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Toxicity Evaluation of 'Bt-Plus' on Parasitoid and Predatory Natural Enemies (기생성 및 포식성 천적에 대한 작물보호제 '비티플러스'의 독성 평가)

  • Seo, Sam-Yeol;Srikanth, Koigoora;Kwon, Gi-Myon;Jang, Sin-Ae;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 2012
  • Effect of a new crop protectant 'Bt-Plus' on natural enemies was analyzed in this study. Tested natural enemies included two parasitic species of $Aphidius$ $colemani$ and $Eretmocerus$ $eremicus$, and four predatory species of $Harmonia$ $axyridis$, $Orius$ $laevigatus$, $Amblyseius$ $swirskii$, and $Phytoseiulus$ $persimilis$. 'Bt-Plus' was formulated by combination of three entomopathogenic bacteria ($Xenorhabdus$ $nematophila$ (Xn), $Photorhabdus$ $temperata$ subsp. $temperata$ (Ptt), $Bacillus$ $thuringiensis$ (Bt)) and bacterial metabolite (BM). All three types of 'Bt-Plus' showed significantly higher toxicities against fourth instar $Plutella$ $xylostella$ larvae than Bt single treatment. Two types of bacterial mixtures ('Xn+Bt' and 'Ptt+Bt') showed little toxicity to all natural enemies in both contact and oral feeding assays. However, 'BM+Bt' showed significant toxicities especially to two predatory mites of $A.$ $swirskii$ and $P.$ $persimilis$. The acaricidal effects of different bacterial metabolites were evaluated against two spotted spider mite, $Tetranychus$ $urticae$. All six BM chemicals showed significant acaricidal effects. The BM mixture used to prepare 'Bt-Plus' showed a high acaricidal activity with a median lethal concentration at 218.7 ppm (95% confidence interval: 163.2 - 262.3). These toxic effects of bacterial metabolites were also proved by cytotoxicity test against Sf9 cells. Especially, benzylideneacetone, which was used as a main ingredient of 'BM+Bt', showed high cytotoxicity at its low micromolar concentration.

The Level of Diabetes Management of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishery Workers (농림어업인의 당뇨병 관리 수준)

  • Oh, Gyung-Jae;Lee, Young-Hoon
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the diabetic management indicators between agriculture, forestry, and fishery workers (AFF) and other occupational adults (non-AFF) in community-dwelling diabetes. Methods: The study population consisted of 22,127 diabetic population ${\geq}19years$ who participated in the 2015 Community Health Survey. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was used to compare the diabetic management indicators between AFF and non-AFF. Socioeconomic characteristics such as age, gender, education level, monthly household income, National Basic Livelihood Security status, and marital status was sequentially adjusted. Results: Among total diabetic population, 3,712 people (16.8%) was AFF and 18,415 people (83.2%) was non-AFF. The fully-adjusted odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) of current non-medical treatment (0.72, 0.66-0.79), measurement of hemoglobin A1c (0.61, 0.55-0.67), screening for diabetic retinopathy (0.76, 0.70-0.83), screening for diabetic nephropathy (0.75, 0.70-0.81), non-alcoholic or moderate drinking (0.70, 0.64-0.78), nutrition label reading (0.83, 0.71-0.98), low salt preference (0.85, 0.78-0.93), dental examination (0.60, 0.54-0.66), scaling experience (0.84, 0.77-0.93), regular toothbrushing (0.66, 0.58-0.76), and diabetes management education (0.84, 0.77-0.92) was significantly lower in AFF compared to non-AFF. In contrast, the fully-adjusted OR (95% CI) of AFF's low stress level (1.39, 1.26-1.52) and adequate sleep duration (1.22, 1.13-1.32) was significantly higher than non-AFF, which are better indicators of diabetic management in AFF. Conclusions: Overall, the level of diabetes management of AFF was not as good as that of non-AFF. In order to improve the level of diabetes management of AFF, a delicate diabetes intervention strategy considering the occupational characteristics of AFF will be needed.

Public Interest and Ownership Regulations in the Media Industry in the Era of Convergence Focused on Domestic Daily Newspapers' Ownership of Broadcasting Station (융합시대 미디어산업의 공익성과 소유규제 국내 종합일간지와 방송의 교차소유 문제를 중심으로)

