• Title, Summary, Keyword: 시스템주변장치

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Effectiveness of Edge Selection on Mobile Devices (모바일 장치에서 에지 선택의 효율성)

  • Kang, Seok-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 2011
  • This paper proposes the effective edge selection algorithm for the rapid processing time and low memory usage of efficient graph-based image segmentation on mobile device. The graph-based image segmentation algorithm is to extract objects from a single image. The objects are consisting of graph edges, which are created by information of each image's pixel. The edge of graph is created by the difference of color intensity between the pixel and neighborhood pixels. The object regions are found by connecting the edges, based on color intensity and threshold value. Therefore, the number of edges decides on the processing time and amount of memory usage of graph-based image segmentation. Comparing to personal computer, the mobile device has many limitations such as processor speed and amount of memory. Additionally, the response time of application is an issue of mobile device programming. The image processing on mobile device should offer the reasonable response time, so that, the image segmentation processing on mobile should provide with the rapid processing time and low memory usage. In this paper, we demonstrate the performance of the effective edge selection algorithm, which effectively controls the edges of graph for the rapid processing time and low memory usage of graph-based image segmentation on mobile device.

A Combination Study on the Elevation Motion Friction Compensation Parameters in Gas Spring (1) (가스 스프링 Elevation 동작 마찰력 보상 변수 조합 연구 (1))

  • Lee, Jeong-Ick
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.657-666
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    • 2017
  • In this study, factor analysis was performed to reduce the friction in the elevation motion of a stand for a 50-inchtelevision. Pipe type cross-section control was used for accurate positioning control of the piston rod. The pipe type was also compared with a labyrinth-type crosssection for the orifice. The frictional force was then reduced using gas seal lip technology. Specifications were chosen, and a volume compensation experiment was carried out using an apparatus for compensating the volume of the cylinder, which is compressed by the volume of the piston rod. Based on CAE and experimental considerations, the labyrinth-type orifice is preferred for reducing friction. For the gas seal lip technology, outer and inner diameters of ${\Phi}20$ and ${\Phi}8$ for the hollow rod were more appropriate when assuming the weight of a 50-inch television to be 30kgf. The third is that the result of total consideration in stability problem and performance of volume compensation for specification decision and volume compensation experiment is determined the final speculation of hollow rod ?8x?4 and riveting system. The last is that the labyrinth orifice is not founded that of the ${\O}0.4{\sim}0.6$ orifice both tests on 300 mm intervals.

True Triaxial Physical Model Experiment on Brittle Failure Grade and Failure Initiation Stress (취성파괴수준과 파괴개시시점에 관한 진삼축 모형실험연구)

  • Cheon, Dae-Sung;Park, Chan;Park, Chul-Whan;Jeon, Seok-Won
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.128-138
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    • 2007
  • At low in-situ stress, the continuity and distribution of natural fractures in rock mass predominantly control the failure processes. However at high in-situ stress, the failure process are affected and eventually dominated by stress-induced fractures preferentially growing parallel to the excavation boundary. This fracturing is often observed in brittle type of failure such as slabbing or spatting. Recent studies on the stress- or excavation-induced damage of rock revealed its importance especially in a highly stressed regime. In order to evaluate the brittle failure around a deep underground opening, physical model experiments were carried out. For the experiments a new tue triaxial testing system was made. According to visual observation and acoustic emission detection, brittle failure grades were classified under three categories. The test results indicate that where higher horizontal stress, acting perpendicular $(S_{H2})$ and parallel $(S_{H1})$ to the axis of the tunnel respectively, were applied, the failure grade at a constant vertical stress level (Sy) was lowered. The failure initiation stress was also increased with the increasing $S_{H1}\;and\;S_{H2}$. From the multi-variable regression on failure initiation stress and true triaxial stress conditions, $f(S_v,\;S_{H1},\;S_{H2})$ was proposed.

