• Title, Summary, Keyword: 비선형 거동

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Numerical Experiments of Dynamic Wave Pressure Acting on the Immersed Tunnel on Seabed Foundation (해저지반 상부에 설치된 침매터널에 작용하는 동수압에 관한 수치실험)

  • Hur Dong Soo;Kim Chang Hoon;Yeom Gyeong Seon;Kim Do Sam
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.294-306
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    • 2005
  • Most immersed tunnels investigated have been investigated based on the engineer's experience with design and construction. From engineering point of view, it is very important to understand the wave interaction with the seabed and immersed tunnel, since the stability of an immersed tunnel depends largely on the behavior of the seabed foundation. In this study, for the first stage research to find out the mechanism of the wave interaction with the seabed and immersed tunnel, the benchmarking method called as direct numerical simulation (DNS) was employed to analyze comprehensively the wave-induced pore water pressures, vorticity and flows in seabed or inside rubble stone around the immersed tunnel. The immersed tunnel is modeled based on Busan-Geoje fixed link project in Korea, which is now on the stage of planning. Moreover, the nonlinear water wave interaction with an immersed tunnel/its seabed foundation was thoroughly examined with regard to the stabilities of the immersed tunnel subjected to various water wave conditions, median grain size and so forth.

Development of Stochastic Decision Model for Estimation of Optimal In-depth Inspection Period of Harbor Structures (항만 구조물의 최적 정밀점검 시기 추정을 위한 추계학적 결정모형의 개발)

  • Lee, Cheol-Eung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2016
  • An expected-discounted cost model based on RRP(Renewal Reward Process), referred to as a stochastic decision model, has been developed to estimate the optimal period of in-depth inspection which is one of critical issues in the life-cycle maintenance management of harbor structures such as rubble-mound breakwaters. A mathematical model, which is a function of the probability distribution of the service-life, has been formulated by simultaneously adopting PIM(Periodic Inspection and Maintenance) and CBIM(Condition-Based Inspection and Maintenance) policies so as to resolve limitations of other models, also all the costs in the model associated with monitoring and repair have been discounted with time. From both an analytical solution derived in this paper under the condition in which a failure rate function is a constant and the sensitivity analyses for the variety of different distribution functions and conditions, it has been confirmed that the present solution is more versatile than the existing solution suggested in a very simplified setting. Additionally, even in that case which the probability distribution of the service-life is estimated through the stochastic process, the present model is of course also well suited to interpret the nonlinearity of deterioration process. In particular, a MCS(Monte-Carlo Simulation)-based sample path method has been used to evaluate the parameters of a damage intensity function in stochastic process. Finally, the present stochastic decision model can satisfactorily be applied to armor units of rubble mound breakwaters. The optimal periods of in-depth inspection of rubble-mound breakwaters can be determined by minimizing the expected total cost rate with respect to the behavioral feature of damage process, the level of serviceability limit, and the consequence of that structure.

Exploring Delays of The Mega Construction Project: The Case of Korea High Speed Railway (대형 건설사업의 공기지연분석: 경부고속철도 건설사업을 중심으로)

  • Han, Seung Heon;Yun, Sung Min;Lee, Sang Hyun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.5D
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    • pp.839-848
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    • 2006
  • Korea has become the 5th country to own and operate the high speed railroad in 2004. However, there were many difficulties until Koreans enjoy the first bullet train service with the average hourly speed of 300km. The high speed railroad requires elevated quality standards differently from the traditional railways. In addition to the technical difficulties, the construction project itself was an unpleasant case with huge delays and cost overruns mainly due to the lack of experiences, deficiency of owner$^{\circ}{\O}$s role, and increase of public resistances triggered by environmental concerns. This paper analyzes the reasons for delays on this mega-project. With respect to the characteristics of the whole project level, it is very complicated/linear project, whose total length is around 412 km with the composition of various sections in the route of the railway which have basically different conditions. For that reason, the analysis is performed in both macro and micro level. First, macroscopic analysis is performed to find critical subdivisions in the railway route that induces the significant delay in the opening due date. Then, microscopic analysis is followed to quantify the causes and effects of delays focused on these critical subdivisions in more detailed way. Finally, this paper provides lessons learned from this project to avoid the decisive delays in performing the similar large-scaled projects.

