• Title, Summary, Keyword: 소나무

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새로운 조경수(75)-소나무

  • Kim, Sa-Il
    • Landscaping Tree
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    • v.78 no.1_2
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2004
  • 소나무과 소나무속에는 세계적으로 90여종의 소나무가 알려져 있고 대부분이 지구의 북반구에 분포하고 있다. 우리나라에는 자생종으로 소나무, 곰솔, 잣나무, 섬잣나무, 눈잣나무 등 5종이 있고 도입종으로 백송, 스트로브잣나무, 리기다소나무, 방크스소나무, 만주곰솔, 구주소나무, 테다소나무, 대왕송 등 9종이 있다.

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Distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Naturally Infected Pinus densiflora and P. koraiensis and Migration of B. xylophilus in Artificially Inoculated P. densiflora Seedlings (자연감염된 소나무와 잣나무 내 소나무재선충 분포 및 인공접종한 소나무 묘목 내에서의 소나무재선충 이동)

  • Kim, Jae-Geun;Kim, Byung-Kwan;Lee, Seung-Kyu;Kim, Jin-Cheol;Han, Sang-Sub;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2012
  • In 2006, pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was isolated from about 50 years old trees of Pinus densiflora and P. koraiensis showing leaf-wilt and -drying symptoms in Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do and Chuncheon, Gangwon-do. Isolation of pinewood nematodes from sapwood of infected pine trees showed no difference in population density between tree species and among the sampling heights on the main stem. Migration of pinewood nematodes in the host tree were investigated by inoculation of red pine (P. densiflora, 3 years old) seedlings with B. xylophilus. The nematodes seemed to move in red pine seedlings prior to multiplication and it might have taken about 20 days to start multiplication and expression of symptoms including wilt and dieback. In initial time after inoculation, nematodes started migration through the cortical resin canal from inoculated site and further showed upward and downward movements. More nematodes were observed in cortical resin canal during early period of inoculation and later in resin canal of xylem and tracheid also while, the pith still remained free from nematode. The density of B. xylophilus was higher in seedlings of low-vigor with poor root growth than in seedlings of normal root growth. Seedlings showing high density of B. xylophilus exhibited stem discoloration and secondary infection by fungus at the inoculation site.

Changes in Water Potential of Pine Seedlings Inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (소나무재선충 접종목의 수분포텐셜 변화)

  • Lee, Hwa-Yong;Koo, Chang-Duck;Sung, Joo-Han;Shin, Joon-Hwan;Yoo, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.3
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    • pp.337-343
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to understand water stress development in pine seedlings inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Leaf water potentials of four years old Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with the nematode were measured with a plant moisture system at predawn and midday. The midday leaf water potentials on the 35th day after the inoculation were -1.04 MPa in the infected seedlings, while -0.94 MPa in the non-infected seedlings. The predawn water potentials on the 56th day were -0.71 MPa in the infected, while -0.26 MPa in the non-infected. At this time the leaves of the infected seedlings became yellow and resin did not exude on the cut basal stem. Density of the nematode was maximum on the 28th day, but dropped sharply on the 68th day. The phloem and pith tissues became brown and the resin exudation reduced in the infected seedlings. In conclusion, pinewood nematode inoculation developed water stress in pine seedlings in a month.

A Study on Soil Particle Size in Mountains of Seoul Vicinity for Forest Restoration (생태 복원을 위한 서울근교의 삼림 토양 입자 크기에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2002
  • 서울근교에 존재하는 소나무림은 낙엽활엽수림으로 바뀌고 있다. 그러므로 서울근교의 산림에 대한 조사는 자연 식생형 산림 특히 소나무 복원에 그 시사점을 줄 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 서울근교에 존재하는 8개 산의 15개 지소를 선정하여 그곳에 존재하는 식생형을 파악하고, 토양의 물리적 특성을 조사하여 산림 복원 시 고려할 토양 특성을 확인하고자 하였다. 8개 산에서 선정된 15개 조사지소는 소나무군락, 소나무-낙엽활엽수군락, 낙엽활엽수군락으로 나누어 물리적 토양 특성을 조사하였다. 소나무의 평균 중요치는 소나무군락에서 137이었으며 소나무-낙엽활엽수군락에서는 8이었다. 평균 바위분포 면적-토양 깊이-경사는 소나무군락에서 26-22-31, 소나무-낙엽활엽수군락에서 7-53-32, 낙엽활엽수군락에서 14%-34cm-$28^{\circ}$로 나타났다. 소나무군락, 소나무-낙엽활엽수군락, 낙엽활엽수군락의 임상 및 토양에 존재하는 총 유기물량은 각각 2490, 1757, and $2107g/m^2$로 조사되었다. L층에서의 유기물량은 모든 군락 유형에서 비슷하였으나, F층과 H층에서는 매우 다르게 나타났다 : F층은 소나무군락에서 가장 발달하였고 H층은 낙엽활엽수군락에서 가장 발달하였다. 통계처리 결과는 바위분포 면적, 고도, 경사, 사면은 군락의 유형과 유의한 관련성을 보여주지 않았으나, 토양의 깊이, 자갈의 함량, 세사와 미사의 함량은 군락의 유형에 따라 다름을 보여주었다. 본 연구는 소나무군락의 토양이 자갈과 세사의 높은 함량과 관련이 있으며, 이에 따라 H층의 발달이 미약하게 나타남을 보여 주었다. 그러므로 2-10mm의 자갈이 40% 이상되는 장소에는 분해가 덜된 유기물과 소나무를 사용할 때 복원의 성공가능성이 높으며, 자갈의 함량이 30% 이하이며 모래의 함량이 50% 이상인 장소에는 분해된 유기물의 함량을 높이고 낙엽활엽수를 이용하는 것이 복원성공 가능성이 높음을 시사한다.