Radio location algorithm in microcellular wide-band CDMA environment (마이크로 셀룰라 Wide-band CDMA 환경에서의 위치 추정 알고리즘)

  • Chang, Jin-Weon;Han, Il;Sung, Dan-Keun;Shin, Bung-Chul;Hong, Een-Kee
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.2052-2063
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    • 1998
  • Various full-scale radio location systems have been developed since ground-based radio navigation systems appeared during World War II, and more recently global positioning systems (GPS) have been widely used as a representative location system. In addition, radio location systems based on cellular systems are intensively being studied as cellular services become more and more popular. However, these studies have been focused mainly on macrocellular systems of which based stations are mutually synchronized. There has been no study about systems of which based stations are asynchronous. In this paper, we proposed two radio location algorithms in microcellular CDMA systems of which base stations are asychronous. The one is to estimate the position of a personal station at the center of rectangular shaped area which approximates the realistic common area. The other, as a method based on road map, is to first find candidate positions, the centers of roads pseudo-range-distant from the base station which the personal station belongs to and then is to estimate the position by monitoring the pilot signal strengths of neighboring base stations. We compare these two algorithms with three wide-spread algorithms through computer simulations and investigate interference effect on measuring pseudo ranges. The proposed algorithms require no recursive calculations and yield smaller position error than the existing algorithms because of less affection of non-line-of-signt propagation in microcellular environments.

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Usefulness of Abdominal Compressor Using Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients (토모테라피를 이용한 간암환자의 정위적 방사선치료시 복부압박장치의 유용성 평가)

  • Woo, Joong-Yeol;Kim, Joo-Ho;Kim, Joon-Won;Baek, Jong-Geal;Park, Kwang-Soon;Lee, Jong-Min;Son, Dong-Min;Lee, Sang-Kyoo;Jeon, Byeong-Chul;Cho, Jeong-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: We evaluated usefulness of abdominal compressor for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and hepato-biliary cancer and metastatic liver cancer patients. Materials and Methods: From November 2011 to March 2012, we selected HCC patients who gained reduction of diaphragm movement >1 cm through abdominal compressor (diaphragm control, elekta, sweden) for HT (Hi-Art Tomotherapy, USA). We got planning computed tomography (CT) images and 4 dimensional (4D) images through 4D CT (somatom sensation, siemens, germany). The gross tumor volume (GTV) included a gross tumor and margins considering tumor movement. The planning target volume (PTV) included a 5 to 7 mm safety margin around GTV. We classified patients into two groups according to distance between tumor and organs at risk (OAR, stomach, duodenum, bowel). Patients with the distance more than 1 cm are classified as the 1st group and they received SBRT of 4 or 5 fractions. Patients with the distance less than 1 cm are classified as the 2nd group and they received tomotherapy of 20 fractions. Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) were performed 4 or 10 fractions. When we verify a MVCT fusion considering priority to liver than bone-technique. We sent MVCT images to Mim_vista (Mimsoftware, ver .5.4. USA) and we re-delineated stomach, duodenum and bowel to bowel_organ and delineated liver. First, we analyzed MVCT images to check the setup variation. Second we compared dose difference between tumor and OAR based on adaptive dose through adaptive planning station and Mim_vista. Results: Average setup variation from MVCT was $-0.66{\pm}1.53$ mm (left-right) $0.39{\pm}4.17$ mm (superior-inferior), $0.71{\pm}1.74$ mm (anterior-posterior), $-0.18{\pm}0.30$ degrees (roll). 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) and 2nd group (d<1) were similar to setup variation. 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) of $V_{diff3%}$ (volume of 3% difference of dose) of GTV through adaptive planing station was $0.78{\pm}0.05%$, PTV was $9.97{\pm}3.62%$, $V_{diff5%}$ was GTV 0.0%, PTV was $2.9{\pm}0.95%$, maximum dose difference rate of bowel_organ was $-6.85{\pm}1.11%$. 2nd Group (d<1) GTV of $V_{diff3%}$ was $1.62{\pm}0.55%$, PTV was $8.61{\pm}2.01%$, $V_{diff5%}$ of GTV was 0.0%, PTV was $5.33{\pm}2.32%$, maximum dose difference rate of bowel_organ was $28.33{\pm}24.41%$. Conclusion: Despite we saw diaphragm movement more than 5 mm with flouroscopy after use an abdominal compressor, average setup_variation from MVCT was less than 5 mm. Therefore, we could estimate the range of setup_error within a 5 mm. Target's dose difference rate of 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) and 2nd group (d<1) were similar, while 1st group ($d{\geq}1$) and 2nd group (d<1)'s bowel_organ's maximum dose difference rate's maximum difference was more than 35%, 1st group ($d{\geq}1$)'s bowel_organ's maximum dose difference rate was smaller than 2nd group (d<1). When applicating SBRT to HCC, abdominal compressor is useful to control diaphragm movement in selected patients with more than 1 cm bowel_organ distance.

