• Title/Summary/Keyword: 수전해

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Direct Intratumoral Injection of Ethanol in the Patients with Obstruction of Major Bronchus (주기관지 폐색환자에서 종양내 ETHANOL 주입치료 효과)

  • Lee, Bong-Chun;Yum, Ho-Kee;Choi, Soo-Jeon;Kim, Dong-Soon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 1993
  • Background: For the relief of the occlusion of major bronchi, laser therapy, radiation therapy or combined therapy is generally used. But the effect of radiation therapy is very slow and not consistent and laser therapy requires expensive equipments and technical expertise with occasional serious side effects. Direct ethanol injection has been widely used for the control of bleeding in gastrointestinal lesion, esophageal varices or renal cell carcinoma with good results. So we tried direct injection of ethanol into the tumor to relieve the obstruction of major bronchus in 11 patients. Method: All procedures were done under the fiberoptic bronchoscopy with continuous oxygen supplement and aliquoted 0.5-1.0 ml of absolute ethanol directly into the tumor through the endobronchial aspiration needle. The tumor was endoscopically removed with a biopsy forceps immediately after ethanol injection. The whole procedure was repeated 3-4 days interval until the lumen opens. Usually after 2-3 trials of ethanol injection, the lumen opened up. Results: The immediate effect of ethanol injection was whitening of the mucosa and prompt cessation of bleeding. The late effect was necrosis of the tumor. The final results of this procedure were improvement of symptoms and reexpnasion of the lung in all patients. $FEV_{1.0}$ and FVC were improved and $PaO_2$ was increased from $68.1{\pm}9.2$ mmHg to $83.9{\pm}8.1$ mmHg, $SaO_2$: from $94{\pm}8.5%$ to $96.6{\pm}1.1%$, and $AaDO_2$ was reduced from $26.5{\pm}8.5$ mmHg to $10.9{\pm}9.1$ mmHg. Conclusion: Direct ethanol injection into the tumor tissue is a rapid, cheap and relatively safe method of relieving the complete occlusion of major bronchus.

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Two Cases of Hot Tub Lung in Bodyscrubbers Working in a Public Bath (대중목욕탕 근무 후 발생한 온수 욕조 폐 2예)

  • Bak, Ji Young;Kim, Kwang Sil;Park, I-Nae;Yum, Ho-Kee;Lee, Seung Heon;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Lee, Young Min;Jung, Hoon;Hur, Jin-Won;Lee, Seong Soon;Lee, Hyuk Pyo;Choi, Soo Jeon;Shin, Eun Ah;Choi, Sang Bong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2009
  • Hot tub lung has been described as a pulmonary illness associated with exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria,mainly hot bathtub water contaminated with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and hence the name. Although not entirely clear, its etiology has been thought to involve either an infection or a hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to MAC. Herein, we describe 2 female patients (60 and 53 years old) admitted to our hospital with hot tub lung, and both of whom worked in a public bath. Both women were initially admitted following several months of exertional dyspnea and cough. The patients had been working as body-scrubbers in a public bath for several years. Their chest CT scans showed bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities with multifocal air-trappings and poorly defined centrilobular nodules in both lungs. Pathological findings from lung specimens revealed small non-necrotizing granuloma in the lung parenchyme with relatively normal-looking adjacent alveoli. Discontinuation of working in the public bath led to an improvement in symptoms and radiographic abnormalities, without antimycobacterial therapy.