Plant Community Structure of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Forest in the Geumjeongsan (Mt.), Busan Metropolitan City (부산광역시 금정산 소나무림 식생구조 연구)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Jae;Kwak, Jeong-In;Kwak, Nam-Hyun;Jang, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.462-472
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to provide a basic data for preservation of Pinus desiflora forest as cultural landscape forest by analyzing characteristics of plant community of P. desiflora forest in Geumjeongsan(mountatin) in Busan city. In order to analyze plant community of P. densiflora in Geumjeongsan, we set up 10 study plots inside and 8 plots outside of Geumjeongsansung(mountain fortress, hereinafter 'Sansung')(unit area: $400m^2$), a total of 18 plots. TWINSPAN analysis divided these 18 study plots into 6 communities which are Querqus serrata-P. desiflora community, P. desiflora community, P. desiflora-Q. serrata community, P. thunbergii-P. densiflora community, P. densiflora-P. thubergii-Q. acutissima community, and P. densiflora-Platycarya strobilacea community. Importance Percentage (I.P.) of each area and DBH class distribution of main species showed that P. densiflora community would succeed to Q. serrata community or C. tschonoskii community. Analysis on tree age found out that communities in the Sansung were 32~37 years old and those outside the Sansung were 44~57 years old. Shannon's species diversity index ranged from 0.4826 to 1.2499. Regarding correlation between species, P. densiflora had negative correlation with Styrax japonica. Based on abovementioned result we expected ecological succession from P. densiflora community to Q. serrata community inside of the Sansung. Outside the Sansung, succession from P. densiflora-P. thunbergii community to C. tschonoskii-Q. serrata community was expected. In order to manage P. densiflora forest as cultural landscape forest, Q. spp in the understory and shrub layer and deciduous broad-leaved arboreal trees should be managed. Tree crown management of deciduous broad-leaved trees in competition with P. desiflora, is also required.

Vegetation Succession and Vegetation Management of the Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Forest in the Beopjusa Area, Songnisan National $Park^{1a}$ (속리산국립공원 법주사지구 소나무림 식생천이와 식생관리 연구)

  • Lee, Kyong-Jae;Ki, Kyong-Seok;Choi, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.208-219
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    • 2009
  • This study is to establish a management method for conservation through comparison and analysis on vegetation structures of Pinus densiflora forest around Beopjusa area for past 17-year. The spatial range of the study was $3.6km^2$ from maintenance office to Beopjusa area. The analysis results of the actual vegetation showed that the ratio of vegetation were composed of 64.7% of Pinus densiflora forest, 3.2% of mixed forest of P. densiflora and deciduous broadleaf trees and 5.9% of deciduous broadleaf tree community out of overall area, 360ha. The type of P. densiflora forest were categorized into four communities; community having high potential of succession, community having low potential of it, the community being in the process of succession and community being in the process of natural selection. The succession tendency was in order of the community having low potential of succession(P. densiflora forest), having high potential of it(P. densiflora forest which is deciduous broadleaf trees are dominating in sub-canopy layer), being in the process of succession(P. densiflora-Prunus sargentii and P. densiflora-Quercus serrata community) and being in the process of natural selection(Q. serrata-P. densiflora and Q. aliena-P. densiflora community). In terms of vegetation management, P. densiflora forest having high potential of succession was needed to remove deciduous broadleaf trees in the sub-canopy layer and the community being in the process of succession was required to be pruning the branch in the canopy layer. Lastly, the community being in the process of natural selection was suggested to let it be in succession, since it is hard to be in the status of P. densiflora Forest.

