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A Case Study on the Calculation of Delay Damages for Contractors according to the Extension of Contract Period (계약기간 연장에 따른 시공자의 손실비용 산정에 관한 사례 연구.)

  • Lee Gi-Han;Kim Yong-Su
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute Of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • autumn
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to calculate delay damages for contractors. The study has been performed by investigation of delay cost occurrence status and the analysis of subway construction cases. The results of this study are as follows: 1. Delay cost( 1day) equivalent to $0.005\%$ of total construction cost by analysis case studies. 2. Including bank interest, dealy cost is analysed as the following; $1.1\~9.2\%$ of total construction cost in part extension period, $3.3\~11.0\%$ of total construction cost in total extension period. 3. In comparison between liquidated damages and delay cost, liquidated damages account for average 20.1 times of delay costs. 4. Acceleration cost will be calculate on the basis of delay cost calculation method. In the result of this method, acceleration cost is equal to delay cost at least or must be large than delay cost

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Prevalence and Treatment Pattern of Korean Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders (한국인 턱관절장애 환자의 유병률과 진료 양태)

  • Yang, Hee-Young;Kim, Mee-Eun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.63-79
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    • 2009
  • While previous epidemiological studies on temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been based on a given health center or population sample, no study has been performed on general population of Korea, especially concerning about treatment pattern such as clinician’s specialty involved in TMD treatment, types and amount of prescription medication and cost. This study aimed to investigate magnitude of health visits and treatment patterns for Korean patients with TMD through the computerized database of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRAS). Inclusion criteria were all patients registered on the HIRAS database over 3 years' period from 2003 to 2005 and the medical records of patients with TMD as a main diagnosis were extracted. Information collected was as follows; distribution related to gender, age and region and type of hospital the patients visited, treatment duration, clinicians' specialty involved in treatment, cost, types of prescription medication and surgical treatment. The results of this study indicated that 0.15% of the population yearly sought TMD treatment, presenting with increase of incidence over the three years. Most of TMD patients were women (99.8%) and the biggest age group was second and third decades and decreased with age. Seoul and Kyeonggi province presented with higher incidence of TMD compared to the other regions of Korea, which seems to be related with magnitude of population. 56% of TMD patients visited primary care sector and the numbers of treatment visits was the highest in dental clinic (38.4%), followed by orthopedics (28%) and ENT (13.6%) clinics in order. Duration of prescription medication was the longest for anti-inflammatory analgesics, followed by antipsychotic drugs and muscle relaxants. Inpatient care related to TMD was primarily performed in dental hospital compared to medical hospital. Medical database of HIRAS provided comprehensive and vast information on epidemiologic characteristics and treatment patterns for patients seeking TMD treatment, which can be more reliable data to expect medical demand for TMD in condition that accurate diagnosis and standardized treatment is delivered in clinical settings.

THE PALATAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE CHILDREN WITH CLASS II DIV.1 MALOCCLUSION IN MIXED DENTITION : A STUDY USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL LASER SCANNER (혼합치열기 II급 1류 부정교합 어린이의 구개형태 : 3차원 레이저 스캐너를 이용한 연구)

  • Yang, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Hahn, Se-Hyun;Kim, Chong-Chul
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.270-277
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to clarify the palatal volume and anterior palatal slope of the children with class II div.1 malocclusion and normal occlusion in mixed dentition(Hellman dental age III A) using three-dimensional laser scanner. Samples were consisted of 31 children with skeletal class II div.1 malocclusion in mixed dentition and 29 children with normal occlusion and profile among the contestants in 2000-2004 Healthy Dentition Contest in Seoul. Totally 60 maxillary study model were taken. Each cast was scanned by three-dimensional laser scanner (Breuckmann opto-TOP HE, INUS, Korea) and shaped into the three-dimension image by Rapidform 2004 program(INUS, Korea). And the palatal volume and anterior palatal slope of each cast were calculated by Rapidform 2004 program(INUS, Korea). The values were statistically compared and evaluated by independent samples t-test with 95% of significance level. The results were as follows: 1. Palatal volume was significantly lesser in children with class II div.1 malocclusion than that of normal occlusion in mixed dentition(p<0.05). 2. No significant difference in the anterior palatal slope and palatal height was found between the children with class II div.1 malocclusion and normal occlusion in mixed dentition(p>0.05). 3. Palatal length was significantly greater in children with class II div.1 malocclusion than that of normal occlusion in mixed dentition(p<0.01). 4. Intercanine and intermolar width were significantly lesser in children with class II div.1 malocclusion than those of normal occlusion in mixed dentition(respectively p<0.05 and p<0.01).