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Optimal Active-Control & Development of Optimization Algorithm for Reduction of Drag in Flow Problems(1) - Development of Optimization Algorithm and Techniques for Large-Scale and Highly Nonlinear Flow Problem (드래그 감소를 위한 유체의 최적 엑티브 제어 및 최적화 알고리즘의 개발(1) - 대용량, 비선헝 유체의 최적화를 위한 알고리즘 및 테크닉의 개발)

  • Bark, Jai-Hyeong
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.661-669
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    • 2007
  • Eyer since the Prandtl's experiment in 1934 and X-21 airjet test in 1950 both attempting to reduce drag, it was found that controlling the velocities of surface for extremely fast-moving object in the air through suction or injection was highly effective and active method. To obtain the right amount of suction or injection, however, repetitive trial-and error parameter test has been still used up to now. This study started from an attempt to decide optimal amount of suction and injection of incompressible Navier-Stokes by employing optimization techniques. However, optimization with traditional methods are very limited, especially when Reynolds number gets high and many unexpected variables emerges. In earlier study, we have proposed an algorithm to solve this problem by using step by step method in analysis and introducing SQP method in optimization. In this study, we propose more effective and robust algorithm and techniques in solving flow optimization problem.

Numerical Analysis of Nuclear-Power Plant Subjected to an Aircraft Impact using Parallel Processor (병렬프로세서를 이용한 원전 격납건물의 항공기 충돌해석)

  • Song, Yoo-Seob;Shin, Sang-Shup;Jung, Dong-Ho;Park, Tae-Hyo
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.715-722
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, the behavior of nuclear-power plant subjected to an aircraft impact is performed using the parallel analysis. In the erstwhile study of an aircraft impact to the nuclear-power plant, it has been used that the impact load is applied at the local area by using the impact load-time history function of Riera, and the target structures have been restricted to the simple RC(Reinforced Concrete) walls or RC buildings. However, in this paper, the analysis of an aircraft impact is performed by using a real aircraft model similar to the Boeing 767 and a fictitious nuclear-power plant similar to the real structure, and an aircraft model is verified by comparing the generated history of the aircraft crash against the rigid target with another history by using the Riera's function which is allowable in the impact evaluation guide, NEI07-13(2009). Also, in general, it is required too much time for the hypervelocity impact analysis due to the contact problems between two or more adjacent physical bodies and the high nonlinearity causing dynamic large deformation, so there is a limitation with a single CPU alone to deal with these problems effectively. Therefore, in this paper, Message-Passing MIMD type of parallel analysis is performed by using self-constructed Linux-Cluster system to improve the computational efficiency, and in order to evaluate the parallel performance, the four cases of analysis, i.e. plain concrete, reinforced concrete, reinforced concrete with bonded containment liner plate, steel-plate concrete structure, are performed and discussed.

Application of a Numerical Model for the Prediction of Vertical Profiles of Electron Acceptors Based on Degradation of Organic Matter in Benthic Sediments (퇴적 유기물 분해과정에 따른 물질 거동 변화 예측을 위한 수치모델 적용)

  • Choi, Jung-Hyun;Park, Seok-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2005
  • A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate vertical profiles of electron acceptors and their reduced species in benthic sediments. The model accounted for microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent chemical reactions of interest using stoichiometric relationships. Depending on the dominant electron acceptors utilized by microorganisms, the benthic sediments were assumed to be vertically subdivided into six zones: (1) aerobic respiration, (2) denitrification, (3) manganese reduction, (4) iron reduction, (5) sulfate reduction, and (6) methanogenesis. The utilizations of electron acceptors in the biologically mediated oxidation of organic matter were represented by Monod-type expression. The mass balance equations formulated for the reactive transport of organic matter, electron acceptors, and their corresponding reduced species in the sediments were solved utilizing an iterative multistep numerical method. The ability of model to simulate a freshwater sediments system was tested by comparing simulation results against published data obtained from lake sediments. The simulation results reasonably agreed with field measurements for most species, except for ammonia. This result showed that the C/N ratio (106/16) in the sediments is lower than what the Redfield formula prescribes. Since accurate estimates of vertical profiles of electron acceptors and their reduced species are important to determine the mobility and bioavailability of trace metals in the sediments, the model has potential application to assess the stability of selected trace metals in the sediments.