Physiological studies on the sudden wilting of JAPONICA/INDICA crossed rice varieties in Korea -II. Artificial induction of sudden wilting in Korea and the effect of nutrio-physiological status (일(日)·인원연교잡(印遠緣交雜) 수도품종(水稻品種)의 급성위조증상(急性萎凋症狀) 발생(發生)에 관(關)한 영양생리학적(營養生理學的) 연구(硏究) -II. 한국(韓國)에서 급성위조증(急性萎凋症)의 인위적(人爲的) 재현(再現)과 영양생리(營養生理)의 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Yoo-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 1989
  • The results of the investigation on the effects of plant nutrio-physiological status and reemergence of sudden wilting in rice on the occurrence of sudden wilting were summarized as follows: 1. The occurrence of sudden wilting, degree of damage and occurring time in the investigated variety showed to concur with the results of the previous experiment. 2. Nitrogen and Potassium contents in leaves related an occurrence of sudden wilting at heading stage have a very high negative co-relation (the value is -0.9224 at Yushin and -0.8243 at Milyang 23). 3. Regarding the relation between occurrence of sudden wilting and root activity capacity at the late growth stage, the root activity capacity at productive growth stage showed higher than at reproductive growth stage, which is the same in the two varieties but Milyang 23 is higher than Yushin. It is confirmed that root activity capacity in the two varieties has become very low at reproductive growth stage. 4. The toot activity capacity in the field with potassium showed a small occurrence of sudden wilting and the root activity capacity in the field with no potassium showed a very high co-relation value (the value is 0.8947 at Yushin and 0.7301 at Milyang 23). 5. Regarding the relation between the occurrence of sudden wilting and water evaporation quantity, water evaporation quantity after the heading date has a more direct relation to sudden wilting than that which occurrs prior to the heading date. Water evaporation quantity is higher in the field with no potassium, low leaves and Yushin, than in the field with potassium high leaves and Milyang 23. 6. The starch content in culm of Yushin and Milyang 23 at ripening stage showed high value in proportion to potassium quantity, and the starch content is lower as internode is lower. However, in fourth internode, the starch content is greatly increased in the field with potassium contrasted to the field with no potassium.

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Studies on the Foliar Application of Urea as Nitrogen Source of Rice Plant Nutrition (요소엽면살포(尿素葉面撒布)에 따른 수도(水稻)의 질소영양(窒素營養)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Seoung-Jin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.125-147
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    • 1968
  • This experiment was carried out as a part of the studies on reasonable application of nitrogen in rice plant to determine: (I) Nitrogen absorption. and rooting of rice seedlings as affected by urea foliar application at late seedling stage (II) Effect of leaf prunning and foliar application of urea at late heading stage on the maturation and yield of rice (III) Effect of foliar application of urea and its time during the stage of ear formation on yield of rice plant. Results obtained are summarized as follows. Exp.I: Nitrogen absorption and rooting of rice seedlings as affected be urea foliar application at late seedling stage. 1 : The foliar application of urea plots$(T_{1},T_2)$ snowed mare N-content than non-urea foliar application plot(T0) at lane seedling stage, being significant among treatments and foliar application of urea seemed more effective in increasing the N-content of seedlings. and promoted root settlement and early growth alter the transplanting. 2 : The carbon contents of the plants of $T_1$, and $T_2$ at late seedling stage increased than T0, and the carbon contents. of $T_1$ and $T_2$ plots became higher in amount in proportion to the nitrogen absorption as compared with those of $T_0$. 3 : C/N ratio appeared significant among soil application plots($N_1, \;N_2$) and foliar application of urea plots ($T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_0$). C/N ratio was lower in case of increased amount of nitrogen. The higher contents of nitrogen and carbon and lower C/N ratio resulted in the increment of root numbers and root lengths. Exp.II: Effect of leaf prunning and foliar application of urea at late heading stage on the maturation and yield of rice. 1 : There was a highly significant decrease in the maturing rate by severe leaf prunning. In the mean time, significant increase in maturing rate was observed with urea foliar application and it was found the more frequent application the more effective for higher maturing rate with a moderate significance. A correlationship between the level of prunning and maturing rate was enumerated to 0.961 of correlation coefficient, which indicated an increased maturing rate by the increased number of remaining leaves. 2 : The 1.000 grain weight, grain weight and hulled rice yield increased by leaf prunning in order (plot a$A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 89.8%, 89.4%, 87.8% and 87.5% respectively, showing the highest of rate in $A_1$ and $A_3$ in methods of ear fertilization and being highly significant between its treatment. 3 : 1000 grain weights were highly significant between time of application, showing a tendency of increase of weights with the time lagging until days before earings as that of maturing rates. High significance was recognized between methods of ear fertilization, showing the highest in $A_2$ 23.18 gr. 4 : Yields per $3.3m^2$ were not significant between time of ear fertilization, whereas were highly significant between methods of ear fertilization. Those of $A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 1.486 kg, 1.491 kg, 1.381 kg and 1.328 kg, respectively, showing the highest in $A_1$ and $A_3$. 5 : Hulling ratios showed significant different between time of ear fertilization, showing the highest in $T_2$, whereas those of methods of ear fertilization were highly significant between its treatment, Those of $A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 84.72%, 84.06%, 83.29%, and 82.56% respectively, showing the highest m $A_2$ and $A_3$ among others. 6 : Yields of hulled rice per $3.3m^2$ showed significant different between time of ear fertilization, showing the highest in $T_1$ 1.192 kg. Whereas, those were highly significant between methods of ear fertilization. Those of $A_1$, $A_3$, $A_2$ and $A_0$ were 1.259 kg, 1.254 kg, 1.149 kg and 1.095 kg, respectively, showing the highest in $A_1$ and $A_2$. 7 : Contents of nitrogen on rice plant increased in case of nitrogen application as ear fertilizer and showed that the case of urea foliar application was more effective than that of soil application, showing the increased nitrogen content of rice plant was accompanied by carbon content.

