• Title/Summary/Keyword: 신뢰

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How Reliable is Sputum PCR Test in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis When Sputum Smear is Negative? (객담 결핵균 도말검사가 음성일때 중합효소연쇄반응검사와 진단적 신뢰도에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Seung-Hoon;Lee, Jae-Myung;Kang, Min-Jong;Son, Jee-Woong;Lee, Seung-Joon;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Lee, Myung-Goo;Hyun, In-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck;Lee, Kyung-Wha;Joe, Hyun-Chan
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.222-228
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    • 2001
  • Backgrounds : Recent technological developments have introduced a new method to identifying M. tuberculosis complex DNA in clinical samples directly. The direct amplification test (DAT) is approved for identifying M. tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens that are smear-positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). When there is a discrepancy between the AFB smear and DAT, no information on their clinical utility is currently available. In this study, the diagnostic reliability of DAT was investigated in suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients whose sputum AFB smear was negative. Methods : From June 1, 1998 through May 30, 1999, 909 patients with presumed active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled. A sputum AFB stain, culture, DAT and/or biopsy were performed. Using the criteria of clinical tuberculosis or confirmed tuberculosis, the positive predictive value of DAT in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Results : The positive predictive value of DAT was 82.1% by the clinically active tuberculosis criteria. However, it decreased to 61.5% when diagnosis was restricted to only to culture positive or biopsy proven cases. The false positive rate of DAT was 18.0%. Conclusion : The DAT is a valuable diagnostic method in suspected patients whose sputum AFB is was negative.

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Depression and Anxiety in Outpatients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (만성폐쇄성폐질환 환자에서 우울과 불안심리 평가)

  • Ryu, Yon Ju;Chun, Eun Mi;Sim, Yun Su;Lee, Jin Hwa
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2007
  • Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have often been reported to suffer from depression and anxiety possibly due to the exacerbation, hospitalization and mortality of COPD. However,scarce data are available in Korea. This study assessed degree of depression and anxiety, and evaluated the factors associated with depressive symptoms in COPD. Methods: The cross-sectional data on the lung function measurements, smoking behavior, body mass index (BMI), age, gender, depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were evaluated in 72 outpatients with COPD and 50 controls without underling lung diseases from September, 2005 to October, 2006 in the Ewha medical center. Results: 1) The age, body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels were similar in the patients and controls. The BDI scores (16(0-37) vs. 12(1-30), p=0.001) and the prevalence of depression (36% vs. 6%, p<0.0001) were higher in the COPD patients than in the controls. In the COPD group, the prevalence of depression increased with increasing GOLD stage (p=0.008). The prevalence was 18%(4/22), in mild cases, 30%(6/20) in moderate cases, 52%(13/25) in severe cases and 60%(3/5) in very severe cases. 2) The SAI and TAI scores were higher in the COPD patients (44(20-67) and 47(20-66)) than in the healthy controls (39(26-65) and 44(33-90)). There were a significant correlation between the depression and anxiety scores (p<0.001). 3) A lower BMI, lower postbronchodilator $FEV_1$, current smoking behavior and severity of COPD were univariately associated with the depressive group in COPD, 4) while multivariate logistic analysis revealed only the severe-to-very severe group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 12.9) to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: COPD is strongly associated with depression and anxiety. Therfore, screening for psychological problems in COPD patients is essential, particularly in patients with severe-to-very severe COPD.

The Effects of Learning Transfer on Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use in Enterprise e-Learning - Focused on Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Work Environment - (지각된 유용성과 사용용이성이 기업 이러닝 교육의 학습전이에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 -자기효능감과 업무환경의 매개효과를 중심으로-)

  • Park, Dae-Bum;Gu, Ja-Won
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2018
  • This research performed the empirical test for the effects of learning transfer on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, self-efficacy and work environment using 390 employees who have experienced e-learning in domestic and foreign companies. Analyzed the mediating effects of self-efficacy and work environment in addition to direct effect of each factor on learning transfer. The results showed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use of e-learning learner had a positive(+) effect on self-efficacy and a positive influence on supervisor and peer support and organizational climate. Self-efficacy showed a positive effect on learning transfer, and supervisor support, peer support and organizational climate had a positive influence on learning transfer as well. Perceived usefulness also had a positive effect on learning transfer. However, perceived ease-of-use had no significant effect on learning transfer. As a result of the mediating effect analysis, self-efficacy and work environment were analyzed to have mediating effects between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and learning transfer. The implications of this study are as follows. First, this study designed a new research model that reflects factors influencing the effect of learning transfer on acceptance of e-learning that is common in corporate education. It has derived a research model of perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use, which were used as mediating variables for external characteristics factors, as independent variables, using self-efficacy and work environment as mediating variables, which were studied as external factors. Second, most of the studies on technology acceptance model and learning transfer are conducted in a single country. The reliability was enhanced by testing the study models using different samples from 26 countries. Third, perceived usefulness and ease-of-use in existing studies have been considered as key determinants of acceptance intention and learning transfer. This study explored the mediating effects of learner and environmental factors on the accepted information technology and strengthened and supplemented the path of learning transfer of perceived usefulness and ease-of-use. In addition, based on the sample analysis of various countries used in this study, it is expected that future international comparative studies will be possible.

Morphological Study on the Dorsal Lingual Papillae of Myotis macrodactylus (큰발윗수염박쥐(Myotis macrodactylus)의 혀 유두의 형태학적 연구)

  • Hwang, Hyun-Suk;Lee, Jung-Hun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.147-156
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    • 2007
  • The dorsal lingual papillae of Myotis macrodactylus were investigated morphologically using scanning electron microscopy. Three types of lingual papillae from Myotis macrodactylus were recognized. The filiform(Fi) papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue, and they could be classified into 5 types of papillae by the shape, size and number of the protrusion. Type I was distributed on dorsal surface of the apex in the anterior region of the tongue, has a crow-like shape with ten to fifteen formed projections. Type II was located in the medial portion of the anterior region of the tongue, has an eight to ten spin-like protrusion. Type III was distributed on the medial portion of the tongue, has a scale-like papille with five to seven protrusion. Type IV was distributed on the both lateral portion of the posterior region of the tongue, has a small conical papillae, does not have needle projection. Type V have not needle projection, a large of conical papillae, on the both lateral portion of the posterior region of the tongue. Most Fu(Fungiform) papillae were distributed the both lateral region or medial portion of the posterior region of the tongue, has a round or oval shape with $40{\sim}45$ papillae. The small $(65{\mu}m)$, meddle $(75{\mu}m)$ and large $(120{\mu}m)$ fungiform papillae were distributed on dorsal surface of the apex in the anterior, the both lateral portions and medial portion of the posterior region of the tongue, respectively. Two large oval vallate (V) papillae are located in the medial portion of the posterior region of the tongue. In conclusion, the morphology of lingual papillae is useful to determine species relationship among Myotis species. It suggests that the difference of types and number of lingual papillae caused by the difference of food habit.

Standardization of Korean Version of Daily Stress Inventory(K-DSI) (한국어판 일상 생활 스트레스 척도(K-DSI)의 표준화 연구)

  • Joe, Sook-Haeng;Lee, Hyeon-Soo;Song, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Sub, Kwang-Yun;Sin, Dong-Kyun;Ko, Seung-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.72-87
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : This study was to provide normative data of Korean version of DSI(K-DSI), a sensitive measure of relatively minor stressors that could be administered daily. Methods : K-DSI was administered in 524 adults, age of 19 or over, daily for 1 week. On the seventh day, Becks Depression Inventory(BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), and Social Readjustment Rating Scale(SRRS) were also given to test the convergent validity. Analyses(ANOVA or t-test) were conducted to examine the potential effects of demographic variables on K-DSI score. Internal consistency for reliability and Pearson's corelation coefficient with BDI, STAI, SRRS for convergent validity were computed. Percentile scores were calculated for daily and weekly K-DSI Event, Impact and I/E Ratio scores. Results : K-DSI scores in women were higher than those in men. According to age and educational level, the younger and the higher educational level the normative groups were, the higher were K-DSI scores. Among the 5 categories of the inventory, the category of cognitive stressors was highest. Internal consistency of K-DSI(Cronbach's $\alpha$) was .99. Daily and Weekly events and impacts scores were significantly correlated with the scores of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. 75 percentile scores of the daily/weekly Events, Impacts, and I/E ratio were 17/118 - 124, 57/368 - 389 and 3.48 - 3.49/3.47 - 3.48 respectively. And 95 percentile scores of daily/weekly Events, Impacts, and I/E ratio were 57/151- 161, 405/1038 - 1122, and 4.72 - 4.86/4.46 - 4.56 respectively. Conclusion : Reliability and validity of K-DSI were tested satisfactorily. Authors presented the normative data of K-DSI for Koreans. K-DSI could be a useful measure in clinical settings or researches to assess the minor stressors frequently experienced in everyday life.

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A Study of Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Counting System and Gamma Camera (핵의학 계측기기 및 감마카메라의 정도관리 연구)

  • 손혜경;김희중;정해조;정하규;이종두;유형식
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of performing nuclear medicine quality control in korea and to test selected protocols of quality control of nuclear medicine counting system and gamma camera. Materials and Methods: Fifty three hospitals were included to investigate the current status of nuclear medicine quality control in korea. The precision of dose calibrator and thyroid uptake system was measured with Tc-99m 35.52 MBq for 2 minuets and Tc-99m 5.14 MBq for 10 sec every one minute, respectively. The sensitivity of CeraSPECT$^{TM}$ with low energy high resolution parallel hole collimator was measured using two cylindrical phantoms with 15 cm in diameter and 12 cm and 30 cm in heights containing Tc-99m. The correction factor for sensitivity of CeraSPECT$^{TM}$ was calculated using phantom data. The system planar sensitivity, uniformity, count rate and spatial resolution were measured for Varicam gamma camera with low energy high resolution parallel hole collimator using 140 keV centered 20% energy window, 256$\times$256 or 512$\times$512 matrix sizes. Results: The quality control of dose calibrator and well counter were showed poor performance status. On the other hand, The quality control of gamma camera and other systems were showed relatively good performance status. The results of precision of dose calibrator and thyroid uptake system was $\pm$1.4%(<$\pm$5%) and chi^2=29.7(>16.92), respectively. It showed that the sensitivity of CeraSPECT$^{TM}$ was higher in center slices compared with the edge slices. After correction of nonuniform sensitivities for patient data, it showed better results compare with prior to correction. System planar sensitivity of Varicam gamma camera was 4.39 CPM/MBq. The observed count rate at 20% loss was 102,407 counts/sec (head 1), 113,427 counts/sec (head 2), when input count rate was 81,926 counts/sec (head 1), 90,741 counts/sec (head 2). The spatial resolution without scatter medium were 8.16 mm of FWHM and 14.85 mm of FWTM. The spatial resolution with scatter medium were 8.87 mm of FWHM and 18.87 mm of FWTM. Conclusion: It is necessary to understand the importance of quality control and to perform quality control of nuclear medicine devices.vices.

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A Study on the Knowledge and Use of Essential Oil by People of Different Age -Focused on women in Zhejiang, China-

  • Ying, Qiaomeng;Kim, Kyeong-Ran
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 2021
  • With the advent of the age of"untact" modern people are pursuing a healthy body and mind. In order to achieve well-being, LOHAS and Wellness,people prefer to use natural affinity alternative therapies, Aromatherapy. This study focuses on women in their 20s~50s in Zhejiang Province, with the aim of investigating their knowledge and use of essential oils.The questionnaire was divided into four parts: 3 questions for general question, 11 questions for knowledge, 13 questions for use and 9 questions for satisfaction. In addition, the study was conducted using the WeChat and the Wenjuanxing Program from July 5 to August 30, 2019. Finally, a total of 617 questionnaires were analyzed. In this study, SPSS WIN 21.0 program is used for frequency analysis. The level of knowledge and satisfaction is verified by Cronbach's α. And the following analysis results were obtained by frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test(χ2), one-way ANOVA on the understanding level and usege of essential oils according to age. The results were as follows. The most common characteristics of subjects were the 20s, university students, essential oil recognition was high in having experience. There is no great difference in knowledge or satisfaction depending on age. knowledge and satisfaction was moderate. The results of experience in the use of essential oils were higher among all age groups, those who in their 30s did not think that the use of essential oils would be effective. However, people in their 20s and 40s and older have unclear answers, indicating that results showed a difference. The results of the survey on usage showed that there were significant differences in period of use, place of purchase, method of purchase, purpose of use, place of use, number of use, frequency of use, body parts of use. According to the study, awareness and knowledge of essential oils vary according to age, and those in their 20s use essential oils for facial skin, and those in their 30s and older use essential oils for stress relief and body management. This study provides basic information on marketing related to diversified essential oil products according to age.

Development of Evaluation Index for Infection Control and Prevention at Dental Hospital and Its Validity Verification (치과의료기관 감염관리 평가지표 개발 및 타당성 검증)

  • Bae, Sung-Suk;Lee, Myung-Sun
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.254-263
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    • 2013
  • This study is to develop an evaluation index for infection control and to verify its validity by examining each set of weighted data collected from 121 infection control personnel at dental hospitals who agreed to the preliminary survey and advisory. The study was conducted from 14th December, 2010 to 31st January, 2011, and PASW Statistics 18.0 and AMOS 5.0 had been used for the statistical data analysis. As a result of the study, five evaluation factors with 21 sub-indicators have been identified at structural level, eight evaluation factors with 32 sub-indicators at processing level, and one evaluation fact with five sub-indicators at resulting level, total 14 evaluation factors with 58 sub-indicators throughout all levels. The path analysis added on the result that 'standard precautions ($x_1$)', 'infection control support system ($x_2$)', 'internal and external characteristics ($x_3$)' are exogenous variables that affect on other variables, and 'standard infection control ($y_1$)','Organization equipment management handwashing ($y_2$)', 'environmental infection control ($y_3$), 'personal protective equipment ($y_4$)', 'waste and laundry management ($y_5$)' are endogenous variables that are infulenced by others. The standardized metrics are more needed than anything else when examining on infection control. This study attempts to develop proper dental infection control metrics adequately adjusted for domestic circumstances, and therefore to contribute to effective systematic management and decision-making in infection control.

Assessment Research Comparing the Environmental Value of Taebaeksan·NakSan·Kyeongpo Provincial Parks of Kangwon-do (태백산, 낙산, 경포도립공원의 환경가치비교 평가연구)

  • Kang, Kee-Rae;Kim, Dong-Pil;Cho, Woo;Baek, Jae-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2016
  • This research aimed to quantitatively measure the environmental values of Taebaeksan, Naksan, and Gyeongpo provincial parks located in Gangwon-do. The research was based on the CVM technique which estimates the economic values for all kinds of ecosystem. Also, the estimated value of environment goods can suggest the magnitude of additional utility other than the cost people pay when they visit the provincial parks. Such result can be used as basic data in addition to information on natural ecology or cultural landscape to decide whether the park should be promoted as a national park. The questionnaires-collected from Taebaeksan(180 copies), Naksan(179 copies), and Gyeongpo(180 copies) provincial parks were used to measure the environmental value of each provincial park. Variables that affect the response of 'yes(Y)' or 'no(N)' to the cost suggestion for the economic valuation of environment are estimated under the catagories of environment conservation status (env.), degree of park management (manage.), environmental conservation effort, education (edu.), and income (inc.) of the respondents (execu.), pertaining to the 3 provincial parks in Gangwon-do. The value of natural environment to 1 visitor to the 3 Gangwon provincial parks was estimated by the Logit method that Hanemann proposed using the average of inserted variables. The results showed that the additional environmental value that 1 visitor can gain is 44,060 won for Taebaeksan Provincial Park, 41,191 won for Naksan, and 41,844 won for the Gyeongpo Provincial Park. Taebaeksan Provincial Park's environmental value is estimated at the highest as the respondents judge that its natural environment is well preserved and the facilities are managed well.

Comparison of Egg Testing Devices for Internal Egg Quality Measurements (계란 할란검사장비의 성능 비교)

  • Kim, Dong Jun;Jeon, Seung Yob;Kim, Hee Won;Won, Jea Sun;Lee, Jae Cheong;Lee, Kyung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.229-233
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to compare three commercially available egg testing devices for measuring egg quality. The devices used were a Laser-type (automatic), a Ultrasonic-type (automatic), and a Probe-type (manual). Fresh eggs weighing 60~68 grams were obtained from a commercial hen farm. Three trials were conducted. In Trial 1, a total of 50 eggs were successively analyzed by the three egg testing devices. In Trial 2, fresh eggs were successively analyzed by a combination of two egg testing devices. In Trial 3, a total of 600 eggs (weighing 60~68 grams) laid by same flock were selected, further divided into three sub-groups with a total of 200 eggs, and analyzed by an egg testing device. In Trials 1 and 2, no apparent difference was observed in egg weight between egg testing devices. However, albumin height was scored highest in the Ultrasonic-type egg tester followed by the Probe-type and Laser-type (Trials 1 and 2). Consequently, the Haugh unit was similarly altered. Yolk color was highest in the Laser-type egg tester followed by the Ultrasonic-type and Probe-type (Trials 1 and 2). When fresh eggs laid by a single flock were independently analyzed by three devices, egg weight did not differ, but albumin height and Haugh unit were higher (p<0.05) in the Ultrasonic-type egg tester than in the Probe-type or Laser-type testers. However, Laser-type testers produced higher (p<0.05) yolk color values than the Ultrasonic-type or Probe-type egg testers. In conclusion, the commercially available egg testing devices exhibited performance differences in measuring egg qualities, which warrants further consideration as to whether the magnitude of bias and precision between the devices could be acceptable in the egg grading system, especially when assessing eggs stored for certain durations.