Determination of Adsorption Isotherms of Hydrogen at an Ir Electrode Interface Using the Phase-Shift Method and Correlation Constants (Ir 전극 계면에서 위상이동 방법 및 상관계수를 이용한 수소의 흡착동온식 결정)

  • Jeon, Sang-K.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2007
  • The phase-shift method and correlation constants for studying a linear relationship between the behavior ($-{\varphi}\;vs.\;E$) of the phase shift ($0^{\circ}{\leq}-{\varphi}{\leq}90^{\circ}$) for the optimum intermediate frequency and that (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) of the fractional surface coverage ($1{\geq}\theta{\geq}0$) have been proposed and verified to determine the Langmuir, Frumkin, and Temkin adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) at noble metal/aqueous electrolyte interfaces. At an Ir/0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte interface, the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$), equilibrium constants ($K=3.3{\times}10^{-4}\;mol^{-1}$ for the Langmuir and $K=3.3{\times}10^{-3}{\exp}(-4.6{\theta})\;mol^{-1}$ for the Temkin adsorption isotherm), interaction parameter (g = 4.6 for the Temkin adsorption isotherm), and standard free energies (${\Delta}G_{ads}^0=19.9kJ\;mol^{-1}\;for\;K=3.3{\times}10^{-4}\;mol^{-1}$ and $16.5<{\Delta}G_{\theta}^0<23.3\;kJ\;mol^{-1}\;for\;K=3.3{\times}10^{-3}{\exp}(-4.6{\theta})\;mol^{-1}\;and\;0.2<\theta<0.8$) of H for the cathodic $H_2$ evolution reaction are determined using the phase-shift method and correlation constants. The inhomogeneous and lateral interaction effects on the adsorption of H are negligible. At the intermediate values of ${\theta},\;i.e,\;0.2<{\theta}<0.8$, the Temkin adsorption isotherm (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) correlating with the Langmuir or the Frumkin adsorption isotherm (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$), and vice versa, is readily determined using the correlation constants. The phase-shift method and correlation constants are accurate and reliable techniques to determine the adsorption isotherms (${\theta}\;vs.\;E$) and related electrode kinetic and thermodynamic parameters(K, g, ${\Delta}G_{ads}^0, {\Delta}G_{\theta}^0$).

A Review on Ultimate Lateral Capacity Prediction of Rigid Drilled Shafts Installed in Sand (사질토에 설치된 강성현장타설말뚝의 극한수평지지력 예측에 관한 재고)

  • Cho Nam Jun;Kulhawy F.H
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2005
  • An understanding of soil-structure interaction is the key to rational and economical design for laterally loaded drilled shafts. It is very difficult to formulate the ultimate lateral capacity into a general equation because of the inherent soil nonlincarity, nonhomogeneity, and complexity enhanced by the three dimensional and asymmetric nature of the problem though extensive research works on the behavior of deep foundations subjected to lateral loads have been conducted for several decades. This study reviews the four most well known methods (i.e., Reese, Broms, Hansen, and Davidson) among many design methods according to the specific site conditions, the drilled shaft geometric characteristics (D/B ratios), and the loading conditions. And the hyperbolic lateral capacities (H$_h$) interpreted by the hyperbolic transformation of the load-displacement curves obtained from model tests carried out as a part of this research have been compared with the ultimate lateral capacities (Hu) predicted by the four methods. The H$_u$ / H$_h$ ratios from Reese's and Hansen's methods are 0.966 and 1.015, respectively, which shows both the two methods yield results very close to the test results. Whereas the H$_u$ predicted by Davidson's method is larger than H$_h$ by about $30\%$, the C.0.V. of the predicted lateral capacities by Davidson is the smallest among the four. Broms' method, the simplest among the few methods, gives H$_u$ / H$_h$ : 0.896, which estimates the ultimate lateral capacity smaller than the others because some other resisting sources against lateral loading are neglected in this method. But it results in one of the most reliable methods with the smallest S.D. in predicting the ultimate lateral capacity. Conclusively, none of the four can be superior to the others in a sense of the accuracy of predicting the ultimate lateral capacity. Also, regardless of how sophisticated or complicated the calculating procedures are, the reliability in the lateral capacity predictions seems to be a different issue.

