• Title, Summary, Keyword: 비선형 동적해석

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The Heterogeneity of Flow Distribution and Partition Coefficient in [15O-H2O] Myocardium Positron Emission Tomography ([15O-H2O] 심근 양전자 단층 촬영에서 혈류 분포의 비균일성과 분배계수)

  • Ahn, Ji Young;Lee, Dong Soo;Kim, Kyung Min;Jeong, Jae Min;Chung, June-Key;Shin, Seung-Ae;Lee, Myung Chul;Koh, Chang-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.32-49
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    • 1998
  • For estimation of regional myocardial blood flow with O-15 water PET, a few modifications considering partial volume effect based on single compartment model have been proposed. In this study, we attempted to quantify the degree of heterogeneity and to show the effect of tissue flow heterogeneity on partition coefficient(${\lambda}$) and to find the relation between perfusable tissue index(PTI) and ${\lambda}$ by computer simulation using two modified models. We simulated tissue curves for the regions with homogeneous and heterogeneous blood flow over a various flow range(0.2-4.0ml/g/min). Simulated heterogeneous tissue composed of 4 subregions of the same or different size of block which have different homogeneous flow and different degree of slope of distribution of blood flow. We measured the index representing heterogeneity of distribution of blood flow for each heterogeneous tissue by the constitution heterogeneity(CH). For model I, we assumed that tissue recovery coefficient ($F_{MME}$) was the product of partial volume effect($F_{MMF}$) and PTI. Using model I, PTI, flow, and $F_{MM}$ were estimated. For model II, we assumed that partition coefficient was another variable which could represent tissue characteristics of heterogeneity of flow distribution. Using model II, PTI, flow and ${\lambda}$ were estimated. For the simulated tissue with homogeneous flow, both models gave exactly the same estimates, of three parameters. For the simulated tissue with heterogeneous flow distribution, in model I, flow and $F_{MM}$ were correctly estimated as CH was increased moderately. In model II, flow and ${\lambda}$ were decreased curvi-linearly as CH was increased. The degree of underestimation of ${\lambda}$ obtained using model II, was correlated with CH. The degree of underestimation of flow was dependent on the degree of underestimation of ${\lambda}$. PTI was somewhat overestimated and did not change according to CH. We conclude that estimated ${\lambda}$ reflect the degree of tissue heterogeneity of flow distribution. We could use the degree of underestimation of ${\lambda}$ to find the characteristic heterogeneity of tissue flow and use ${\lambda}$ to recover the underestimated flow.

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Seismic Behavior and Estimation for Base Isolator Bearings with Self-centering and Reinforcing Systems (자동복원 및 보강 시스템과 결합된 면진받침의 지진거동과 평가)

  • Hu, Jong Wan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.1025-1037
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    • 2015
  • Flexible base isolation bearings that separate superstructure from ground have been widely used in the construction field because they make a significant contribution to increasing the fundamental period of the structure, thereby decreasing response acceleration transmitted into the superstructure. However, the established bearing devices installed to uphold the whole building give rise to some problems involved with failure and collapse due to lack of the capacity as modern structures are getting more massive and higher. Therefore, this study suggests new isolation bearings assembled with additional restrainers enabled to reinforcing and recentering, and then evaluates their performance to withstand the seismic load. The superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) bars are installed into the conventional lead-rubber bearing (LRB) devices in order to provide recentering forces. These new systems are modeled as component spring models for the purpose of conducting nonlinear dynamic analyses with near fault ground motion data. The LRB devices with steel bars are also designed and analyzed to compare their responses with those of new systems. After numerical analyses, ultimate strength, maximum displacement, permanent deformation, and recentering ratio are compared to each model with an aim to investigate which base isolation models are superior. It can be shown that LRB models with superelastic SMA bars are superior to other models compared to each other in terms of seismic resistance and recentering effect.

