$_3$powder and were subjected to re-sintering to renewed $Al_2$O$_3$sample. The density and the 3-point bending strength increased with increasing the sintering temperature without regard to the addition amount and particle size of recycling $Al_2$O$_3$powder, and that of the samples at the same sintering temperature decreased with increasing the addition amount and particle size of recycling $Al_2$O$_3$powder. Samples over 200 Mpa of 3-point bending strength were obtained by mixing ~30wt% of crushed $Al_2$O$_3$powder(-40${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$), ~20wt% of crushed $Al_2$O$_3$powder (+40${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and 10wt% of waste $Al_2$O$_3$adsorbent. 5~20wt% of waste glass powder containing renewed $Al_2$O$_3$samples for densification were fabricated by sintered at 1200~1$650^{\circ}C$ for 5h. The temperature of maximum density and 3-point bending strength decreased with increasing the addition amount of waste glass powder, however, these samples at above 140$0^{\circ}C$ showed lower density and bending strength than renewed $Al_2$O$_3$samples. The addition of waste glass powder did not improved the densification of renewed $Al_2$O$_3$sample.

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Effect of Freezing and Thawing Methods on Duck Meat Characteristics (냉동과 해동 방법이 오리고기의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Kim, Ji-Hyuk;Kim, Sang-Ho;Kang, Bo-Seok;Kim, Chong-Dae;Cha, Jae-Beom;Hong, Eui-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 2016
  • This work was carried out to investigate effects of the freezing/thawing method on duck meat kept in a freezer for a month. The meats used were breast muscle collected from Korean native ducks (KND) that were fed for 8 weeks (2.8 kg of live weight). Forty-five samples were used after being frozen in storage for one month and were then divided into 5 treatments (3 replications/treatment, 3 samples/replication). Five treatments (CON, FFFT, FFST, SFFT and SFST) were control groups (CON) and four were experimental groups, using $2{\times}2$ complex factors with two freezing methods (fast freezing, FF, $-50^{\circ}C$ in a deep freezer; slow freezing, SF, $-20^{\circ}C$ in a common freezer) and two thawing methods (fast thawing, FT, 5 h $12^{\circ}C$ with flow water; slow thawing, ST, 24 h $5^{\circ}C$ in a refrigerator). Lightness of KND meat in FF and FT groups was lower than that of control (P<0.05). Yellowness of KND meat of the ST group was higher than that of control (P<0.05). Cooking loss (CL) and water holding capacity (WHC) of KND meat in the control were lower than those of the freezing and thawing groups (P<0.01, P<0.05), but shear force (SF) of the control was higher than that of other groups (P<0.01). Moisture content of the ST group was higher than that of the FT group (P<0.05), and protein content of the FF group was higher than that of control (P<0.05). Stearic acid (C18:0) of the SF group was higher than that of the FF group (P<0.05). Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) of control was higher than that of the SF and ST groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). Alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and tyrosine content of the control were lower than that of the freezing and thawing groups (P<0.05). These results show that freezing and thawing methods affect meat color, shear force, cooking loss, and WHC-related water content.

An Investigation of Treatment Effects of Limestone and Steel Refining Slag for Stabilization of Arsenic and Heavy Metal in the Farmland Soils nearby Abandoned Metal Mine (폐금속 광산 주변 비소 및 중금속 오염농경지의 안정화 처리를 위한 석회석과 제강슬래그의 처리효과 검토)

  • Yun, Sung-Wook;Kang, Sin-Il;Jin, Hae-Geun;Kim, Ha-Jin;Lim, Young-Cheol;Yi, Ji-Min;Yu, Chan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.734-744
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    • 2011
  • A soil stabilization method is an effective and practical remediation alternative for arsenic (As) and heavy metal contaminated farmland soils nearby abandoned metal mine in Korea. This method is a technique whereby amendments are incorporated and mixed with a contaminated soil. Toxic metal bind to the amendments, which reduce their mobility in soil, so the successful stabilization of multi-element contaminated soil depends on the combination of critical elements in the soil and the type of amendments. The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects and applicability of limestone (LS) and steel refining slag (SRS) as the amendment for farmland soil contaminated with As and heavy metals, and a lab-column test was conducted for achieving this purpose. The result showed that soil treated with LS and SRS maintained pH buffer capacity and, as a result, the heavy metal leaching concentration was quite low below the water quality standard compared to untreated soil which leachate exceeding the water quality standard was observed, however, the arsenic concentration rather increased with increasing mixture ratio of SRS. This was believed to be related to phosphorus (P) contained in SRS, and dominancy in the competitive adsorption relation between As and P binding strongly to iron might be different according to soil characteristic. We suggested that LS is a effective amendment for reducing heavy metals in soil, and SRS should be used after investigating its applicability based on the adsorption selectivity of arsenic and phosphorus in selected soil.