Evaluation of Field Applicability with Coal Mine Drainage Sludge as a Liner: Part II: Effect of Freezing/Thawing in CMDS Mixed Liner (차수재로의 광산슬러지 재활용 적용성 평가: Part II: 동결/융해에 의한 광산슬러지 혼합 차수재의 거동)

  • Lee, Jai-Young;Bae, Sun-Young;Park, Kyoung-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2011
  • Based on the results of Part 1 of our two-parts paper, the possibility on field applicability of CMDS(Coal Mine Drainage Sludge) mixed with bentonite and cement as a liner in landfill sites was investigated. The optimum moisture content that met the landfill liner condition was obtained when the ratio of CMDS: bentonite: cement was 1: 0.5: 0.3 in a lab-scale. The relative compaction was measured in 90.1%, which results for construction field have been generally acceptable. In this study, a large-scale Lysimeter($1.0m{\times}1.5m{\times}2.0m$) was used to simulate the effects of the layer on the freeze/thaw by -20 average temperature. The mixture after freezing/thawing showed compressive strength more than $5kg/cm^2$, which was satisfied with EPA standards. Initial permeability of CMDS was $7.10{\times}10^{-7}cm/s$ and permeability its mixture after freezing/thawing was increased to $9.80{\times}10^{-7}cm/s$. The change of temperature in the layers rises and falls with linear and temperature gradient keep maintain the present state. Moisture contents in the layers have not been radically changed. Through the leaching test determined by KSLT method, it was found that heavy metals excluding Zn and Ni were not leached out or leached out less than the standards during 7 cycles of freezing/thawing process. Since it shows the increased permeability about 1.5 times and slight change in moisture content, but it was satisfied with EPA standar through 7 cycles of freezing/thawing process, this mixture can be applied as a liner in landfill final cover system.

Failure Behavior and Separation Criterion for Strengthened Concrete Members with Steel Plates (강판과 콘크리트 접착계면의 파괴거동 및 박리특성)

  • 오병환;조재열;차수원
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.126-135
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    • 2002
  • Plate bonding technique has been widely used in strengthening of existing concrete structures, although it has often a serious problem of premature falure such as interface separation and rip-off. However, this premature failure problem has not been well explored yet especially in view of local failure mechanism around the interface of plate ends. The purpose of the present study is, therefore, to identify the local failure of strengthened plates and to derive a separation criterion at the interface of plates. To this end, a comprehensive experimental program has been set up. The double lap pull-out tests considering pure shear force and half beam tests considering combined flexure-shear force were performed. The main experimental parameters include plate thickness, adhesive thickness, and plate end arrangement. The strains along the longitudinal direction of steel plates have been measured and the shear stress were calculated from those measures strains. The effects of plate thickness, bonded length, and plate end treatment have been also clarified from the present test results. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been performed and compared with test results. The Interface properties are also modeled to present the separation failure behavior of strengthened members. The cracking patterns as well as maximum failure loads agree well with test data. The relation between maximum shear and normal stresses at the interface has been derived to propose a separation failure criterion of strengthened members. The present study allows more realistic analysis and design of externally strengthened flexural member with steel plates.