  • Jun, Young-Beom
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.46
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    • pp.511-555
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    • 2009
  • Media-related regulations can be classified into two categories; regulations of individual media contents and regulations regarding the entry to and withdrawal from a certain field. In this dissertation, ownership regulations are regarded as legal and political measures so as to prevent the monopoly and oligopoly of public opinion, and to secure its diversity. Every country has its own regulation model according to its particular media environment. Korea too is obliged to actively respond to its environmental changes, at the same time vitalizing the media industry and protecting consumers' rights and interests. Strong political intentions to protect the public interest is necessary when it comes to media regulation policies, especially in the circumstances that public interest is an industrial priority. As the convergence of broadcasting and telecommunications is leading to a major shift in the media industry, the regulation of cross-media ownership is an issue involving potential conflicts among media-owners, non-governmental organizations and the authorities concerned, depending on their various viewpoints regarding the media industry. In this paper, an attempt was made to search necessity of redefining 'public interest', which is the logic behind the restriction of cross-media ownership, and to reconceptualize issues on the centralization and diversity of media. First, an examination of the actual conditions of newspaper companies was carried out in order to reinvestigate domestic cross-media ownership issues, which is represented by the cross-ownership issue of newspapers and broadcasting stations. Next, the dilemma of policies stimulated by the fusion of media was discussed based on cross-media ownership restrictions, and the need for efficient conflict control was suggested. Finally, proposals on the independency and public confidence of media-related policy-making authorities, the rationalization of regulation models, an itemized discussion on cross-media ownership regulation issues, the elaboration of measures for a balanced development among media were made. It could be found that a number of foreign countries were still facing challenges to prevent monopoly and oligopoly of the public opinion and the industry. A solution to settle disagreements about the dilemma of the media industry, including the cross-media ownership regulation issues, must be arranged on the grounds of 'mutual respect of public interest and industrial interest', In Korea, an ease on the ownership regulations adapting to the change in the media industry may be considered, however the softening of the cross-media ownership regulations must be approached with the utmost care. Paradoxically Relieving cross-media ownership regulations may be considered the foundation of a richer field of journalism, where there is no need for concern over the monopoly and oligopoly of public opinion.

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A Study on Case for Localization of Korean Enterprise in Indonesia (인도네시아 진출 한국기업의 현지화에 관한 사례 연구)

  • Swo, Min-Kyo;Kim, Hee-Jun
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.481-508
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to research the specific ways of successful localization by analyzing the success and failures case for localization through the theoretical background and the strategic models of localization. The strategic models of localization are divided by management aspects such as the localization of production and sourcing, the localization of human resources, the localization of marketing, the localization of R&D, harmonious relationship with the local community and authority transfer between headquarters and local subsidiaries. And the specific measures of the successful localization are proposed within the framework of the strategic models by comparing and analyzing the success and failures case for localization of individual companies operating in Indonesia. The results indicate that there are successful companies which develop a suitable products for the local climate and failed automobile company which is weak for assembly of complete vehicle in terms of localization of production and sourcing. In case of localization of human resources, most companies recognize the importance of this part and endeavor to secure superior human resource through a related education. It is found that most of the companies perform R & D in their native country. In part of a harmonious relationship with the local community, Korean companies should contribute to the community and be friendly with local residents and make a good image of the company focusing on the cultural environment. In aspect of authority transfer between headquarters and local subsidiaries, there is a tendency to be determined by the head office rather than the joint participation. In the future, in order for Korean enterprise to be successful one in Indonesia market, a highly interdependent and complex forms between headquarters and local subsidiaries shall be performed and an active exchange of information and the selection of best talent regardless of nationality shall be promoted.

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Evaluation of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Effect in Osteosarcoma (골육종에서 술전 항암화학요법의 효과 판정)

  • Joo, Min Wook;Kang, Yong-Koo;Yoo, Ie Ryung;Choi, Woo Hee;Chung, Yang-Guk;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kang, Jin-Woo
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Various diagnostic imaging modalities have been used to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma early and noninvasively. We evaluated the effectiveness of imaging studies of plain radiographs and positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect for osteosarcoma and tried to establish a general principle in interpretation of PET/CT parameters. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients who underwent two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical excision for osteosarcoma were enrolled. There were 13 males and 5 females, with a median age of 19 (11-63) years. Fifteen patients of 18 had the American Joint Committe on Cancer (AJCC) stage IIB. They had plain radiographs and PET/CT before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The resected tumor specimens were pathologically examined to determine histological response grade using a conventional mapping method. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between histopathological necrosis rate, and radiographic finding category, post-chemotherapy maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average standardized uptake value and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) as well as reduction rates of them. Results: Eight patients were good responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on histological evaluation. Median SUVmax reduction rate was 73 (23-77) % in good responders and 42 (-32-76) % in poor responders. Median MTV reduction rate was 93.5 (62-99) % in good responders and 46 (-81-100) % in poor responders. While radiographic finding category was not different according to histological response (p=1.0), SUVmax reduction rate was significantly different (p=0.041). Difference in MTV reduction rates approached statistical significance as well (p=0.071). Conclusion: While radiographic finding category was not reliable to assess neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect for osteosarcoma, reduction rate of SUVmax was a useful indicator in this study. As parameters of PET/CT can be influenced by various factors of settings, different centers have to make an effort to establish their own standard of judgement with reference of previous studies.

Fatigue fracture of different dental implant system under cyclic loading (반복하중에 따른 수종 임플란트의 피로파절에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Won-Ju;Cho, In-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.424-434
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problem: Problems such as loosening and fractures of retained screws and fracture of implant fixture have been frequently reported in implant prosthesis. Purpose: Implant has weak mechanical properties against lateral loading compared to vertical occlusal loading, and therefore, stress analysis of implant fixture depending on its material and geometric features is needed. Material and methods: Total 28 of external hexed implants were divided into 7 of 4 groups; Group A (3i, FULL $OSSEOTITE^{(R)}$Implant), Group B (Nobelbiocare, $Br{\aa}nemark$ $System^{(R)}$Mk III Groovy RP), Group C (Neobiotec, $SinusQuick^{TM}$ EB), Group D (Osstem, US-II). The type III gold alloy prostheses were fabricated using adequate UCLA gold abutments. Fixture, abutment screw, and abutment were connected and cross-sectioned vertically. Hardness test was conducted using MXT-$\alpha$. For fatigue fracture test, with MTS 810, the specimens were loaded to the extent of 60-600 N until fracture occurred. The fracture pattern of abutment screw and fixture was observed under scanning electron microscope. A comparative study of stress distribution and fracture area of abutment screw and fixture was carried out through finite element analysis Results: 1. In Vicker's hardness test of abutment screw, the highest value was measured in group A and lowest value was measured in group D. 2. In all implant groups, implant fixture fractures occurred mainly at the 3-4th fixture thread valley where tensile stress was concentrated. When the fatigue life was compared, significant difference was found between the group A, B, C and D (P<.05). 3. The fracture patterns of group B and group D showed complex failure type, a fracture behavior including transverse and longitudinal failure patterns in both fixture and abutment screw. In Group A and C, however, the transverse failure of fixture was only observed. 4. The finite element analysis infers that a fatigue crack started at the fixture surface. Conclusion: The maximum tensile stress was found in the implant fixture at the level of cortical bone. The fatigue fracture occurred when the dead space of implant fixture coincides with jig surface where the maximum tensile stress was generated. To increase implant durability, prevention of surrounding bone resorption is important. However, if the bone resorption progresses to the level of dead space, the frequency of implant fracture would increase. Thus, proper management is needed.

Evaluation of color matching ability according to the color temperature and the experience of practitioner (색 온도 및 술자의 숙련도에 따른 비색 능력 평가 원저)

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Jai;Lee, Keun-Woo;Shim, June-Sung;Yoon, Joonho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different experience level and different light source on shade selection ability comparing prosthodontist group and dental student group under 4,000 K and 5,500 K light. Materials and methods: After color difference of Vitapan 3D-master shade guides was measured, 3 sets of 5 shade tabs were selected with similar value but have different chroma (set a, b, c). Also 3 sets of 5 shade tabs were selected with similar chroma but have different values (set d, e, f). Under 4,000 K and 5,500 K light sources, ten prosthodontists and ten dental students were allowed to match in one set of 5 tabs the same shade tab with the tab which was originally selected in the other set of 5 tabs. Color differences of original tab and matched tab were measured by spectrophotometer and the shade selection ability was evaluated with those data. Evaluation of color difference value was performed in regard to different light conditions and different level of experience, followed by t-test with 95% confidence interval. Results: Color difference values under 4,000 K and 5,500 K light source were $1.62{\pm}2.0$, and $1.33{\pm}1.7$ respectively. In addition, color difference values of prosthodontist group and dental student group were $1.34{\pm}1.7$, and $1.61{\pm}2.0$ respectively. Difference of shade selection ability was not found under either different light sources (P=.398), or different experience level (P=.221). Conclusion: Level of experience did not affect on the shade selection ability when prosthodontists and dental students matched the shades with the same shade tab under the same light source.

A Study on the Effects of Downsizing Kitchen Employees in Hotels on Job Attitude - Focusing on the Individual Behavior Types(DISC) of Kitchen Employees in the Hotels in the Seoul and Daejeon Regions - (호텔 조리사의 인력 다운사이징(Downsizing)이 직무태도에 미치는 영향 연구 - 서울.대전지역 내 호텔 조리사의 개인별 행동유형(DISC)을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hyun-Joong
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2013
  • This research was to examine the effects of downsizing kitchen employees in a hotel on their job efficiency and to verify differences in the individuals' behavior characteristics according to DISC behavior types in this causal relationship. Through SPSS 17.0 program, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted on 200 samples secured for an empirical research. Two factors for the downsizing items and two factors for the items related to job attitude were extracted. Hypothesis 1 was that the downsizing within a hotel has significant negative (-) effects on job attitude. As a result of the verification, it was found that downsizing had significantly negative effects on the job attitude of cooking employees as factors for organizational commitment in employment circumstances (${\beta}$=-.256), and employment anxiety (${\beta}$=-.258), and as factors for job satisfaction in employment circumstances (${\beta}$=-.319), and employment anxiety (${\beta}$=-.174). Hypothesis 2 was that the downsizing according to DISC behavior types has significant negative (-) effects on job attitude. As a result of the verification, it was found that in the organizational commitment factors, the dominance type (D) was more influenced by employment anxiety (${\beta}$=-.435) than by any other types, and the conscientiousness type (C) was not influenced by organizational commitment. In the job satisfaction factors, the steadiness type (S) was more influenced by the changes in employment circumstances (${\beta}$=-.414) than by other types, and the dominance type (D) was not influenced. Based on the results of this research, it can be said that hotel's downsizing strategies influence job attitude such as organizational commitment and job satisfaction of cooking employees, and that there are differences in the influences according to the individuals' behavior types of kitchen employees.

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Radiographic Evaluation of Stiffness of Articular Eminence in the Temporomandibular Joint(TMJ) of Korean Using Dental cone-beam CT (한국인의 측두하악관절에서 Dental cone-beam CT를 이용한 관절융기의 경사도에 대한 방사선학적 평가)

  • Oh, Sang-Chun;Han, Ji-Seok
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.163-173
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    • 2013
  • When the mandible performs opening movement, the condyle-disk complex conducts sliding movement along the articular eminence. Thus, anatomic configuration of articular eminence is very important to normal movement of TMJ. The purpose of this study was to measure the posterior slope of the articular eminence and evaluate the effect of a pathologic bone change in the condylar head on the stiffness of articular eminence, and compare the differences of the articular eminence slope by gender and age using dental cone-beam CT. As using i-CAT Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, the CT images of 204 TMJs of 102 patients(43 men and 59 women, mean age: 37.7 years) who were diagnosed at Wonkwang University Sanbon Dental Hospital were evaluated. All images were converted into a TMJ analysis mode to observe the continuous sagittal section images and coronal section images of the joints. To observe and assess bone changes in the condyle, three dentists measured the stiffness of the articular eminence on the same images, and when two of the three dentists agreed on their reading, these results were adopted and recorded. The articular eminence slope, considering the condylar anatomic configuration, was measured in three regions, namely, lateral part, central part, and medial part of the condyle. In the cases of a normal condyle(NCBC) and a condyle(CBC) with bone change, the articular eminence slopes were $57.0^{\circ}$(NCBC) and $51.8^{\circ}$(CBC) at the medial part, $57.9^{\circ}$(NCBC) and $52.4^{\circ}$(CBC) at the central part, and $55.1^{\circ}$(NCBC) and $49.5^{\circ}$(CBC) at the lateral part of the condyle. And the articular eminence slope of the condyle with bone change demonstrated less steepness than that of normal condyle (p<0.05). The articular eminence slope showed mediolaterally that it was the steepest at the central, followed by at the medial, and at the lateral (p<0.05). There were no significant differences by the gender and the age (p.0.05).

Diurnal Variation and Sleep Pattern in Depressive Patients (우울증 환자의 주간기분변동과 수면 양상)

  • Park, Young-Min;Kim, Leen;Suh, Kwang-Yoon;Joe, Sook-Haeng;Kang, Seung-Gul;Yoon, Ho-Kyung
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2001
  • Object: Diurnal variation is included in the diagnostic criteria of the major depressive disorder, melancholic specifier. But there has been controversy over whether diurnal variation is an unique depressive symptoms or a symptom related to a change of sleep patterns, or that of another mechanism, when the previous studies are reviewed. We investigated the existence of diurnal variation according to the subtype of depression and whether diurnal variation is charateristic of melancholic depression or not. We also compared sleep variables according to the existence of diurnal variation. Method: We examined diurnal variation, sleep patterns, severity of depression using the Visual Analogue Mood Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients recorded their mood state on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale twice a day, morning and evening, for diurnal variation. We divided depressive patients into two groups,-diurnal variation group and nondiurnal variation group,-and compared the mood and sleep variables using SPSS. Results: The frequency of diurnal variation is not significantly different among the subtypes of depression. Significant differences between the diurnal variation group and the nondiurnal variation group existed in middle insomnia and sleep time (p<0.05). In melancholic type, al significant difference between the diurnal variation group and the nondiurnal variation group was noticed in PSQI total, sleep latency, sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction as well as middle insomnia and sleep time (p<0.05). Conclusions: Diurnal variation existed in other types of depression as well as melancholic type. The results showed that diurnal variation was not a specific symptom of melancholic type, and existence of diurnal variation might be related to sleep patterns.

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