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Epidemiology and Control of Rice Blast in Korea (한국(韓國)에서의 도열병(病) 발생(發生), 만연(蔓延)과 그 방제(防除))

  • Park, Jong Seong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.356-369
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    • 1985
  • In Korea, inevitable researches for the blast control exactly started from 1927 by the organization of Office of Rural Development with the local extensive outbreak of panicle blast at Jeonlla Buk-Do Province in 1926. At present, the rice blast is still one of the most destructive and widespread diseases in spite of considerable contributions by rice scientists, particularly plant pathologists during last 55 years in Korea. Rice blast control and management are very difficult because of the marked variability in pathogenicity of the blast fungus. From the results obtained through the disease surveys during last 70 years, different 3 prevalence type of blast such as bimodal leaf-blast type, bimodal panicle-blast type and bimodal continual blast type were recognized. In generally speaking, pattern of blast outbreak is said to be characterized by severe outbreak of panicle blast after slight outbreak of leaf blast with discontinuity between leaf and panicle blast. So we have to pay much attention for successful management of panicle blast giving direct influence to rice yield. Main factors induce blast epidemic were pointed out to be breakdown of the disease resistance, nutritional unbalance such as excess application of nitrogen, delay of transplantation and longspell of rain fall by extensive surveys and researches on blast during last 70 years in Korea. The fact some of Japonica varieties such as Kokuryomiyako, Tamanishiki, Ginbozu and Pungok belong to varietal group A had been cultivated with extensive acrage over 30 years in this country should be mentioned by Korean rice scientists. Differences in field resistance between varieties in the same group are detectable and apparently small but sometimes epidemiologically significant differential effects may be found out in case of blast. Much more attention should be payed to accumulate the knowledges on field resistance for successful management of blast. Excess application of nitrogen is more effective to outbreak of panicle blast than that of leaf blast of IR varieties. In comparatively low level application of nitrogen infection rate of panicle blast of IR varieties is considerably high. Low temperature effects on outbreak of blast is very great. It results in remarkable increase of the inoculum potential on the leaf lesions and infection of panicle blast in leaf sheathes of IR varieties during the booting stage. In economic point of view, it is concluded that 5 times sprays of effective fungicides including 3 times before and 2 times after heading is good enough to control blast. We have experienced no one of control measures for blast is superior to all others. The integrated control measures was established as guideline of blast control around 1950 in Korea. This guideline must be helpful for rice growers as long as rice growing continue.