Escape of Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, through Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Monochamus alternatus and M. saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Adults (솔수염하늘소와 북방수염하늘소의 섭식과 산란행동을 통한 소나무재선충의 이탈)

  • Kim, Dong-Soo;Lee, Sang-Myeong;Huh, He-Soon;Park, Nam-Chang;Park, Chung-Gyoo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.527-533
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate the escape of pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, from two vector species (Monochamus alternatus and M. saltuarius) through oviposition and feeding behavior. First, we checked number of PWNs escaped from M. alternatus emerged from three different cases of pine logs. In case A, healthy pine trees were cut into logs and left in pine forest infected with PWN. In case B, healthy pine trees were cut into logs, left in large screen cage, and let them oviposited by M. alternatus emerged from pine trees infested with PWN. In case C, pine trees which were harboring M. alternatus were cut into logs, and PWN was inoculated artificially. The M. alternatus adults emerged from the above three cases of pine logs were checked in the next year to know how many PWN they were harboring in their bodies. The percentages of M. alternatus harboring PWN (18.3 and 15.6%, respectively) and number of nematodes per vector ($5,713.1{\pm}9,248.3$ and $2,034.1{\pm}4,746.8$ PWNs, respectively) in case A and B logs are similar to each other. However, the percentage and the number in case C (38.3% and $20,083.1{\pm}32,188.3$ PWNs) were higher than those of case A and B. Among 52 M. alternatus adults harboring PWN from all the three cases, 20 adults (38.5%) were harboring more than 5,000 PWNs per beetle. And these 20 adults were harboring 97.9% of the total PWNs in 52 adults. Second, we checked the daily escape of PWNs from M. alternatus and M. saltuarius collected at pine forest infested with PWN. The PWN escaped from their vector body for $34.9{\pm}12.4$ days for M. alternatus, and for $23.9{\pm}16.2$ days for M. saltuarius, reaching at peak escape during the 2nd week of emergence of the two vector species. A 44.5 and 47.2% to the total PWNs escaped from vector body within 2 weeks of vector emergence for M. alternatus and M. saltuarius, respectively. The number of PWNs escaped from each vector was $3,570.6{\pm}5,189.2$ and $1,556.2{\pm}1,710.3$ for M. alternatus and M. saltuarius, respectively.

Analysis of relationship between spatial distribution of Pinus densiflora and topographical factors (소나무 공간분포와 지형인자간의 상관성 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Min;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Jung, Sung-Eun;Kwak, Han-Bin
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.359-372
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    • 2008
  • This research estimated Pinus densiflora distribution and suggested an optimal grid size of DEM for ecologically better explaining spatial distribution and appearance pattern of Pinus densiflora and analyze appearance frequency of Pinus densiflora by topographical factors. And this work ultimately aimed at topographically analyzing spatial distribution of Pinus densiflora by comparing impact of topographical factors. The aspect was analyzed in detail, east, west, south, north, from DEM with 1m grid size, and simply, east, west, south or east, south from DEM with bigger grid size. As a result of distribution of Pinus densiflora by aspect, Pinus densiflora appeared in all aspect with smaller grid size, while distribution in specific aspect decreased with bigger grid size. The analysis of appearance frequency with 100m grid size represented spatial distribution characteristics of Pinus densiflora as visual interpretation showed. The results of comparing impact of aspect, slope, TWI proved that aspect have more impact on distribution of Pinus densiflora than slope and there was not enough a difference between impact of slope and TWI.

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Disturbance and Regeneration Process of the Pinus densiflora Forest in Mt. Worak (월악산에 분포하는 소나무(Pinus densiflora)림에서의 교란체제와 천이 과정)

  • 김홍은;권기철;정택상
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2000
  • Mortality patterns ad changes of vegetation in newly formed gaps were investigated to examine the succession process of Pinus densiflora forest located at Mt. Worak. The main findings from this study were as follows: ⑴ The forest was dominated by P. densiflora and Quercus variabilis in the oversotry, while Q. mongolica, Q. serrata and Fraxinus sieboldiana in the mid-story. ⑵ In all study areas, the standing dead type was the most common factor influencing gap-forming mortality. ⑶ DBH analysis showed that Pinus densiflora community was replaced by Quercus variabilis community first, and then by quercus mongolica and quercus serrata community. ⑷ Seedlings of P. densiflora were discovered only at dry sites of the gap.

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Physical Characteristics of Korean Red Pines According to Provinces (Goseong, Hongcheon and Bonghwa-gun) (한국산 소나무의 지역(고성, 홍천 및 봉화군)에 따른 물리적 특성)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Byung-Ro
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.437-448
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    • 2018
  • Physical characteristics of Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) were investigated with different cultivation locations in Taebaek Mountains as Goseong-gun, Hongcheon-gun and Bonghwa-gun as experimental sites. Moisture content based on air-dried or green (artificial) wood was no significant differences with different cultivation places. Specific gravities of both sapwood and heartwood of red pine from Bonghwa-gun were higher than those from other two sites (Hongcheon-gun or Goseong-gun). Specific gravity of heartwood of red pine from Goseong-gun was higher than it from Hongcheon-gun, but this trend was opposite in case of sapwood. Higher specific gravity of red pine heartwood from Goseong-gun maybe resulted in higher strength than those of other sites. In shrinkage ratio, there was no significant difference among different cultivation places in radial directions, but red pine from Bonghwa-gun was higher than those of other sites in tangential directions. Hygroscopicity was no significant differences with different cultivation places. These results will be helpful information for efficient use of pinewood and good quality of pinewood production for genetical breeding improved.