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Development of Science Academic Emotion Scale for Elementary Students (초등학생 과학 학습정서 검사 도구 개발)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Hyo-Nam
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1367-1384
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a Science Academic Emotion Scale for Elementary Students. To make a scale, authors extract a core of 14 emotions related to science learning situations from Kim & Kim (2013) and literature review. Items on the scale consisted of 14 emotions and science learning situations. The first preliminary scale had 174 items on it. The number of 174 items was reduced and elaborated on by three science educators. Authors verified the scale using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, inter-item consistency and concurrent validity. The second preliminary scale consisted of 141 items. The preliminary scale was reduced to seven factors and 56 items by applying exploratory factor analysis twice. The seven factors include: enjoyment contentment interest, boredom, shame, discontent, anger, anxiety, and laziness. The 56 items were elaborated on by five science educators. The scale with 56 items was fixed with seven factors and 35 items to get the final scale by applying confirmatory factor analysis twice. Except for Chi-square and GFI (Goodness of Fit Index), other various goodness of fit characteristics of the seven factors and 35 items model showed good estimated figures. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The Cronbach of seven factors are 0.95 in enjoyment contentment interest, 0.81 in boredom, 0.87 in shame, 0.82 in discontent, 0.87 in anger, 0.77 in anxiety, 0.81 in laziness. The correlation coefficient was 0.59 in enjoyment contentment interest, 0.54 in anxiety, 0.42 in shame, and 0.28 in boredom, which were estimated using the Science Academic Emotion Scale and National Assessment System of Science-Related Affective Domain (Kim et al., 1998). Based on the results, authors judged that the Science Academic Emotion Scale for Elementary Students achieved an acceptable validity and reliability.

Psychometric Evaluation of a Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance and Student Nurse Stress Index Using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination - Modules for Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes (객관구조화 임상시험을 활용한 간호수행능력의 Six Dimension Scale과 간호학생 스트레스 평가지수의 도구 평가-천식 및 1형 당뇨 모듈을 중심으로)

  • Park, Kyong-Ok;Ahn, Young-Mee;Kang, Na-Rae;Lee, Mi-Jin;Sohn, Min
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The study purposes were to describe the process of developing the Korean versions of the Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance (Six-D) and Student Nurse Stress Index (SNSI) and psychometric evaluation of the two measurements. Methods: This was a methodology study using a descriptive cross-sectional design with 51 nursing students in 4th year of university. Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach alphas. Construct validity was determined by exploring correlations among Six-D, SNSI, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), self-efficacy and grade point average (GPA). Results: Internal consistency reliability of Six-D and SNSI was acceptable with Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ of .95 and .82. Correlation analysis to determine construct validity revealed that Six-D presented positive correlations with OSCE (r=.109~.272) and self-efficacy (r=.005~.161) and negative correlation with GPA (r=-.246~-.394), although all were not statistically significant. SNSI presented all negative correlations with OSCE (r= -.007~-.238), self-efficacy (r=-.246~-.394), and GPA (r=-.092~-.426) and were mostly statistically significant except OSCE. Conclusion: Six-D needs more evidence to confirm validity to predict observed clinical competency and theoretical relationships with self-efficacy and GPA. However, SNSI presented trends of expected relationships with relevant variables. Therefore, further research is recommended in testing validity of Six-D with other student populations.