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Upper Boundary Line Analysis of Rice Yield Response to Meteorological Condition for Yield Prediction I. Boundary Line Analysis and Construction of Yield Prediction Model (최대경계선을 이용한 벼 수량의 기상반응분석과 수량 예측 I. 최대경계선 분석과 수량예측모형 구축)

  • 김창국;이변우;한원식
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2001
  • Boundary line method was adopted to analyze the relationships between rice yield and meteorological conditions during rice growing period. Boundary lines of yield responses to mean temperature($T_a$) and sunshine hour( $S_{h}$) and diurnal temperature range($T_r$) were well-fitted to hyperbolic functions of f($T_a$) =$$\beta$_{0t}$(1-EXP(-$$\beta$_{1t}$ $\times$ ($T_a$) ) and f( $S_{h}$)=$$\beta$_{0t}$((1-EXP($$\beta$_{1t}$$\times$ $S_{h}$)), to quadratic function of f($T_r$) =$\beta$$_{0r}$(1-($T_r$ 1r)$^2$), respectively. to take into account to, the sterility caused by low temperature during reproductive stage, cooling degree days [$T_c$ =$\Sigma$(20-$T_a$] for 30 days before heading were calculated. Boundary lines of yield responses to $T_c$ were fitted well to exponential function of f($T_c$) )=$\beta$$_{0c}$exp(-$$\beta$_{1c}$$\times$$T_c$ ). Excluding the constants of $\beta$$_{0s}$ from the boundary line functions, formed are the relative function values in the range of 0 to 1. And these were used as yield indices of the meteorological elements which indicate the degree of influence on rice yield. Assuming that the meteorological elements act multiplicatively and independently from each other, meteorological yield index (MIY) was calculated by the geometric mean of indices for each meteorological elements. MIY in each growth period showed good linear relationship with rice yield. The MIY's during 31 to 45 days after transplanting(DAT) in vegetative stage, during 30 to 16 days before heading (DBH) in reproductive stage and during 20 days after heading (DAH) in ripening stage showed greater explainablity for yield variation in each growth stage. MIY for the whole growth period was calculated by the following three methods of geometric mean of the indices for vegetative stage (MIVG), reproductive stage (HIRG) and ripening stage (HIRS). MI $Y_{I}$ was calculated by the geometric mean of meteorological indices showing the highest determination coefficient n each growth stage of rice. That is, (equation omitted) was calculated by the geometric mean of all the MIY's for all the growth periods devided into 15 to 20 days intervals from transplanting to 40 DAH. MI $Y_{III}$ was calculated by the geometric mean of MIY's for 45 days of vegetative stage (MIV $G_{0-45}$ ), 30 days of reproductive stage (MIR $G_{30-0}$) and 40 days of ripening stage (MIR $S_{0-40}$). MI $Y_{I}$, MI $Y_{II}$ and MI $Y_{III}$ showed good linear relationships with grain yield, the coefficients of determination being 0.651, 0.670 and 0.613, respectively.and 0.613, respectively.

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Physiological studies on the sudden wilting of JAPONICA/INDICA crossed rice varieties in Korea -I. The effects of plant nutritional status on the occurrence of sudden wilting (일(日). 인원연교잡(印遠緣交雜) 수도품종(水稻品種)의 급성위조증상(急性萎凋症狀) 발생(發生)에 관(關)한 영양생리학적(營養生理學的) 연구(硏究) -I. 수도(水稻)의 영양상태(營養狀態)가 급성위조증상(急性萎凋症狀) 발생(發生)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Yoo-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.316-338
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    • 1988
  • To identify the physiological phenomena on the sudden wilting of japonica/indica crossed varieties, Pot experiment was carried out under the heavy N application with various levels of potassium in Japan. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Sudden wilting was occurred in both varieties used, Yushin and Milyang 23. The former showed a higher degree than the latter. 2. Sudden wilting was occurred into two types, one at early ripening stage and the other at late ripening stage. The former type was found in the field with low potassium supply and the latter was seemed to be related to varietal wilting tolerence. 3. By the investigation of concerning the effective tillering rate and the change of dry weight of each organ at the heading stage, it was inferred that the growth status from young panicle formation stage to heading stage were related to sudden wilting tolerence. 4. Manganese content at heading stage, ratio of Fe/Mn and Fe. Fe/Mn in stern at late ripening stage and $K_2$ O/N ratio of stem at harvesting stage were recognized as the specific factors in connection with sudden wilting. Mn content in the sudden wilting rice plant was already in creased remarkably at heading stage. In relation to root age and absoption characteristics of Mn, the senility of root before heading stage was inferred as the cause of increase the value of Fe/Mn or Fe. Fe/Mn. 5. The $K_2$ O/N ratio of culm at harvesting stage was lower in upper node than lower node in relation to sudden wilting. And it was well accordance with the fact that the symptoms of sudden wilting proceeded from upper leaf to lower leaf. These phenomenon was different from the usual one that the effect of potassium deficiency was more remarkable in lower node than upper node. 6. All varieties which have a condition of potassium deficiency have a high degree of nitrogen content of leaves at heading stage and the $K_2$ O/N ratio of each organ was low, Especialy, $K_2$ O/N ratio is much lower in sheath and culm than leaves.

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Clinical Characteristics and Adherence of Patients Who Were Prescribed Home Oxygen Therapy Due to Chronic Respiratory Failure in One University Hospital: Survey after National Health Insurance Coverage (한 대학병원에서 조사된 재택산소요법을 받고 있는 환자의 특성과 재택산소요법 처방에 대한 순응도: 건강보험급여전환 후 조사)

  • Koo, Ho-Seok;Song, Young Jin;Lee, Seung Heon;Lee, Young Min;Kim, Hyun Gook;Park, I-Nae;Jung, Hoon;Choi, Sang Bong;Lee, Sung-Soon;Hur, Jin-Won;Lee, Hyuk Pyo;Yum, Ho-Kee;Choi, Soo Jeon;Lee, Hyun-Kyung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.66 no.3
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2009
  • Background: Despite the benefits of home oxygen therapy in patients suffering chronic respiratory failure, previous reports in Korea revealed lower compliance to oxygen therapy and a shorter time for oxygen use than expected. However, these papers were published before oxygen therapy was covered by the national insurance system. Therefore, this study examined whether there were some changes in compliance, using time and other clinical features of home oxygen therapy after insurance coverage. Methods: This study reviewed the medical records of patients prescribed home oxygen therapy in our hospital from November 1, 2006 to September 31, 2008. The patients were interviewed either in person or by telephone to obtain information related to oxygen therapy. Results: During study period, a total 105 patients started home oxygen therapy. The mean age was 69 and 60 (57%) were male. The mean oxygen partial pressure in the arterial blood was 54.5 mmHg and oxygen saturation was 86.3%. Primary diseases that caused hypoxemia were COPD (n=64), lung cancer (n=14), Tb destroyed lung (n=12) and others. After oxygen therapy, more than 50% of patients experienced relief of their subjective dyspnea. The mean daily use of oxygen was 9.8${\pm}$7.3 hours and oxygen was not used during activity outside of their home (mean time, 5.4${\pm}$3.7 hours). Twenty four patients (36%) stopped using oxygen voluntarily 7${\pm}$4.7 months after being prescribed oxygen and showed a less severe pulmonary and right heart function. The causes of stopping were subjective symptom relief (n=11), inconvenience (n=6) and others (7). Conclusion: The prescription of home oxygen has increased since national insurance started to cover home oxygen therapy. However, the mean time for using oxygen is still shorter than expected. During activity of outside their home, patients could not use oxygen due to the absence of portable oxygen. Overall, continuous education to change the misunderstandings about oxygen therapy, more economic support from national insurance and coverage for portable oxygen are needed to extend the oxygen use time and maintain oxygen usage.

A Study on Transition of Rice Culture Practices During Chosun Dynasty Through Old References IX. Intergrated Discussion on Rice (주요(主要) 고농서(古農書)를 통(通)한 조선시대(朝鮮時代)의 도작기술(稻作技術) 전개(展開) 과정(過程) 연구(硏究) - IX. 도작기술(稻作技術)에 대(對)한 종합고찰(綜合考察))

  • Guh, J.O.;Lee, S.K.;Lee, E.W.;Lee, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 1992
  • From the beginning of the chosun dynasty, an agriculture-first policy was imposed by being written farming books, for instance, Nongsajiksul, matched with real conditions of local agriculture, which provided the grounds of new, intensive farming technologies. This farming book was the collection of good fanning technologies that were experienced in rural farm areas at that time. According to Nongsajiksul, rice culture systems were divided into "Musarmi"(Water-Seeded rice), /"Kunsarmi"(dry-seeded rice), /transplanted rice and mountainous rice (upland rice) culture. The characteristics of these rice cultures with high technologies were based of scientific weeding methods, improved fertilization, and cultivation works using cattle power and manpower tools systematically. Reclamation of coastal swampy and barren land was possible in virtue of fire cultivation farming(火耕) and a weeding tool called "Yoonmok"(輪木). Also, there was an improved hoe to do weeding works as well as thinning and heaping-up of soil at seeding stages of rice. Direct-seeded rice culture in flat paddy fields were expanded by constructing the irrigation reservoirs and ponds, and the valley paddy fields was reclaimed by constructing "Boh(洑)". These were possible due to weed control by irrigation waters, keeping soil fertility by inorganic fertilization during irrigation, and increased productivity of rice fields by supplying good physiological conditions for rice. Also, labor-saving culture of rice was feasible by transplanting but in national-wide, rice should not basically be transplanted because of the restriction of water use. Thus, direct-seeded rice in dry soils was established, in which rice was direct-seeded and grown in dry soils by seedling stages and was grown in flooded fields when rained, as in the book "Nongsajiksul". During the middle of the dynasty(AD 1495-1725), the excellent labor-saving farmings include check-rowing transplanting because of weeding efficiency and availability in rice("Hanjongrok"), and, nurserybed techniques (early transplanting of rice) were emphasized on the basis of rice transplanting ["Nongajibsung"]. The techniques for deep plowing with cattle powers and for putting more fertilizers were to improve the productivity of labor and land, The matters advanced in "Sanlimkyungje" more than in "Nongajibsung" were, development of "drybed of rice nursery stock", like "upland rice nursery" today, transplanting, establishment of "winter barly on drained paddy field, and improvement of labor and land-productivity in rice". This resulted in the community of large-scale farming by changing the pattern of small-farming into the production system of rice management. Woo-hayoung(1741-1812) in his book "Chonilrok" tried to reform from large-scale farmings into intensive farmings, of which as eminent view was to divide the land use into transplanting (paddy) and groove-seeding methods(dry field). Especially as insisted by Seo-yugo ("Sanlimkyungjeji"), the advantages of transplanting were curtailment of weeding labors, good growth of rice because of soil fertility of both nurserybed and paddy field, and newly active growth because rice plants were pulled out and replanted. Of course, there were reestimation of transplanting, limitation of two croppings a year, restriction of "paddy-upland alternation", and a ban for large-scale farming. At that period, Lee-jiyum had written on rice farming technologies in dry upland with consider of the land, water physiology of rice, and convenience for weeding, and it was a creative cropping system to secure the farm income most safely. As a integrated considerations, the followings must be introduced to practice the improved farming methods ; namely, improvement of farming tools, putting more fertilizers, introduction of cultural technologies more rational and efficient, management of labor power, improvement of cropping system to enhance use of irrigation water and land, introduction of new crops and new varieties.

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Studies on Ecological Variation and Inheritance for Agronomical Characters of Sweet Sorghum Varieties (Sorghum vulgare PERS) in Korea (단수수(Sorghum vulgare PERS) 품종의 생태변이 및 유용형질의 유전에 관한 연구)

  • Se-Ho Son
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.10
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    • pp.1-43
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    • 1971
  • Experiment I: The objective of this study was to know variation in some selected agronomic characters of sweet sorghum when planted in several growing seasons. The 17 different sweet sorghum varieties having various maturities, and plant, syrup and sugar types were used in this study which had been carried out for the period of two years from 1968 to 1969 at Industrial Crops Division of Crop Experiment Station in Suwon. These varieties were planted at an interval of 20 days from April 5 to August 25 both in 1968 and 1969. The experimental results could be summarized as follows: 1. As planting was made early, the number of days from sowing to germination was getting prolonged while germination took place early when planted at the later date of which air temperature was relatively higher. However, such a tendency was not observed beyond the planting on August 25. In general, a significant negative correlation was found between the number of days from sowing to germination and the average daily temperature but a positive correlation was found between the former and the total accumulated average temperature during the growth period. 2. The period from sowing to heading was generally shortened as planting was getting delayed. The average varietal difference in number of days from sowing to heading was as much as 30.2 days. All the varieties were grouped into early-, medium and late-maturing groups based upon a difference of 10 days in heading. The average number of days from sowing to heading was 78.5$\pm$4.5 days in the early-maturing varieties, 88.5$\pm$4.5 days in the medium varieties and 98.5$\pm$4.5 days in the late-maturing varieties, respectively. The early-maturing varieties had the shortest period to heading when planted from July 15 to August 5, the medium varieties did when planted before July 15 and the late-maturing varieties did when planted before June 5. 3. The relationship between the sowing date (x) and number of days from sowing to heading could be expressed in an equation of y=a+bx. A highly positive correlation was found between the coefficient of the equation(shortening rate in heading time) and the average number of days from sowing to heading. 4. The number of days from sowing to heading was shortened as the daily average temperature during the growth period was getting higher. Early-maturing varieties had the shortest period to heading at a temperature of 24.2$^{\circ}C$, medium varieties at 23.8$^{\circ}C$ and late-maturing varieties at 22.9$^{\circ}C$, respectively. In other words, the number of days from sowing to heading was shortened rapidly in case that the average temperature for 30 days before heading was 22$^{\circ}C$ to $25^{\circ}C$. It prolonged relatively when the temperature was lower than 21$^{\circ}C$. 5. There was a little difference in plant height among varieties. In case of early planting, no noticeable difference in the height was observed. The plant height shortened generally as planting season was delayed. Elongation of plant height was remarkably accelerated as planting was delayed. This tendency was more pronounced in case of early-maturing varieties rather than late-maturing varieties. As a result, the difference in plant height between the maximum and the minimum was greater in late-maturing varieties than in early-maturing varieties. 6. Diameter of the stalk was getting thicker as planted earlier in late-maturing varieties. On the other hand, medium or early-maturing varieties had he thickest diameter when they were planted on April 25. 7. In general, a higher stalk yield was obtained when planted from April 25 to May 15. However, the planting time for the maximum stalk yield varied from one variety to another depending upon maturity of variety. Ear]y-maturing varieties produced the maximum yield when planted about April 25, medium varieties from April 25 to May 15 and late-maturing varieties did when planted from April 5 to May 15 respectively. The yield decreased linearly when they were planted later than the above dates. 8. A varietal difference in Brix % was also observed. The Brix % decreased linearly when the varieties were planted later than May 15. Therefore, a highly negative relationship between planting date(x) and Brix %(y) was detected. 