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Requirements and Self-evaluation of Competencies Necessary to be Effective Nutrition Teachers Perceived by School Food Service Dieticians (학교급식 영양사가 인식하는 효과적인 영양교사의 역량 요구도와 자기 평가)

  • Lee, Kyung-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.626-635
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    • 2009
  • The purposes of the study were to identify a comprehensive competency list related to the jobs of nutrition teachers and to compare the competency needs for nutrition teachers and dieticians' competency levels. Job functional areas and a competency list for nutrition teachers were developed based on a review of literature and revised through expert panel reviews. A total of 53 competency statements associated with 11 job functional areas were specified. Questionnaires were distributed to 457 dieticians engaged in school food service and 148 responses were returned (response rate: 32.4%). Excluding incomplete responses, 142 questionnaires were used for data analysis. Approximately half of the respondents were enrolled in an 1-year nutrition teacher certificate program, 25% in a graduate school of nutrition education, and 19% had completed an 1-year nutrition teacher certificate program. The dieticians highly rated requirements of the competencies related to sanitation and employee safety, nutrition counseling, nutrition education, and teaching practices; in contrary, their competency levels for nutrition education, nutrition counseling, and teaching practices were low. Respondents' competency levels were significantly lower than the required competency levels of effective nutrition teachers in all functional areas. A quadratic analysis based on the requirement and self-evaluation of the competencies revealed that priorities of education programs targeting school nutrition teachers or students preparing to be nutrition teachers should be placed on improving competencies related to nutrition education, nutrition counseling, teaching practices, sanitation and employee safety, menu management, and human resource management. These results can be used to develop curriculum materials for basic and continuing professional education for nutrition teachers. It is necessary to review and update competencies regularly to reflect environmental changes in school food service programs.

A qualitative Research on Establishment of Department of Private Investigation and Its Future Direction (민간조사학과 개설의 필요성과 성장방향에 대한 질적 연구)

  • Jo, Sung-Gu;Lee, Ju-Lak
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.28
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    • pp.181-205
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    • 2011
  • There are various discussions about introducing private investigation in South Korea these days, and training private investigators is one of the main topics. Training private investigators, unlike other training, is required to instill expertise and ethical quality into the trainees since the major task of the investigators includes protecting the lives of the citizens as well as their properties. Therefore, many agree to the idea that systematic educational programs need to be organized to produce private investigators with expertness and morality. In this study, we explored the opinions of those who are concerned with this issue of establishing private investigation in the university education and analyzed the data by using the NVivo 2 program. The result revealed that the reasons that people supported the idea of launching private investigator services were as follows. First, there is lack of manpower to maintain peace and public order in the country. Second, the police does not intervene actively and help harmed victims unless it is a consequential incident. Third, in position to wield public power, police officers cannot get involved in civil affairs. Also, absence of an academic institution to educate private investigators and lack of the police and clients' trust in private investigation were the two biggest reasons that people approved the proposal to introduce department of private investigation in universities. The interviewees of the study believed the outlook and future direction for private investigation would change depending on the status of the licensed private investigation business bill. Before the bill passes, they thought that the work of private investigators will be performed by insurance companies, foreign private investigation businesses, domestic consulting firms, and security providers which supply similar services. On the other hand, after the bill passes, they believed that numerous private investigator corporations resembling existing security corporations will be founded in addition to the current market, and that private investigation in the academic field will also be vitalized.

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A Study for strategic cooperaton of enterprise security and business (기업보안과 비즈니스의 전략적 협력에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Hyung-Chang
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.28
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    • pp.103-130
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    • 2011
  • This study is the research of enterprise security for raising the profitability and stability of Korean companies in global business environment and strategic cooperation of business. As the scientific technology gets complicated as day goes by and new competitors appear regardless the border in the modern business environment, the situation happens frequently which the huge company hands over their market to the new one armed with the innovative thinking overnight. To survive such new environment, the answer is the change of paradigm regarding business management method at the new point of view. With the low level of security risk management of Korean companies which stick to old habit, the security management which helps the companies secure profits is not affordable. The global village where the population of 7 billions live in 21st century is facing up to the rapid ecological adaptation. The rapid change of climatic environment creates the hundreds of thousands of sufferers in a moment, and we have been watching the millions of livestock are buried alive due to new contagious disease everyday. Such change encourages the humans in global village to change the basic way of living. The business ecosystem which is the basic root for economic life cannot be an exception. To survive the business environment of 21st century, the security risk management at management level is required and the reporting line of companies should be established newly for raising business competing power through security risk management. The companies should bear in mind that they can be disappeared into our old memories overnight if they are not sensitive to the changing environment. Out of new risks for the modern companies, the field especially Korean companies are dealing easily is the security risk. Not like past, the security risk which's size is much more massive and its propagation velocity is very fast is the one of important business risks which the management should take care. Out of security risks which influence on the modern companies significantly, the brand of companies, protection of their reputation, continuity of production and operation and keeping customer's trust are prior to the others. This study offered the suggestion regarding enterprise security and the strategic cooperation of business to deal with such security risk effectively.

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Effect of Microbial Phytase in Low Phosphorus and Calcium Level Diet on the Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Laying Hens (인과 칼슘의 수준이 낮은 산란계 사료 내 미생물 Phytase의 첨가가 생산성 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Min B.J.;Kwon O.S.;Lee W.B.;Son K.S.;Hong J.W.;Yang S.J.;Moon T.H.;Kim I.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2005
  • This Study was conducted to investigate the effects of microbial phytase in low phosphirus and calcium level diet on the performance and nutrient digestibility in laying hens. One hundred ninety two, 50 wks old, ISA brown commerical layers were used for 12 weeks feeding trial after 7-d adjustment period. Four dietary treatments included CON(control; Co.), P2 ($0.06\%$ Natuphos, BASF) and P3 ($0.06\%$ PHOSMAX, GENOFOCUS). Ca and available P concentrations of P1, P2 and P3 were 90 and $50\%$ of NRC recommecdations to accentuate difference in response to phytase availability. In whole period, egg production was not affected by treatments. At 12 weeks, egg weight was significantly increased in adding phytase treatments (P<0.05). Egg shell thickness was increased in P1, P2 and P3 treatments compared with control (P<0.05) at 9 weeks. Ca concentration of serum tended to decrease in P1 treatment without significant difference (P>0.05). Ca and P concentrations of tibia were higher in layers fed dietary phyrase than those fed control diet without significant difference (P>0.05). Digestibilities of DM, N and ash were improved in P1 treatment compared with P2 and P3 treatments (P<0.05). Ca and P digestibilities were the highest in P2 treatment (P>0.05), but was not significant difference between control and P1 treatments.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Soil Chemical Properties Using Soiltek® KA-P Spectrophotometer (Soiltek KA-P 분광광도계률 사용한 토양 화학적 성질의 분광학적 분석)

  • Hyun, Hae-Nam;Oh, Sang-Sil;Koo, Bon-Jun;Kang, Ho-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 2000
  • To enable rapid and convenient soil test, new soil analytical methods, which require only one instrument, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, were developed and named "Soiltek KA-P spectrophotometric methods". The Soiltek$^{(R)}$ KA-P spectrophotometric method was compared with standard method of RDA in analytical capability for soil chemical properties. Using the 78 soils collected from upland, paddy, orchard, and vinyl house soils, soil organic matter, exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg. CEC, available $SiO_2$, and nitrate were analyzed by the two methods. The color stability(ratio of the absorbance at elapsed time t to the absorbance at time t=0) of organic matter. Ca, Mg, and available $SiO_2$ decreased to about 2% within one hour. However, that of exchangeable K, CEC, and nitrate remained constant. The results obtained with Soiltek$^{(R)}$ KA-P spectrophotometric method showed highly significant correlation with those measured by the standard method of RDA($R^2$ >0.9501), in which the slopes were near unity of $1.0{\pm}0.05$. The standard deviation values of organic matter, exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg, CEC, available $SiO_2$, and nitrate were apparently lower than ${\pm}1.8gkg^{-1}$, ${\pm}0.05cmol^+kg^{-1}$, ${\pm}0.18cmol^+kg^{-1}$, and ${\pm}0.13cmol^+kg^{-1}$, ${\pm}1.0cmol^+kg^{-1}$, ${\pm}5.0mgkg^{-1}$, and ${\pm}10.0mgkg^{-1}$, respectively. All the measurements showed coefficients of variation of less than 7~17% and were within the confidence level of 95%, which means both the methods are precise. Considering the relative simplicity, low cost, precision and accuracy, the proposed Soiltek$^{(R)}$ KA-P spectrophotometric methods could be recommended as an alternative to standard method.

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A Study of Adjustment for Beginning & Ending Points of Climbing Lanes (오르막차로 시.종점 위치의 보정에 관한 연구)

  • 김상윤;오흥운
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.24 no.5 s.91
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2006
  • Acceleration and deceleration curves have been used for design purposes worldwide. The curve in design level has been regarded as an single deterministic curve to be used for design of climb lanes. It should be noted that the curve was originally made using ideal driving truck and that the curve is applied during design based on the assumption of no difference between ideal and real driving conditions. However. observations show that aged vehicles and lazy behavioring drivers nay make lower performance of vehicles than the ideal performance. The present paper provides the results of truck speeds at climbing lanes then probabilistic variation of acceleration and deceleration corves. For these purposes. a study about identification of vehicle makers, and weights for trucks at freeway toll gates and then observation of vehicle-following speed were performed. The 85%ile results obtained were compared with the deterministic performance curves of 180, 200, and 220 Ib/hp. It was identified that the performance of 85%ile results obtained from vehicle-following-speed observations were lower than one from deterministic performance curves. From these results, it may be concluded that at the beginning Point of climbing lanes additional $16.19{\sim}67.94m$ is necessary and that at the end point of climbing lanes $53.12{\sim}103.24m$ of extension is necessary.

Development of the Risk Evaluation Model for Rear End Collision on the Basis of Microscopic Driving Behaviors (미시적 주행행태를 반영한 후미추돌위험 평가모형 개발)

  • Chung, Sung-Bong;Song, Ki-Han;Park, Chang-Ho;Chon, Kyung-Soo;Kho, Seung-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.133-144
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    • 2004
  • A model and a measure which can evaluate the risk of rear end collision are developed. Most traffic accidents involve multiple causes such as the human factor, the vehicle factor, and the highway element at any given time. Thus, these factors should be considered in analyzing the risk of an accident and in developing safety models. Although most risky situations and accidents on the roads result from the poor response of a driver to various stimuli, many researchers have modeled the risk or accident by analyzing only the stimuli without considering the response of a driver. Hence, the reliabilities of those models turned out to be low. Thus in developing the model behaviors of a driver, such as reaction time and deceleration rate, are considered. In the past, most studies tried to analyze the relationships between a risk and an accident directly but they, due to the difficulty of finding out the directional relationships between these factors, developed a model by considering these factors, developed a model by considering indirect factors such as volume, speed, etc. However, if the relationships between risk and accidents are looked into in detail, it can be seen that they are linked by the behaviors of a driver, and depending on drivers the risk as it is on the road-vehicle system may be ignored or call drivers' attention. Therefore, an accident depends on how a driver handles risk, so that the more related risk to and accident occurrence is not the risk itself but the risk responded by a driver. Thus, in this study, the behaviors of a driver are considered in the model and to reflect these behaviors three concepts related to accidents are introduced. And safe stopping distance and accident occurrence probability were used for better understanding and for more reliable modeling of the risk. The index which can represent the risk is also developed based on measures used in evaluating noise level, and for the risk comparison between various situations, the equivalent risk level, considering the intensity and duration time, is developed by means of the weighted average. Validation is performed with field surveys on the expressway of Seoul, and the test vehicle was made to collect the traffic flow data, such as deceleration rate, speed and spacing. Based on this data, the risk by section, lane and traffic flow conditions are evaluated and compared with the accident data and traffic conditions. The evaluated risk level corresponds closely to the patterns of actual traffic conditions and counts of accident. The model and the method developed in this study can be applied to various fields, such as safety test of traffic flow, establishment of operation & management strategy for reliable traffic flow, and the safety test for the control algorithm in the advanced safety vehicles and many others.

Development of a High Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-1 for a Testing of Nuclear Fusion Reactor Components (핵융합로부품 시험을 위한 고열부하 시험시설 KoHLT-1 구축)

  • Bae, Young-Dug;Kim, Suk-Kwon;Lee, Dong-Won;Shin, Hee-Yun;Hong, Bong-Guen
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.318-330
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    • 2009
  • A high heat flux test facility using a graphite heating panel was constructed and is presently in operation at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, which is called KoHLT-1. Its major purpose is to carry out a thermal cycle test to verify the integrity of a HIP (hot isostatic pressing) bonded Be mockups which were fabricated for developing HIP joining technology to bond different metals, i.e., Be-to-CuCrZr and CuCrZr-to-SS316L, for the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) first wall. The KoHLT-1 consists of a graphite heating panel, a box-type test chamber with water-cooling jackets, an electrical DC power supply, a water-cooling system, an evacuation system, an He gas system, and some diagnostics, which are equipped in an authorized laboratory with a special ventilation system for the Be treatment. The graphite heater is placed between two mockups, and the gap distance between the heater and the mockup is adjusted to $2{\sim}3\;mm$. We designed and fabricated several graphite heating panels to have various heating areas depending on the tested mockups, and to have the electrical resistances of $0.2{\sim}0.5$ ohms during high temperature operation. The heater is connected to an electrical DC power supply of 100 V/400 A. The heat flux is easily controlled by the pre-programmed control system which consists of a personal computer and a multi function module. The heat fluxes on the two mockups are deduced from the flow rate and the coolant inlet/out temperatures by a calorimetric method. We have carried out the thermal cycle tests of various Be mockups, and the reliability of the KoHLT-1 for long time operation at a high heat flux was verified, and its broad applicability is promising.

Experimental Studies on Lead Toxicity in Domestic Cats 1. Symptomatology and Diagnostic Laboratory Parameters (고양이의 납중독에 관한 실험적 연구 1. 임상증상 및 실험실적 평가)

  • Hong Soon-Ho;Han Hong-Ryul
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.111-130
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    • 1993
  • Lead toxicity was evaluated in forty-five cats on a balanced diet, Treated with 0(control), 10, 100(low), 1, 000, 2, 000, and 4, 000(high) ppm of lead acetate orally on a body weight basis. The objectives were to establish toxic dosage level of leaf in cats, to characterize changes in behavior and clinical pathology, and to demonstrate what blood lead concentrations correlate with the known dosages of lead. Some high dose cats showed projectile vomiting, hyperactivity, and seizures. The growth rates did not appear to be altered in any of the dosed groups. Normal blood lead concentration in cats were lower than that of humans, dogs, and cattle. Blood lead concentrations of 3 to 20$\mu\textrm{g}$/100$m\ell$ could be termed a 'subclinical' range in the cat. Clinical lead toxicity in cats may have blood lead concentrations ranging 20 to 120$\mu\textrm{g}$/100$m\ell$. Zinc protoporphyrin concentrations were proportional to lead dosages and a significant ZPP elevation, greater than 50$\mu\textrm{g}$/100$m\ell$, may be indicative of clinical lead toxicity. The enzyme aminolevulinic acid dehydratase showed an inverss dose response relationship for all lead dosages and a significant ZPP elevation, greater than 50$\mu\textrm{g}$/100$m\ell$, may be indicative of clinical lead toxicity. The enzyme aminolevulinic acid dehydratase showed an inverse dose response relationship for all lead dosages and appears to be a good indicator of lead exposure in cats. Urinary aminolevuliruc acid concentrations generally increased with lead dosage, but individual values varied. Hair lead concentrations rose proportionately to lead dosages. Lead at least in high doses appears to inhibit chemotactic activity of polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes. No consistent dose response relationships were observed in hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts. There were no consistent dose related changes in total protein, plasma protein, BUN, and ALT values. Reticulocyte counts did not increase significantly in most lead dosage levels, and are probably of little value in diagnosing lead toxicity in cats. The fact that no significant changes were found in nerve conduction velocities may support that there was no segmental demyelination resulting from lead ingestion. The lethal dose in cats appear to range from 60 to 150mg/kg body weight. A reliable diagnosis of lead poisoning can be made utilizing blood lead, ZPP, and ALAD, and hair lead.

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The Study of Effectiveness of MERS on the Law and Remaining Task (국내 메르스(MERS) 사태가 남긴 과제와 법률에 미친 영향에 대한 소고(小考))

  • Yoon, Jong Tae
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.263-291
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    • 2015
  • In May, 2015, a 68 years old man, who has been Middle East Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, had high fever, muscle aches, cough and shortness of breath. he went two local hospital near his house and the S Medical Center emergency center. He was diagnosed MERS(Middle East respiratory syndrome) and the diseases had put South Korea the fear of epidemics for three months. Especially, this disease has firstly reported in Middle East Asia in September 2012 and spreaded to twenty-six countries. In 21, July, 2015, European Center for disease prevention and control reported 533 people were died and in South Korea, 186 people were infected, 36 people were died and 16,693 people were isolated from MERS. South Korea government were faced into epidemic control and blamed from public. Especially, hospital acquired infection, disease control chain, opening of information, ventilation, lack of isolation bed, the problem of function of local health center, the issue of reparation for hospital and insurance cover rate, the classification of disease, the role of Korea Centers for disease control and prevention, the culture of visiting hospital to see sick people, the issue of hospital multiple room and other related social support policy. it is time to study and discuss to solve these problems. South Korea citizens felt fear and fright from MERS. What is wore, they thought the dieses were out of their government control. It was unusual case for word except Middle East Asia. numerous tourists canceled visiting korea. South korea economic were severly damaged especially, tourism industry. South korea government should admit that they had failed initial action against MERS and take full reasonability from any damages. The government have to open information to public in terms of epidemic diseases and try to prevent any other epidemic diseases and try to work with local governments.

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