Militarization and Weaponization of Outer Space in International Law

  • Kim, Han-Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.261-284
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    • 2018
  • The current international legal system does not provide a safeguard against the militarization and the weaponization of outer space. Although the term "peaceful use of outer space" in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty(OST) appears in official government statements or in multilateral space treaties, it is still without an authoritative definition in reviewing national practices. The ambiguous ban on weapons in Article IV of the OST allows countries to loophole on the deployment of other weapons other than nuclear weapons. Meanwhile "Draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapon in Outer Space and of the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects(PPWT)" to Conference on Disarmament (CD) commissioned by the UN General Assembly's Special Session jointly submitted by China and Russia in 2008 and later revised in 2014, attempting to define and prohibit the proliferation of weapons in outer space and provided definitions of prohibited weapons, are opposed by the US on the grounds that currently there is no arms race in outer space. Some experts support a hard law approach in which binding laws aimed at ultimately creating integrated and binding legal instruments in all aspects of the use of outer space should be adopted to regulate the military use of space. However as a temporary measure the soft law guidelines should be developed for the non liquiet, a situation where there is no applicable law. The soft law could be used to create support for the declaration of the treaties and to create international customary law. For example, the 1963 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space that regulates the activities of the state in the exploration and use of the universe, and the 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space will illustrated. While substantial portions of the former was codified later in the 1967 OST, the latter which, although written in somewhat mandatory terms, have been consistently complied with by states, have arguably become part of customary international law. On November 12, 1974, the General Assembly reaffirmed that the development of international law may be reflected inter alia, by declarations and resolutions of the General Assembly which may to that extent be taken into consideration by the International Court of Justice.

A Legal Study on the Certificate System for Light Sports Aircraft Repairman (경량항공기 정비사 자격증명제도에 관한 법적 고찰)

  • Kim, Woong-Yi;Shin, Dai-Won;Lee, Gi-Myung
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.175-204
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    • 2018
  • Recently, the aviation leisure business has been legislated, and related industries have become active base with increasing the light sports aircraft within the legislation system. However, in the light sports aircraft safety problem, it is often mentioned that the flight is in violation of the regulations, the lack of safety consciousness of the operator and lack of ability, and the personal operators have a risk of accident of light aircraft such as insufficient safety management and poor maintenance. At present, the maintenance of light sports aircraft is carried out by the A & P mechanic in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations, but it is difficult to say that it is equipped with qualification and expertise. It is not a legal issue to undertake light sports aircraft maintenance work on the regulation system. However, the problem of reliability and appropriateness is constantly being raised because airplanes, light sports aircraft, and ultra-light vehicle are classified and serviced in a legal method. Although legal and institutional frameworks for light sports aircraft are separated, much of it is stipulated in the aviation law provisions. Light sports aircraft maintenance work also follows the current aircraft maintenance system. In the United States, Europe, and Australia where General Aviation developed, legal and institutional devices related to maintenance of light aircraft were introduced, and specialized maintenance tasks are covered in the light aircraft mechanics system. As a result of analysis of domestic and foreign laws and regulations, it is necessary to introduce the qualification system for maintenance of light aircraft. In advanced aviation countries such as the United States, Europe, and Australia, a light sports aircraft repairman system is installed to perform safety management. This is to cope with changes in the operating environment of the new light sports aircraft. This study does not suggest the need for a light aircraft repairman system. From the viewpoint of the legal system, the examination of the relevant laws and regulations revealed that the supplementary part of the system is necessary. It is also require that the necessity of introduction is raised in comparison with overseas cases. Based on these results, it is necessary to introduce the system into the light aircraft repairman system, and suggestions for how to improve it are suggested.

A Study on the Effect of Donors' Utility on Their Intention for Donation Continuity Focusing on Private Contribution to Social Welfare Organizations (사회복지기관 개인기부자들의 기부효용감이 기부지속의도에 미치는 영향 -기관신뢰감과 자기수용감의 매개효과와 경제수준의 조절효과를 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Wonjune
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.333-361
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    • 2014
  • By viewing donors for social welfare organization as both givers and beneficiaries, this study aims to address the correlations between the continuity of donors' contributions and enhanced sense of satisfaction as a consequence of participating in donation activities. The predominant concern of this study centers on: (1) the direct effects of individuals' emotional utility, demonstrable utility, trust toward donee organization, self acceptance on the continuation of their donation; (2) the direct effects of individuals' emotional utility, demonstrable utility, trust toward donee organizations on individuals' self-acceptance; (3) the direct effects of individuals' emotional utility, demonstrable utility on their trust toward a donee organization; (4) the indirect effects of individuals' self acceptance on two paths i.e. emotional utility${\rightarrow}$trust${\rightarrow}$self acceptance, and demonstrable utility${\rightarrow}$trust${\rightarrow}$self acceptance; (5) the indirect effects of individuals' individuals' trust toward donee organization on self acceptance on four paths i.e. emotional utility${\rightarrow}$trust${\rightarrow}$continuity of donation; demonstrable utility${\rightarrow}$trust${\rightarrow}$continuity of donation; emotional utility${\rightarrow}$trust${\rightarrow}$self-acceptance, and demonstrable utility${\rightarrow}$trust${\rightarrow}$self-acceptance; (6) the moderating effects of 'financial status' on the causal relationships in the prescribed structural equation model(SEM). In order to verify the moderating effect of 'financial status', multi-group analysis between each of the two groups were conducted. Research is based on a survey among 1116 donors who had made charitable, monetary contributions to social welfare organizations in Daegu and Kyungpook province. Data was collected from 29 organizations. In order to address the research questions, structural equation were employed. A variety of tests are conducted(metric invariance, critical ratio for difference, structural invariance, multi-group analysis, bias-corrected boot-strapping, latent mean analysis including Cohen's effect test).