9. The Brix % during 40 to 45 days after leading was the highest at the 1st to the 3rd internodes from the top while it decreased gradually from the 4th internode. It increased again somewhat at the 2nd internode from the ground level. However, it showed a reverse relationship between the Brix % and position of internode before heading. 10. Sugar content in stalk decreased gradually as planting was getting delayed though one variety differed from another. It seemed that sweet sorghum which planted later than June had no value as a sugar crop at all. 11. The Brix % and sugar content in stalk increased from heading and reached the maximum 40 to 45 days after heading. The percentage of purity showed the same tendency as the mentioned characters. Accordingly, a highly positive correlation was observed between. percentage of purity and Brix % or sugar content in stalk. 12. The highest refinable sugar yield was obtained from the planting on April 25 in late-maturing varieties and from that on May 15 in early-maturing varieties. The yield rapidly decreased when planted later than those dates. Such a negative correlation between planting date(x) and refinable sugar yield(y) was highly significant at 1% level. 13. Negative correlations or linear regressions between delayed planting and the number of days from sowing to germination. accumulated temperature during germination period, number of days to heading, accumulated temperature to heading, plant height, stem diameter, stalk weight, Brix %. sugar content, refinable sugar yield or Purity % were obtained. On the other hand, highly positive correlations between the number of days from sowing to heading(x) and Brix %, sugar content, purity %, refinable sugar yield, plant height or stalk yield, between Brix %(x) and purity %, refinable sugar yield or stalk yield, between sugar content(x) and purity% or refinable sugar yield(y), between purity %(x) and refinable sugar yield and between daylength at heading(x) and Brix %. number of days from sowing to heading, sugar content, purity % or refinable sugar yield (y), were found, respectively. Experiment II: The 11 varieties were selected out of the varieties used in Experiment I from ecological and genetic viewpoints. Complete diallel cross were made among them and the heading date, stalk length, stalk yield, Brix %, syrup yield, combining ability and genetic behavior of F$_1$ plants and their parental varieties were investigated. The results could be summarized as follows: 1. In general, number of days to heading showed a partial dominance over earliness or late maturity or had a mid-value, though there were some specific combinations showing a complete dominance or transgressive segregation in maturity. Some combinations showed relatively high general or specific combining abilities in maturity. Therefore, a 50 to 50 segregation ratio in heading date could be estimated in this study and it might be positive to have a selection in early generation since heritability of the character was relatively high. 2. A vigorous hybrid vigor was observed in stalk length. A complete or partial dominant effect of long stalk was obtained. The general combining ability and specific combining ability of stalk length were generally high. Long and short stalks segregated in a ratio of 50:50 and its heritability was relatively low. 3. Except for several specific combinations, high stalk yield seemed to be partial dominant over the low yield. Some varieties demonstrated relatively high general as well as specific combining abilities. It was assumed that several recessive genes were involved in expression of this character. The interaction among regulating recessive genes was also obtained. Accordingly, the heritability of stalk yield seemed to be rather low. 4. The Brix % of hybrid plants located around mid-parental value though some of them showed much higher or lower percentage. It could be explained by the fact that such behavior might be due to partial dominance of Brix %. The varieties with, relatively higher Brix % were high both in general. and specific combining abilities. Therefore, it could be recommended to use the varieties having higher sugar content in order to develop higher-sugar varieties. 5. The syrup yield seemed to be transgressively segregated or completely dominant over low yield. Hybrid vigor of syrup yield was relatively high. No-consistent relationship between general combining ability and specific combining ability was observed. However, some cases demonstrated that the varieties with relatively higher general combining ability had relatively lower specific combining ability. It was assumed that the frequencies of dominant and recessive alleles were almost same.

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