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Prediction of Target Motion Using Neural Network for 4-dimensional Radiation Therapy (신경회로망을 이용한 4차원 방사선치료에서의 조사 표적 움직임 예측)

  • Lee, Sang-Kyung;Kim, Yong-Nam;Park, Kyung-Ran;Jeong, Kyeong-Keun;Lee, Chang-Geol;Lee, Ik-Jae;Seong, Jin-Sil;Choi, Won-Hoon;Chung, Yoon-Sun;Park, Sung-Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2009
  • Studies on target motion in 4-dimensional radiotherapy are being world-widely conducted to enhance treatment record and protection of normal organs. Prediction of tumor motion might be very useful and/or essential for especially free-breathing system during radiation delivery such as respiratory gating system and tumor tracking system. Neural network is powerful to express a time series with nonlinearity because its prediction algorithm is not governed by statistic formula but finds a rule of data expression. This study intended to assess applicability of neural network method to predict tumor motion in 4-dimensional radiotherapy. Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithm was employed as a learning algorithm. Considering reparation data for 10 patients, prediction by the neural network algorithms was compared with the measurement by the real-time position management (RPM) system. The results showed that the neural network algorithm has the excellent accuracy of maximum absolute error smaller than 3 mm, except for the cases in which the maximum amplitude of respiration is over the range of respiration used in the learning process of neural network. It indicates the insufficient learning of the neural network for extrapolation. The problem could be solved by acquiring a full range of respiration before learning procedure. Further works are programmed to verify a feasibility of practical application for 4-dimensional treatment system, including prediction performance according to various system latency and irregular patterns of respiration.

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Comparison of Helical TomoTherapy with Linear Accelerator Base Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Head & Neck Cases (두경부암 환자에 대한 선량체적 히스토그램에 따른 토모치료외 선형가속기기반 세기변조방사선치료의 정량적 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Yoon, Myong-Geun;Park, Sung-Yong;Lee, Se-Byeong;Shin, Dong-Ho;Lee, Doo-Hyeon;Kwak, Jung-Won;Park, So-Ah;Lim, Young-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Sung;Shin, Jung-Wook;Cho, Kwan-Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2008
  • TomoTherapy has a merit to treat cancer with Intensity modulated radiation and combines precise 3-D imaging from computerized tomography (CT scanning) with highly targeted radiation beams and rotating beamlets. In this paper, we comparing the dose distribution between TomoTherapy and linear accelerator based intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for 10 Head & Neck patients using TomoTherapy which is newly installed and operated at National Cancer Center since Sept. 2006. Furthermore, we estimate how the homogeneity and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) are changed by motion of target. Inverse planning was carried out using CadPlan planning system (CadPlan R.6.4.7, Varian Medical System Inc. 3100 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1129, USA). For each patient, an inverse IMRT plan was also made using TomoTherapy Hi-Art System (Hi-Art2_2_4 2.2.4.15, TomoTherapy Incorporated, 1240 Deming Way, Madson, WI 53717-1954, USA) and using the same targets and optimization goals. All TomoTherapy plans compared favorably with the IMRT plans regarding sparing of the organs at risk and keeping an equivalent target dose homogeneity. Our results suggest that TomoTherapy is able to reduce the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) further, keeping a similar target dose homogeneity.

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A Case Study on the Effective Liquid Manure Treatment System in Pig Farms (양돈농가의 돈분뇨 액비화 처리 우수사례 실태조사)

  • Kim, Soo-Ryang;Jeon, Sang-Joon;Hong, In-Gi;Kim, Dong-Kyun;Lee, Myung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study is to collect basis data for to establish standard administrative processes of liquid fertilizer treatment. From this survey we could make out the key point of each step through a case of effective liquid manure treatment system in pig house. It is divided into six step; 1. piggery slurry management step, 2. Solid-liquid separation step, 3. liquid fertilizer treatment (aeration) step, 4. liquid fertilizer treatment (microorganism, recirculation and internal return) step, 5. liquid fertilizer treatment (completion) step, 6. land application step. From now on, standardization process of liquid manure treatment technologies need to be develop based on the six steps process.

무령왕릉보존에 있어서의 지질공학적 고찰

  • 서만철;최석원;구민호
    • Proceedings of the KSEEG Conference
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    • pp.42-63
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    • 2001
  • The detail survey on the Songsanri tomb site including the Muryong royal tomb was carried out during the period from May 1 , 1996 to April 30, 1997. A quantitative analysis was tried to find changes of tomb itself since the excavation. Main subjects of the survey are to find out the cause of infiltration of rain water and groundwater into the tomb and the tomb site, monitoring of the movement of tomb structure and safety, removal method of the algae inside the tomb, and air controlling system to solve high humidity condition and dew inside the tomb. For these purposes, detail survery inside and outside the tombs using a electronic distance meter and small airplane, monitoring of temperature and humidity, geophysical exploration including electrical resistivity, geomagnetic, gravity and georadar methods, drilling, measurement of physical and chemical properties of drill core and measurement of groundwater permeability were conducted. We found that the center of the subsurface tomb and the center of soil mound on ground are different 4.5 meter and 5 meter for the 5th tomb and 7th tomb, respectively. The fact has caused unequal stress on the tomb structure. In the 7th tomb (the Muryong royal tomb), 435 bricks were broken out of 6025 bricks in 1972, but 1072 bricks are broken in 1996. The break rate has been increased about 250% for just 24 years. The break rate increased about 290% in the 6th tomb. The situation in 1996 is the result for just 24 years while the situation in 1972 was the result for about 1450 years. Status of breaking of bircks represents that a severe problem is undergoing. The eastern wall of the Muryong royal tomb is moving toward inside the tomb with the rate of 2.95 mm/myr in rainy season and 1.52 mm/myr in dry season. The frontal wall shows biggest movement in the 7th tomb having a rate of 2.05 mm/myr toward the passage way. The 6th tomb shows biggest movement among the three tombs having the rate of 7.44mm/myr and 3.61mm/myr toward east for the high break rate of bricks in the 6th tomb. Georadar section of the shallow soil layer represents several faults in the top soil layer of the 5th tomb and 7th tomb. Raninwater flew through faults tnto the tomb and nearby ground and high water content in nearby ground resulted in low resistance and high humidity inside tombs. High humidity inside tomb made a good condition for algae living with high temperature and moderate light source. The 6th tomb is most severe situation and the 7th tomb is the second in terms of algae living. Artificial change of the tomb environment since the excavation, infiltration of rain water and groundwater into the tombsite and bad drainage system had resulted in dangerous status for the tomb structure. Main cause for many problems including breaking of bricks, movement of tomb walls and algae living is infiltration of rainwater and groundwater into the tomb site. Therefore, protection of the tomb site from high water content should be carried out at first. Waterproofing method includes a cover system over the tomvsith using geotextile, clay layer and geomembrane and a deep trench which is 2 meter down to the base of the 5th tomb at the north of the tomv site. Decrease and balancing of soil weight above the tomb are also needed for the sfety of tomb structures. For the algae living inside tombs, we recommend to spray K101 which developed in this study on the surface of wall and then, exposure to ultraviolet light sources for 24 hours. Air controlling system should be changed to a constant temperature and humidity system for the 6th tomb and the 7th tomb. It seems to much better to place the system at frontal room and to ciculate cold air inside tombs to solve dew problem. Above mentioned preservation methods are suggested to give least changes to tomb site and to solve the most fundmental problems. Repairing should be planned in order and some special cares are needed for the safety of tombs in reparing work. Finally, a monitoring system measuring tilting of tomb walls, water content, groundwater level, temperature and humidity is required to monitor and to evaluate the repairing work.

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