Optimum Design and Structural Application of the Bracing Damper System by Utilizing Friction Energy Dissipation and Self-Centering Capability (마찰 에너지 소산과 자동 복원력을 활용한 가새 댐퍼 시스템의 최적 설계와 구조적 활용)

  • Hu, Jong Wan;Park, Ji-Woong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.377-387
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    • 2014
  • This study mainly treats a new type of the bracing friction damper system, which is able to minimize structural damage under earthquake loads. The slotted bolt holes are placed on the shear faying surfaces with an intention to dissipate considerable amount of friction energy. The superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wire strands are installed crossly between two plates for the purpose of enhancing recentering force that are able to reduce permanent deformation occurring at the friction damper system. The smart recentering friction damper system proposed in this study can be expected to reduce repair cost as compared to the conventional damper system because the proposed system mitigates the inter-story drift of the entire frame structure. The response mechanism of the proposed damper system is firstly investigated in this study, and then numerical analyses are performed on the component spring models calibrated to the experimental results. Based on the numerical analysis results, the seismic performance of the recentering friction damper system with respect to recentering capability and energy dissipation are investigated before suggesting optimal design methodology. Finally, nonlinear dynamic analyses are conducted by using the frame models designed with the proposed damper systems so as to verify superior performance to the existing damper systems.

Static and Dynamic Analysis for Railway Tunnel according to Filling Materials for overbroken tunnel bottom (철도터널 하부 여굴처리 방법에 대한 정적 및 동적 안정성 검토)

  • Seo, Jae-Won;Cho, Kook-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.668-682
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    • 2017
  • Alignments of railways recently constructed in Korea have been straightened due to the advent of high-speed rail, which means increasing the numbers of tunnels and bridges. Overbreak during tunnel construction may be unavoidable, and is very influential on overall stability. Over-excavation in tunneling is also one of the most important factors in construction costs. Overbreak problems around crown areas have decreased with improvements of excavation methods, but overbreak problems around bottom areas have not decreased because those areas are not very influential on tunnel stability compared with crown areas. The filling costs of 10 cm thickness of overbreak at the bottom of a tunnel are covered under construction costs by Korea Railway Authority regulations, but filling costs for more than the covered thickness are considered losses of construction cost. The filling material for overbreak bottoms of tunnels should be concrete, but concrete and mixed granular materials with fractured rock are also used for some sites. Tunnels in which granular materials with fractured rock are used may have a discontinuous section under the concrete slab track. The discontinuous section influences the propagation of waves generated from train operation. When the bottom of a tunnel is filled with only concrete material, the bottom of the tunnel can be considered as a continuous section, in which the waves generated from a train may propagate without reflection waves. However, a discontinuous section filled with mixed granular materials may reflect waves, which can cause resonance of vibration. The filled materials and vibration propagation characteristics are studied in this research. Tunnel bottom filling materials that have ratios of granular material to concrete of 5.0 %, 11.5 %, and 18.0 % are investigated. Samples were made and tested to determine their material properties. Static numerical analyses were performed using the FEM program under train operation load; test results were found to satisfy the stability requirements. However, dynamic analysis results show that some mixed ratios may generate resonance vibration from train operation at certain speeds.

An Evaluation of Loss Factor of Damping Treatment Materials for Panels of Railway Vehicles (철도차량용 패널 감쇠처리재의 감쇠계수 평가)

  • Kang, Gil-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.489-496
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    • 2019
  • This paper is a study on the evaluation of loss factor of damping treatment materials to reduce the noise and vibration for panels of railway vehicles and automobiles. In order to determine the modal parameters of damping materials, beam excitation tests were carried out using different type PVC coated aluminum and steel base beam specimens. The specimens were excited from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz frequency range using sinusoidal force, and transfer mobility data were measured by using an accelerometer. The loss factors were determined by using integrated program, based on theories of Half Power Method, Minimum Tangent Error Method, Minimum Angle Error Method and Phase Change Method, which enable to evaluate the parameters using modal circle fit and least squares error method. In the case of lower loss factor and data of linear characteristics, any method could be applied for evaluation of parameters, however the case of higher loss factor or data including non-linear characteristics, the minimum angle error method could reduce the loss factor evaluation. The obtained dynamic properties of the coating material could be used for application of Finite Element Method analyzing the noise control effects of complex structures such as carbody or under-floor boxes of rolling stock. The damping material will be very useful to control the structural noise, because the obtained modal loss factors of each mode show very good effect on over $2^{nd}$ mode frequency range.

Magnitudes of the Harmonic Components Emitted from Utrasonic Contrast Agents in Response to a Diagnostic Utrasound: Theoretical Consideration (진단용 초음파에 의해 가진된 초음파 조영제에서 방사하는 하모닉 성분의 크기: 이론적 고찰)

  • Kang Gwan Suk;Yu Ji Chul;Paeng Dong Guk;Rhim Sung Min;Choi Min Joo
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.78-86
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    • 2005
  • This study considers the magnitude of the harmonic components radiated from the ultrasonic contrast agents (UCA) activated by a typical diagnostic ultrasound. The nonlinear dynamic response of UCA to a 2 MHz diagnostic ultrasound pulse was predicted using Gilmore Model. The elastic property of the shell membrane of the UCA was ignored in the numerical model. Simulation was carried out for the UCA varying from 1 - 9 $\mu$m in its initial radius and the driving diagnostic ultrasound whose mechanical index (MI) ranges from 0.125 to 8. The powers of the sub. ultra and second harmonics of the acoustic signal from the UCA activated were compared with that of the fundamental component. The results show that. if the UCA is bigger than its resonant size (2 $\mu$m in radius for the present case) the sub harmonic power was much bigger than the fundamental. In particular, the 2nd harmonic component currently used as an imaging parameter for the harmonic imaging, was predicted to be lower in power than both the sub and the ultra harmonic component. This study indicates that, for obtaining harmonic imaging with UCA, the sub or ultra harmonics could be taken as imaging parameters better than the 2nd harmonic component.

Development and Assessment for Resilient Modulus Prediction Model of Railroad Trackbeds Based on Modulus Reduction Curve (탄성계수 감소곡선에 근거한 철도노반의 회복탄성계수 모델 개발 및 평가)

  • Park, Chul Soo;Hwang, Seon Keun;Choi, Chan Yong;Mok, Young Jin
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.2C
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2009
  • This study is to develope the resilient modulus prediction model, which is the function of mean effective principal stress and axial strain, for three types of railroad trackbed materials such as crushed stone, weathered granite soil, and crushed-rock soil mixture. The model consists of the maximum Young's modulus and nonlinear values for higher strain, analogous to dynamic shear modulus. The maximum value is modeled by model parameters, $A_E$ and the power of mean effective principal stress, $n_E$. The nonlinear portion is represented by modified hyperbolic model, with the model parameters of reference strain, ${\varepsilon}_r$ and curvature coefficient, a. To assess the performance of the prediction models proposed herein, the elastic response of a test trackbed near PyeongTaek, Korea, was evaluated using a 3-D elastic multilayer computer program (GEOTRACK). The results were compared with measured elastic vertical displacement during the passages of freight and passenger trains at two locations, whose sub-ballasts were crushed stone and weathered granite soil, respectively. The calculated vertical displacements of the sub-ballasts are within the order of 0.6mm, and agree well with measured values. The prediction models are thus concluded to work properly in the preliminary investigation.

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Key Stages of a Research and Students' Epistemic Agency in a Student-Driven R&E (학생 주도의 R&E 활동에서 드러나는 연구 활동의 주요 단계 및 학생의 인식적 행위주체성)

  • Lee, Minjoo;Kim, Heui-Baik
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.511-523
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    • 2019
  • In this age of the $4^{th}$ industrial revolution, we, science educators, are giving more light on students' agentic behavior in the process of educating future scientist. This study, with the analytic lens of epistemic agency, explores the key stages of a student-driven R&E program rather than the scientist-led R&E program. It also examines to understand the emergence of students' epistemic agency in each stage of R&E. Data from participant observation for 18 months and in-depth interviews were collected and analyzed with the constant comparative method of grounded theory. This study identifies and describes five key stages of student-driven R&E: The stage of exploring research theme, designing research, performing lab activity, interpreting results, and communicating research. It also finds that (a) students' epistemic agency emerged with the constant interactions with the R&E structure; (b) students' epistemic agency has deep relations with the epistemic beliefs of the students; (c) students positioned themselves as decision-makers in the R&E practice; (d) the redistributed power and authority of the R&E contributed to the emergence of students' epistemic agency.