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Computer Assisted EPID Analysis of Breast Intrafractional and Interfractional Positioning Error (유방암 방사선치료에 있어 치료도중 및 분할치료 간 위치오차에 대한 전자포탈영상의 컴퓨터를 이용한 자동 분석)

  • Sohn Jason W.;Mansur David B.;Monroe James I.;Drzymala Robert E.;Jin Ho-Sang;Suh Tae-Suk;Dempsey James F.;Klein Eric E.
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2006
  • Automated analysis software was developed to measure the magnitude of the intrafractional and interfractional errors during breast radiation treatments. Error analysis results are important for determining suitable planning target volumes (PTV) prior to Implementing breast-conserving 3-D conformal radiation treatment (CRT). The electrical portal imaging device (EPID) used for this study was a Portal Vision LC250 liquid-filled ionization detector (fast frame-averaging mode, 1.4 frames per second, 256X256 pixels). Twelve patients were imaged for a minimum of 7 treatment days. During each treatment day, an average of 8 to 9 images per field were acquired (dose rate of 400 MU/minute). We developed automated image analysis software to quantitatively analyze 2,931 images (encompassing 720 measurements). Standard deviations ($\sigma$) of intrafractional (breathing motion) and intefractional (setup uncertainty) errors were calculated. The PTV margin to include the clinical target volume (CTV) with 95% confidence level was calculated as $2\;(1.96\;{\sigma})$. To compensate for intra-fractional error (mainly due to breathing motion) the required PTV margin ranged from 2 mm to 4 mm. However, PTV margins compensating for intefractional error ranged from 7 mm to 31 mm. The total average error observed for 12 patients was 17 mm. The intefractional setup error ranged from 2 to 15 times larger than intrafractional errors associated with breathing motion. Prior to 3-D conformal radiation treatment or IMRT breast treatment, the magnitude of setup errors must be measured and properly incorporated into the PTV. To reduce large PTVs for breast IMRT or 3-D CRT, an image-guided system would be extremely valuable, if not required. EPID systems should incorporate automated analysis software as described in this report to process and take advantage of the large numbers of EPID images available for error analysis which will help Individual clinics arrive at an appropriate PTV for their practice. Such systems can also provide valuable patient monitoring information with minimal effort.

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A Study on the Propensity to Purchase Babies' Cosmetics (베이비화장품의 구매행태에 관한 연구 - 대구, 경북 지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee Kyung-Hwa;Kim Ju-Duck
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.31 no.2 s.51
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2005
  • The propensity to purchase babies' cosmetics is investigated and analysed for this research. The synopsis of this research paper is as follows. The first, the $68\%$ of all respondents do not how a manufacturer or brand name in the reality of variously emerging domestic and import cosmetics for babies. The second, in case of a child haying a fair, sensitive skin or atopy (atopic dermatitis), the respondents are careful in choosing babies cosmetics but in case of a child having a normal skin the older a child grows from a stage of a new-born, a baby and an infant to a primary-school child, the older its mother is, the more respondents use adults' cosmetics in common rather than use cosmetics only for babies. $7.6\%$ of respondents do not use babies' cosmetirs at ail. Especially, in using bathing goods such as a shampoo or a body cleanser, they frequently use adults' cosmetics in common. The third, the qualify is taken into the utmost consideration in purchasing babies' cosmetics. The Quality of imports is trusted and preferred better than that of domestic goods. The cost of purchasing babies cosmetics is less than 10,000 Won. consumers recognize that the price or cosmetics is rather high. The last, the improvement or babies cosmetics is 'the safety of goods', answered by $56.5\%$ of respondents. The respondents are generally not satisfied with babies' cosmetics. So, a baby's skin is threatened by a newly-built house syndrome, the increase of atopic dermatitis, etc., caused by an environmental pollutions, a change of diet and a change of residential life. Under these actual conditions, babies' cosmetics which can protect a delicate and sensitive skin of a baby should be developed immediately. Consumers should have a correct choice with precise recognition and information on a baby's skin and cosmetics and continually use the efficacious and excellent babies' cosmetics to prevent a baby from a skin irritation, and need to show a keen interest in a healthy skin of a baby.

Analysis on the Cooling Efficiency of High-Performance Multicore Processors according to Cooling Methods (기계식 쿨링 기법에 따른 고성능 멀티코어 프로세서의 냉각 효율성 분석)

  • Kang, Seung-Gu;Choi, Hong-Jun;Ahn, Jin-Woo;Park, Jae-Hyung;Kim, Jong-Myon;Kim, Cheol-Hong
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2011
  • Many researchers have studied on the methods to improve the processor performance. However, high integrated semiconductor technology for improving the processor performance causes many problems such as battery life, high power density, hotspot, etc. Especially, as hotspot has critical impact on the reliability of chip, thermal problems should be considered together with performance and power consumption when designing high-performance processors. To alleviate the thermal problems of processors, there have been various researches. In the past, mechanical cooling methods have been used to control the temperature of processors. However, up-to-date microprocessors causes severe thermal problems, resulting in increased cooling cost. Therefore, recent studies have focused on architecture-level thermal-aware design techniques than mechanical cooling methods. Even though architecture-level thermal-aware design techniques are efficient for reducing the temperature of processors, they cause performance degradation inevitably. Therefore, if the mechanical cooling methods can manage the thermal problems of processors efficiently, the performance can be improved by reducing the performance degradation due to architecture-level thermal-aware design techniques such as dynamic thermal management. In this paper, we analyze the cooling efficiency of high-performance multicore processors according to mechanical cooling methods. According to our experiments using air cooler and liquid cooler, the liquid cooler consumes more power than the air cooler whereas it reduces the temperature more efficiently. Especially, the cost for reducing $1^{\circ}C$ is varied by the environments. Therefore, if the mechanical cooling methods can be used appropriately, the temperature of high-performance processors can be managed more efficiently.

The Effects of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity on e-WOM: The Moderating Role of Self-Construal in Tourism (중국 관광객의 온라인 구전에 대한 자아일치성과 기능일치성의 효과: 자기해석의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Yang, Qin;Lee, Young-Chan
    • The Journal of Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 2016
  • Purpose Self-congruity deals with the effect of symbolic value-expressive attributes on consumer decision and behavior, which is the theoretical foundation of the "non-utilitarian destination positioning". Functional congruity refers to utilitarian evaluation of a product or service by consumers. In addition, recent years, social network services, especially mobile social network services have created many opportunities for e-WOM communication that enables consumers to share personal consumption related information anywhere at any time. Moreover, self-construal is a hot and popular topic that has been discussed in the field of modem psychology as well as in marketing area. This study aims to examine the moderating effect of self-construal on the relationship between self-congruity, functional congruity and tourists' positive electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). Design/methodology/approach In order to verify the hypotheses, we developed a questionnaire with 32 survey items. We measured all the items on a five-point Likert-type scale. We used Sojump.com to collect questionnaire and gathered 218 responses from whom have visited Korea before. After a pilot test, we analyzed the main survey data by using SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 18.0, and employed structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses. We first estimated the measurement model for its overall fit, reliability and validity through a confirmatory factor analysis and used common method bias test to make sure that whether measures are affected by common-method variance. Then we tested the hypotheses through the structural model and used regression analysis to measure moderating effect of self-construal. Findings The results reveal that the effect of self-congruity on tourists' positive e-WOM is stronger for tourists with an independent self-construal compared with those with interdependent self-construal. Moreover, it shows that the effect of functional congruity on tourists' positive e-WOM becomes salient when tourists' self-construal is primed to be interdependent rather than independent. We expect that the results of this study can provide important implications for academic and practical perspective.

A Study of Esthetic Facial Profile Preference In Korean (한국인의 연조직측모 선호경향에 대한 연구)

  • Choi, Jun-Gyu;Lee, Ki-Soo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.32 no.5 s.94
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    • pp.327-342
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    • 2002
  • Soft tissue profile is a critical area of interest in the development of an orthodontic treatment and diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the facial profile preference of diversified group and to investigate the relationship between most Preferred facial Profile and existing soft tissue reference lines. A survey instrument of constructed facial silhouettes was evaluated by 894 lay person. The silhouettes had varied nose, lips, chin and soft tissue subnasale point. Seven sets of facial type were computer-generated by an orthodontist to represent distinct facial types. The varied facial profiles were graded on the basis of most preferred to least preferred. Every facial profile were measured by soft tissue reference lines(Ricketts E-line, Burstone B-line) to observe the most preferred facial profile. The results as follows: 1. In reliability test, the childhood group showed lower value than other groups, which means that this group has no concern on facial profile preference. 2. It appears that sexual and age difference made no significant difference in selecting the profile 3. An agreement to least preferred facial profile was higher than an agreement to most preferred facial profile. 4. Coefficient of concordance (Kendall W) was higher in the twentieth group. It means that a profile preference of the twentieth is distinct. 5. A lip protrusion (to Ricketts E-line and Burstone B-line) of most preferred facial profile was similar to measurements of previous study that investigate skeletal and soft tissue of esthetic facial profile of young Korean. So these reference lines can be used valuably in clinics. 6. Profile of excessive lip protrusion or retrusion to E-line & B-line was least preferred. 7. Most preferred profile of all respondents group was straight profile. Profile that showing convex profile was not pre(erred and the least preferred profile was concave profile.

Study of Disclusion Time during Mandibular Eccentric Movement in Myofascial Pain Syndrome Patients by T-Scan II, Computerized Occlusal Analysis System (컴퓨터 교학분석기인 T-Scan II를 이용한 측방운동시 구치부 이개시간에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Jun-Han;Kwon, Jeong-Seung;Kim, Seong-Taek;Park, Hyung-Uk;Choi, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.187-197
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    • 2011
  • Temporomandibular disorders(TMD) is a collective term which is embracing a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the TMJ and associated structures, or both. Myofascial pain, which is a kind of masticatory muscle disorder of TMD, is the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points. There has been some controversies regarding etiologies of TMD and MFP. Especially the issue of occlusal conditions has been a critical issue for long time. Despite much efforts, the results of studies regarding occlusal conditions were contradictory. These controversies might be mostly due to various factors resulting from the complex nature of TMD, however, inaccurate and inappropriate study design, selection criteria, methodologies also play significant roles. Recently, a computerized occlusal analysis system, T-Scan II which made it possible to reveal quantifiable time data and relative force data for analyzing occlusion, was introduced. Some authorities suggested that the concept of disclusion time and prolonged disclusion time of posterior tooth and MFP are related using T-Scan II. But the previous studies which used T-SCAN II are not reliable for they did not provide accurate diagnostic criteria of MFP. Morever they did not compare with controls, and had many other problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MFP and prolonged disclusion time of posterior tooth, which is one of the occlusal factors of TMD, by selecting 30 subjects as the study group through strict criteria and comparing them with 38 controls using T-SCAN II, computerized occlusal analysis system. The results, statistically analyzed, are summarized as follows: 1. Cronbach ${\alpha}$ coefficient of repeated measurements of disclusion time was 0.92. 2. There were no statistically significant differences at repeated measured disclusion time of both side between control and study group. 3. There was no statistically significant diffefence in the disclusion time between right and left side. From the results above, we can suggest that there was no relationship between MFP and disclusion time, so irreversible treatments leading to the reduction of disclusion time for treating MFP would not be appropriate. However more controlled, large scaled study, which consider various occlusal factors, and quantification of symptoms using Helkimo index would be necessary in the future.

Study on Influence of Water Fluoridation Program on the Economic Benefit (상수도수불화사업의 경제적 편익에 대한 조사연구)

  • Park, Myung-Suk;Yoo, Wang-Keun
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 2006
  • To find out influence of water fluoridation program on the economic benefit effect, this study analyzed comparatively dental treatment indicators obtained from dental clinics at Sangdang-gu in Chenongju City, fluoridated community and Manan-gu in Anyang City, non-fluoridated community, from January 1, 2003 to the end of June, and the results are as follows: 1. If water fluoridation program is carried out in Anyang, non-fluoridated community, the number of treatment from caries and disease of tissues around dental pulp and root apex from age 6 to 18 for the first half of year 2003 is expected to decrease by 1,272, 636 for low estimation, and 1,908 for high estimation. And the treatment cost is expected to decrease by 40,888,000 Wons, 20,444,000 Wons for low estimation, and 61,333,000 Wons for high estimation. 2. Assuming that water fluoridation program is spread to all over the country, the number of treatment per year is expected to decrease by 2,492,018, 1,246,009 for low estimation, and 3,738,027 for high estimation. And the treatment cost is expected to decrease by 80,105,075,000 Wons, 40,052,537,000 Wons for low estimation and 120, 157,612,000 Wons for high estimation respectively. 3. For Yeong-un water supply management office which has 48,925 water supply personnel, the benefit/cost rate was 2.9 times, and for Jibuk water supply management office which has 239,751 water supply personnel, the benefit/cost rate was 9.0 times. As the water supply personnel increased, the cost increase of water fluoridation program was little and as the scale got large, the economic effect was very large. Improving national oral health is thought to be associated with expense retrenchment of oral health insurance financial. So it may need to extend using tap water to all the area of the country and additionally establish confidence through an active public relations and education of water fluoridation program.

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A Six-Year Study of Relationship between Academic Performance in Dental Hygiene School and Performance on the Korean Dental Hygiene Licensing Examination at Yonsei University (Y-대학교 치위생학과 졸업생의 학교 성적과 국가시험 성적의 상관성)

  • Mun, So-Jung;Noh, Hie-Jin;Jeon, Hyun-Sun;Heo, Ji-Eun;Chung, Won-Gyun
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.332-341
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    • 2014
  • This study was aimed to define the predicting factor account for the Korean Dental Hygienist Licensing Examination (KDHLE) by analyzing the academic grade score and the KDHLE score. The subjects included 185 graduates (2007, 2009, 2011~2014 graduates). The ratio of successful applicants of the subjects was 99.2%. The academic grade scores were calculated to grade point average, the KDHLE was scoring marks out of 300 (200 of written examination score and 100 of performance evaluation score) for correlation and regression analysis. The graduation grades and comprehensive examination scores correlated significantly with the KDHLE written examination scores (correlation coefficient=0.612), and KDHLE total score (correlation coefficient=0.258). First~third grade score and comprehensive examination scores correlated significantly with KDHLE total scores (p<0.05). Especially, there are the highest correlated between second comprehensive examination scores and KDHLE total scores (correlation coefficient=0.455), the last score in time sequence is the important factors account for the KDHLE total score. But there is no correlation between academic grade score and KDHLE performance evaluation scores, therefore it is necessary to study for determine the reason. The results of multiple linear regression analysis, second grade score and the average score of comprehensive examination were the main predicting factors account for the KDHLE total score, the explanatory power was 31.6%. Our results show that KDHLE total and written examination scores are predicted by the academic grade score reliably, but not the KDHLE performance evaluation scores. Further studies are needed to determine relationship between dental hygiene education and KDHLE.

Impact of Dentists' Attitudes and Dental Hygienists' Services on Dental Anxiety (치과의사의 태도와 치과위생사의 서비스가 치과불안에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Jeong A;Lee, Su-Young;Oh, Se-Jin
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting dentists' attitudes and dental hygienists' services on dental anxiety in adults. The subjects were 300 adults older than 20 years of age living in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Daejeon, and Daegu. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Among the distributed questionnaires, 225 respondents were selected as subjects, excluding 74 people who did not answer and 1 person who was not faithful. Data were analyzed using statistical software with a t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression. As a result, the gender was slightly higher in women (54.7%) than in men, and the last dental visit was less than one year in 59.6% of respondents. Most of the respondents' educational level was higher than college level (79.1%), and the monthly income was less than 2 million won in 53.8 of respondents. This study showed that distrust of dentists affected dental anxiety and anxiety stimulation. Higher reliability of the dentist was correlated with less dental anxiety in patients. Dental anxiety showed statistically significant results in dentist subcategories of patient slight and dentists' trust (p<0.01). Additionally, the factors affecting dental anxiety and anxiety stimulus were knowledge of dental hygienist and distrust of dentist (p<0.01). According to this study, dentists' and dental hygienists' trust of dental staff show the importance of oral health professionals' role in reducing dental anxiety in patients. It is also suggested that efforts should be made to improve public awareness of oral health experts. It is believed that dentists, and dental hygienists need to promoted to become professionals. In addition, a variety of programs have been developed to reduce dental anxiety, so patients need to be comfortable to receive dental treatment.

Development of Industrial Embedded System Platform (산업용 임베디드 시스템 플랫폼 개발)

  • Kim, Dae-Nam;Kim, Kyo-Sun
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 2010
  • For the last half a century, the personal computer and software industries have been prosperous due to the incessant evolution of computer systems. In the 21st century, the embedded system market has greatly increased as the market shifted to the mobile gadget field. While a lot of multimedia gadgets such as mobile phone, navigation system, PMP, etc. are pouring into the market, most industrial control systems still rely on 8-bit micro-controllers and simple application software techniques. Unfortunately, the technological barrier which requires additional investment and higher quality manpower to overcome, and the business risks which come from the uncertainty of the market growth and the competitiveness of the resulting products have prevented the companies in the industry from taking advantage of such fancy technologies. However, high performance, low-power and low-cost hardware and software platforms will enable their high-technology products to be developed and recognized by potential clients in the future. This paper presents such a platform for industrial embedded systems. The platform was designed based on Telechips TCC8300 multimedia processor which embedded a variety of parallel hardware for the implementation of multimedia functions. And open-source Embedded Linux, TinyX and GTK+ are used for implementation of GUI to minimize technology costs. In order to estimate the expected performance and power consumption, the performance improvement and the power consumption due to each of enabled hardware sub-systems including YUV2RGB frame converter are measured. An analytic model was devised to check the feasibility of a new application and trade off its performance and power consumption. The validity of the model has been confirmed by implementing a real target system. The cost can be further mitigated by using the hardware parts which are being used for mass production products mostly in the cell-phone market.