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How Reliable is Sputum PCR Test in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis When Sputum Smear is Negative? (객담 결핵균 도말검사가 음성일때 중합효소연쇄반응검사와 진단적 신뢰도에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Seung-Hoon;Lee, Jae-Myung;Kang, Min-Jong;Son, Jee-Woong;Lee, Seung-Joon;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Lee, Myung-Goo;Hyun, In-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck;Lee, Kyung-Wha;Joe, Hyun-Chan
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.222-228
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    • 2001
  • Backgrounds : Recent technological developments have introduced a new method to identifying M. tuberculosis complex DNA in clinical samples directly. The direct amplification test (DAT) is approved for identifying M. tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens that are smear-positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). When there is a discrepancy between the AFB smear and DAT, no information on their clinical utility is currently available. In this study, the diagnostic reliability of DAT was investigated in suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients whose sputum AFB smear was negative. Methods : From June 1, 1998 through May 30, 1999, 909 patients with presumed active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled. A sputum AFB stain, culture, DAT and/or biopsy were performed. Using the criteria of clinical tuberculosis or confirmed tuberculosis, the positive predictive value of DAT in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Results : The positive predictive value of DAT was 82.1% by the clinically active tuberculosis criteria. However, it decreased to 61.5% when diagnosis was restricted to only to culture positive or biopsy proven cases. The false positive rate of DAT was 18.0%. Conclusion : The DAT is a valuable diagnostic method in suspected patients whose sputum AFB is was negative.

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Depression and Anxiety in Outpatients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (만성폐쇄성폐질환 환자에서 우울과 불안심리 평가)

  • Ryu, Yon Ju;Chun, Eun Mi;Sim, Yun Su;Lee, Jin Hwa
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2007
  • Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have often been reported to suffer from depression and anxiety possibly due to the exacerbation, hospitalization and mortality of COPD. However,scarce data are available in Korea. This study assessed degree of depression and anxiety, and evaluated the factors associated with depressive symptoms in COPD. Methods: The cross-sectional data on the lung function measurements, smoking behavior, body mass index (BMI), age, gender, depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were evaluated in 72 outpatients with COPD and 50 controls without underling lung diseases from September, 2005 to October, 2006 in the Ewha medical center. Results: 1) The age, body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels were similar in the patients and controls. The BDI scores (16(0-37) vs. 12(1-30), p=0.001) and the prevalence of depression (36% vs. 6%, p<0.0001) were higher in the COPD patients than in the controls. In the COPD group, the prevalence of depression increased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.008). The prevalence was 18%(4/22), in mild cases, 30%(6/20) in moderate cases, 52%(13/25) in severe cases and 60%(3/5) in very severe cases. 2) The SAI and TAI scores were higher in the COPD patients (44(20-67) and 47(20-66)) than in the healthy controls (39(26-65) and 44(33-90)). There were a significant correlation between the depression and anxiety scores (p<0.001). 3) A lower BMI, lower postbronchodilator $FEV_1$, current smoking behavior and severity of COPD were univariately associated with the depressive group in COPD, 4) while multivariate logistic analysis revealed only the severe-to-very severe group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 12.9) to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: COPD is strongly associated with depression and anxiety. Therfore, screening for psychological problems in COPD patients is essential, particularly in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD.