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Methodology for Identifying Issues of User Reviews from the Perspective of Evaluation Criteria: Focus on a Hotel Information Site (사용자 리뷰의 평가기준 별 이슈 식별 방법론: 호텔 리뷰 사이트를 중심으로)

  • Byun, Sungho;Lee, Donghoon;Kim, Namgyu
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.23-43
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    • 2016
  • As a result of the growth of Internet data and the rapid development of Internet technology, "big data" analysis has gained prominence as a major approach for evaluating and mining enormous data for various purposes. Especially, in recent years, people tend to share their experiences related to their leisure activities while also reviewing others' inputs concerning their activities. Therefore, by referring to others' leisure activity-related experiences, they are able to gather information that might guarantee them better leisure activities in the future. This phenomenon has appeared throughout many aspects of leisure activities such as movies, traveling, accommodation, and dining. Apart from blogs and social networking sites, many other websites provide a wealth of information related to leisure activities. Most of these websites provide information of each product in various formats depending on different purposes and perspectives. Generally, most of the websites provide the average ratings and detailed reviews of users who actually used products/services, and these ratings and reviews can actually support the decision of potential customers in purchasing the same products/services. However, the existing websites offering information on leisure activities only provide the rating and review based on one stage of a set of evaluation criteria. Therefore, to identify the main issue for each evaluation criterion as well as the characteristics of specific elements comprising each criterion, users have to read a large number of reviews. In particular, as most of the users search for the characteristics of the detailed elements for one or more specific evaluation criteria based on their priorities, they must spend a great deal of time and effort to obtain the desired information by reading more reviews and understanding the contents of such reviews. Although some websites break down the evaluation criteria and direct the user to input their reviews according to different levels of criteria, there exist excessive amounts of input sections that make the whole process inconvenient for the users. Further, problems may arise if a user does not follow the instructions for the input sections or fill in the wrong input sections. Finally, treating the evaluation criteria breakdown as a realistic alternative is difficult, because identifying all the detailed criteria for each evaluation criterion is a challenging task. For example, if a review about a certain hotel has been written, people tend to only write one-stage reviews for various components such as accessibility, rooms, services, or food. These might be the reviews for most frequently asked questions, such as distance between the nearest subway station or condition of the bathroom, but they still lack detailed information for these questions. In addition, in case a breakdown of the evaluation criteria was provided along with various input sections, the user might only fill in the evaluation criterion for accessibility or fill in the wrong information such as information regarding rooms in the evaluation criteria for accessibility. Thus, the reliability of the segmented review will be greatly reduced. In this study, we propose an approach to overcome the limitations of the existing leisure activity information websites, namely, (1) the reliability of reviews for each evaluation criteria and (2) the difficulty of identifying the detailed contents that make up the evaluation criteria. In our proposed methodology, we first identify the review content and construct the lexicon for each evaluation criterion by using the terms that are frequently used for each criterion. Next, the sentences in the review documents containing the terms in the constructed lexicon are decomposed into review units, which are then reconstructed by using the evaluation criteria. Finally, the issues of the constructed review units by evaluation criteria are derived and the summary results are provided. Apart from the derived issues, the review units are also provided. Therefore, this approach aims to help users save on time and effort, because they will only be reading the relevant information they need for each evaluation criterion rather than go through the entire text of review. Our proposed methodology is based on the topic modeling, which is being actively used in text analysis. The review is decomposed into sentence units rather than considering the whole review as a document unit. After being decomposed into individual review units, the review units are reorganized according to each evaluation criterion and then used in the subsequent analysis. This work largely differs from the existing topic modeling-based studies. In this paper, we collected 423 reviews from hotel information websites and decomposed these reviews into 4,860 review units. We then reorganized the review units according to six different evaluation criteria. By applying these review units in our methodology, the analysis results can be introduced, and the utility of proposed methodology can be demonstrated.

A Structural Relationship among Job Requirements, Job Resources and Job Burnout, and Organizational Effectiveness of Private Security Guards (민간경비원의 직무요구 직무자원과 소진, 조직유효성의 구조적 관계)

  • Kim, Sung-Cheol;Kim, Young-Hyun
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.48
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    • pp.9-33
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of the present study was to find out cause-and-effect relationship between job requirements and job resources, with job burnout as a mediator variable, and the effects of these variables on organizational effectiveness. The population in the present study was private security guards employed by 13 private security companies in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do areas, and a survey was conducted on 500 security guards selected using purposive sampling technique. Out of 460 questionnaires distributed, 429 responses, excluding 31 outliers or insincere responses, were used for data analysis. For analysis, data were coded and entered into SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0, which were used to analyze the data. Descriptive analyses were performed to find out sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to test the validity of the measurement tool, and the Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were calculated to test the reliability. To find out the significance of relationships among variables, Pearson's correlation analysis was performed. Covariance Structure Analysis (CSA) was performed to test the relationship among latent factors of a model for job requirements, job resources, job burnout, and organizational effectiveness of the private security guards, and the fitness of the model analyzed with CSA was determined by the goodness-of-fit index ($x^2$, df, p, RMR, GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA). The level of significance was set at .05, and the following results were obtained. First, even though the effect of job requirements on job burnout was not statistically significant, it had a positive influence overall, and this result can be considered such that the higher the perception of job requirements by the member of the organization, the higher the perception of job burnout. Second, the influence of job resources on job burnout was negative, which can be considered that the higher the perception of job resources, the lower the perception of job burnout. Third, even though the influence of job requirements on organizational effectiveness was statistically nonsignificant, it had a negative influence overall, and this result can be considered that the higher the perception of job requirements, the lower the perception of organizational effectiveness. Fourth, job resources had a positive influence on organizational effectiveness, and it can be considered that the higher the perception of job resources, the higher the perception of organizational effectiveness. Fifth, the results of the analysis between job burnout and organizational effectiveness revealed that, even though the influence of job burnout on organizational effectiveness was statistically nonsignificant, it had partial negative influences on sublevels of organizational effectiveness, and this may suggest that the higher the perception of job burnout by the organization members, the lower the organizational effectiveness. Sixth, the analysis of mediating role in the relationship between job requirements and organizational effectiveness, job burnout was taking partial mediating role between job requirements and organizational effectiveness. These results suggest that reducing job burnout by managing job requirements, organizational effectiveness that leads to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention can be maximized. Seventh, the analysis of mediating role in the relationship among job requirements, job resources, and organizational effectiveness, job burnout was assuming a partial mediating role in the relationships among job requirements, job resources, and organizational effectiveness. These results suggest that organizational effectiveness can be maximized by either lowering job requirements or burnout management through reorganizing job resources.

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A Study on Web-based Technology Valuation System (웹기반 지능형 기술가치평가 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Tae-Eung;Jun, Seung-Pyo;Kim, Sang-Gook;Park, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.23-46
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    • 2017
  • Although there have been cases of evaluating the value of specific companies or projects which have centralized on developed countries in North America and Europe from the early 2000s, the system and methodology for estimating the economic value of individual technologies or patents has been activated on and on. Of course, there exist several online systems that qualitatively evaluate the technology's grade or the patent rating of the technology to be evaluated, as in 'KTRS' of the KIBO and 'SMART 3.1' of the Korea Invention Promotion Association. However, a web-based technology valuation system, referred to as 'STAR-Value system' that calculates the quantitative values of the subject technology for various purposes such as business feasibility analysis, investment attraction, tax/litigation, etc., has been officially opened and recently spreading. In this study, we introduce the type of methodology and evaluation model, reference information supporting these theories, and how database associated are utilized, focusing various modules and frameworks embedded in STAR-Value system. In particular, there are six valuation methods, including the discounted cash flow method (DCF), which is a representative one based on the income approach that anticipates future economic income to be valued at present, and the relief-from-royalty method, which calculates the present value of royalties' where we consider the contribution of the subject technology towards the business value created as the royalty rate. We look at how models and related support information (technology life, corporate (business) financial information, discount rate, industrial technology factors, etc.) can be used and linked in a intelligent manner. Based on the classification of information such as International Patent Classification (IPC) or Korea Standard Industry Classification (KSIC) for technology to be evaluated, the STAR-Value system automatically returns meta data such as technology cycle time (TCT), sales growth rate and profitability data of similar company or industry sector, weighted average cost of capital (WACC), indices of industrial technology factors, etc., and apply adjustment factors to them, so that the result of technology value calculation has high reliability and objectivity. Furthermore, if the information on the potential market size of the target technology and the market share of the commercialization subject refers to data-driven information, or if the estimated value range of similar technologies by industry sector is provided from the evaluation cases which are already completed and accumulated in database, the STAR-Value is anticipated that it will enable to present highly accurate value range in real time by intelligently linking various support modules. Including the explanation of the various valuation models and relevant primary variables as presented in this paper, the STAR-Value system intends to utilize more systematically and in a data-driven way by supporting the optimal model selection guideline module, intelligent technology value range reasoning module, and similar company selection based market share prediction module, etc. In addition, the research on the development and intelligence of the web-based STAR-Value system is significant in that it widely spread the web-based system that can be used in the validation and application to practices of the theoretical feasibility of the technology valuation field, and it is expected that it could be utilized in various fields of technology commercialization.

A Study on Satisfaction and Evaluation of Students현 Spot-Practice in Department of Food and Nutrition (식품영양학과 학생들의 현장실습 만족도 및 평가도에 관한 연구)

  • 최미경;전예숙;홍원주;김순경;김동희;김애정;강명화;김미현
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.373-380
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate satisfaction and evaluation degree of students' spot-practice in department of food and nutrition and to investigate relating factors to them for development of spot-practice Programme. The survey for analysis was conducted through the questionnaires to 229 students finished internship. Proportions of the students were 93.9% for senior, 93.9% for female. Proportions of spot-practice facilities were 38.9%, 46.7%, and 14.4% for school, business & industry, and hospital respectively. The major part of subjects (83.8%) took part in spot-practice during 2 weeks. The satisfaction scores to spot-practice were the lowest for pay, and the highest for a kind of spot-practice facilities. The evaluation scores were the lowest for 'I made a plan and prepared my work in advanced', and the highest for 'I did my best for doing my work'. The satisfaction score in hospital was significantly lower than those in school or business & industry. The satisfaction score in self-operated foodservice was significantly higher than that in contract managed one. However, there no significant differences in evaluation scores by foodsevice employment type. In the case of coincidence of area in spot-practice and residence, or facilities of spot-practice and job desired, the satisfaction and evaluation scores were significantly higher than those of others. The period of spot-practice was significantly positively correlated with satisfaction scores for atmosphere of spot-practice facilities, service and treatment for spot-practice student, while negatively correlated with evaluation score for 'I did my best for doing my work'. The spot-practice pay was significantly positively correlated with satisfaction and evaluation scores for various items. In conclusion, various factors are related to satisfaction and evaluation degree of spot-practice students, and consist concern and support from college St university, foodservice institution, and government for systematic spot-Practice are required.

Parents' Opinions on Foodservices in Daycare Centers of Korea's Compensation and Welfare Service Institute (근로복지공단 보육시설의 급식 운영현황과 학부모대상 품질 만족도)

  • Kim, Ji Hyeon;Lee, Young Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.102-113
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions on the importance, performance level, and satisfaction with foodservice quality at daycare centers in the Compensation and Welfare Service institute. The questionnaire was developed to measure thirty-two attributes of foodservice operations are administered to 598 parents and 23 foodservice supervisors from June 22, 2009 to July 10, 2009. The parents placed a high importance on the need for foodservices, earning 4.70 points out of 5 points. Their perceptions of foodservice quality menu, foodservice ingredients and effects, facilities, sanitation, and service scored even higher than performance. The overall satisfaction level for foodservice compared to performance was 4.33 and 4.03 points out of 5 points, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 98.6% of the variance in parents' overall satisfaction scores was explained by six dimensions.

The Implementation of a HACCP System through u-HACCP Application and the Verification of Microbial Quality Improvement in a Small Size Restaurant (소규모 외식업체용 IP-USN을 활용한 HACCP 시스템 적용 및 유효성 검증)

  • Lim, Tae-Hyeon;Choi, Jung-Hwa;Kang, Young-Jae;Kwak, Tong-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.464-477
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    • 2013
  • There is a great need to develop a training program proven to change behavior and improve knowledge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate employee hygiene knowledge, hygiene practice, and cleanliness, before and after HACCP system implementation at one small-size restaurant. The efficiency of the system was analyzed using time-temperature control after implementation of u-HACCP$^{(R)}$. The employee hygiene knowledge and practices showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) after HACCP system implementation. In non-heating processes, such as seasoned lettuce, controlling the sanitation of the cooking facility and the chlorination of raw ingredients were identified as the significant CCP. Sanitizing was an important CCP because total bacteria were reduced 2~4 log CFU/g after implementation of HACCP. In bean sprouts, microbial levels decreased from 4.20 logCFU/g to 3.26 logCFU/g. There were significant correlations between hygiene knowledge, practice, and microbiological contamination. First, personnel hygiene had a significant correlation with 'total food hygiene knowledge' scores (p<0.05). Second, total food hygiene practice scores had a significant correlation (p<0.05) with improved microbiological qualities of lettuce salad. Third, concerning the assessment of microbiological quality after 1 month, there were significant (p<0.05) improvements in times of heating, and the washing and division process. On the other hand, after 2 months, microbiological was maintained, although only two categories (division process and kitchen floor) were improved. This study also investigated time-temperature control by using ubiquitous sensor networks (USN) consisting of an ubi reader (CCP thermometer), an ubi manager (tablet PC), and application software (HACCP monitoring system). The result of the temperature control before and after USN showed better thermal management (accuracy, efficiency, consistency of time control). Based on the results, strict time-temperature control could be an effective method to prevent foodborne illness.

Application of Westgard Multi-Rules for Improving Nuclear Medicine Blood Test Quality Control (핵의학 검체검사 정도관리의 개선을 위한 Westgard Multi-Rules의 적용)

  • Jung, Heung-Soo;Bae, Jin-Soo;Shin, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Ji-Young;Seok, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.115-118
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The Levey-Jennings chart controlled measurement values that deviated from the tolerance value (mean ${\pm}2SD$ or ${\pm}3SD$). On the other hand, the upgraded Westgard Multi-Rules are actively recommended as a more efficient, specialized form of hospital certification in relation to Internal Quality Control. To apply Westgard Multi-Rules in quality control, credible quality control substance and target value are required. However, as physical examinations commonly use quality control substances provided within the test kit, there are many difficulties presented in the calculation of target value in relation to frequent changes in concentration value and insufficient credibility of quality control substance. This study attempts to improve the professionalism and credibility of quality control by applying Westgard Multi-Rules and calculating credible target value by using a commercialized quality control substance. Materials and Methods : This study used Immunoassay Plus Control Level 1, 2, 3 of Company B as the quality control substance of Total T3, which is the thyroid test implemented at the relevant hospital. Target value was established as the mean value of 295 cases collected for 1 month, excluding values that deviated from ${\pm}2SD$. The hospital quality control calculation program was used to enter target value. 12s, 22s, 13s, 2 of 32s, R4s, 41s, $10\bar{x}$, 7T of Westgard Multi-Rules were applied in the Total T3 experiment, which was conducted 194 times for 20 days in August. Based on the applied rules, this study classified data into random error and systemic error for analysis. Results: Quality control substances 1, 2, and 3 were each established as 84.2 ng/$dl$, 156.7 ng/$dl$, 242.4 ng/$dl$ for target values of Total T3, with the standard deviation established as 11.22 ng/$dl$, 14.52 ng/$dl$, 14.52 ng/$dl$ respectively. According to error type analysis achieved after applying Westgard Multi-Rules based on established target values, the following results were obtained for Random error, 12s was analyzed 48 times, 13s was analyzed 13 times, R4s was analyzed 6 times, for Systemic error, 22s was analyzed 10 times, 41s was analyzed 11 times, 2 of 32s was analyzed 17 times, $10\bar{x}$ was analyzed 10 times, and 7T was not applied. For uncontrollable Random error types, the entire experimental process was rechecked and greater emphasis was placed on re-testing. For controllable Systemic error types, this study searched the cause of error, recorded the relevant cause in the action form and reported the information to the Internal Quality Control committee if necessary. Conclusions : This study applied Westgard Multi-Rules by using commercialized substance as quality control substance and establishing target values. In result, precise analysis of Random error and Systemic error was achieved through the analysis of 12s, 22s, 13s, 2 of 32s, R4s, 41s, $10\bar{x}$, 7T rules. Furthermore, ideal quality control was achieved through analysis conducted on all data presented within the range of ${\pm}3SD$. In this regard, it can be said that the quality control method formed based on the systematic application of Westgard Multi-Rules is more effective than the Levey-Jennings chart and can maximize error detection.

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The Quantitative Assessment of Renal Function and Size by Differences of Acquisition Counts in $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA Renal Scan ($^{99m}Tc$-DMSA 신장검사에서 획득 계수의 차이에 따른 기능 및 형태 평가)

  • Shim, Dong-Oh;Kim, Ho-Sung;Chung, Eun-Mi
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: In nuclear medicine study, there are two methods, preset count method and preset time method, to acquire static images. We usually use preset count method for static image in $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA renal scan, but occasionally use preset time method. In case of using preset count method, we always acquire same counts but it causes a difference of scan time. In case of using preset time method, it takes same scan time to acquire images but it causes different counts. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate any differences of function and formal information in both kidney by acquisition counts Materials and Methods: From January 11, 2010 to March 31, 2010, we analyzed the 30 patients (M: 11, W: 19). who were examined by $^{99m}Tc$-DMSA scan and have one side of functioning kidney relatively between 40~60%. And the patients who have cold and hot region in image were analyzed but we did not accept images of patients when it was hard to divide kidney into cortex. There was no division between subjects and age of subjects is $14.83{\pm}22.07$ old. We used the BrightView gamma camera from PHILIPS. To analyze function and formal of kidney, we used JET stream release 3.0 version from PHILIPS. Using SPSS 12.0 program, we compared descriptive statistics and paired T-test. Images were acquired sequentially in the same parameters, but there are three methods which different from acquisition time and scan time, 100 kcounts, 300 kcounts and 7 minutes method (exceed 300 kcounts). To assess function and formal information of kidney, we measured renal relative function, geometric mean and size of kidney and analyzed each difference. Results: In case of renal relative function in both kidney, 100 kcounts method was $50.52{\pm}3.64%$. 300 kcounts method was $50.38{\pm}3.66%$ and 7 minutes method was $49.91{\pm}3.40%$ and there were no statistical significant differences between each method. In case of geometric mean, 100 kcounts method was $50.08{\pm}3.25%$. 300 kcounts method was $49.89{\pm}3.40%$ and 7 minutes method was $49.91{\pm}3.24%$. And also, there were no statistical significant differences. When comparing size of kidney, 100 kcounts method was $8.23{\pm}1.96$ cm. 300 kcounts method was $8.12{\pm}1.90$ cm and 7 minutes method was $8.35{\pm}1.97$ cm. In case of right kidney, 100 kcounts method was $7.91{\pm}1.88$ cm. 300 kcounts method was $8.12{\pm}1.90$ cm and 7 minutes method was $8.25{\pm}1.96$ cm. From those values, we recognized that there were significant differences each method (p<0.05). Conclusion: From results of this study, there were no statistical differences in renal relative function and geometric mean by acquisition counts. However, in shape of kidney, the more acquisition counts are increasing, the more size of kidney is getting big. And there were statistical significant differences. Therefore, to perform reliable quantitative result, preset count method is more desirable than preset time method. Especially, in case of a follow-up test, if we use preset time method, it will cause differences of formal results in kidney due to acquisition counts each time we examine patients.

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Evaluation of Standardized Uptake Value and Metabolic Tumor Volume between Reconstructed data and Re-sliced data in PET Study (PET 검사 시 Reconstructed data와 Re-sliced data의 표준섭취계수와 Metabolic Tumor Volume의 비교 평가)

  • Do, Yong Ho;Lee, Hong Jae;Kim, Jin Eui
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 2016
  • Purpose SUV is one of the parameters that assist diagnosis in origin, metastasis and staging of cancer. Specially, it is important to compare SUV before and after chemo or radiation therapy to find out effectiveness of treatment. Storing PET data which has no quantitative change is needed for SUV comparison. However, there is a possibility to loss the data in external hard drive or MINIpacs that are managed by department of nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate SUV and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) among reconstructed data (R-D) in workstation, R-D and re-sliced data (S-D) in PACS. Materials and Methods Data of 20 patients (aged $60.5{\pm}8.3y$) underwent $^{18}F-FDG$ PET (Biograph truepoint 40, mCT 40, mCT 64, mMR, Siemens) study were analysed. $SUV_{max}$, $SUV_{peak}$ and MTV were measured in liver, aorta and tumor after sending R-D in workstation, R-D and S-D in PACS to syngo.via software. Results R-D of workstation and PACS showed the same value as mean $SUV_{max}$ in liver, aorta and tumor were $2.95{\pm}0.59$, $2.35{\pm}0.61$, $10.36{\pm}6.15$ and $SUV_{peak}$ were $2.70{\pm}0.51$, $2.07{\pm}0.43$, $7.67{\pm}3.73$(p>0.05) respectively. Mean $SUV_{max}$ of S-D in PACS were decreased by 5.18%, 7.22%, 12.11% and $SUV_{peak}$ 2.61%, 3.63%, 10.07%(p<0.05). Correlation between R-D and S-D were $SUV_{max}$ 0.99, 0.96, 0.99 and $SUV_{peak}$ 0.99, 0.99, 0.99. And 2SD in balnd-altman analysis were $SUV_{max}$ 0.125, 0.290, 1.864 and $SUV_{peak}$ 0.053, 0.103, 0.826. MTV of R-D in workstation and PACS show the same value as $14.21{\pm}12.72cm^3$(p>0.05). MTV in PACS was decreased by 0.12% compared to R-D(p>0.05). Correlation and 2SD between R-D and S-D were 0.99 and 2.243. Conclusion $SUV_{max}$, $SUV_{peak}$, MTV showed the same value in both of R-D in workstation and PACS. However, there was statistically difference in $SUV_{max}$, $SUV_{peak}$ of S-D compare to R-D despite of high correlation. It is possible to analyse reliable pre and post SUV if storing R-D in main hospital PACS system.

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Preparation of Pure CO2 Standard Gas from Calcium Carbonate for Stable Isotope Analysis (탄산칼슘을 이용한 이산화탄소 안정동위원소 표준시료 제작에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Mi-Kyung;Park, Sunyoung;Kang, Dong-Jin;Li, Shanlan;Kim, Jae-Yeon;Jo, Chun Ok;Kim, Jooil;Kim, Kyung-Ryul
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2013
  • The isotope ratios of $^{13}C/^{12}C$ and $^{18}O/^{16}O$ for a sample in a mass spectrometer are measured relative to those of a pure $CO_2$ reference gas (i.e., laboratory working standard). Thus, the calibration of a laboratory working standard gas to the international isotope scales (Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) for ${\delta}^{13}C$ and Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (V-SMOW) for ${\delta}^{18}O$) is essential for comparisons between data sets obtained by other groups on other mass spectrometers. However, one often finds difficulties in getting well-calibrated standard gases, because of their production time and high price. Additional difficulty is that fractionation processes can occur inside the gas cylinder most likely due to pressure drop in long-term use. Therefore, studies on laboratory production of pure $CO_2$ isotope standard gas from stable solid calcium carbonate standard materials, have been performed. For this study, we propose a method to extract pure $CO_2$ gas without isotope fractionation from a solid calcium carbonate material. The method is similar to that suggested by Coplen et al., (1983), but is better optimized particularly to make a large amount of pure $CO_2$ gas from calcium carbonate material. The $CaCO_3$ releases $CO_2$ in reaction with 100% pure phosphoric acid at $25^{\circ}C$ in a custom designed, evacuated reaction vessel. Here we introduce optimal procedure, reaction conditions, and samples/reactants size for calcium carbonate-phosphoric acid reaction and also provide the details for extracting, purifying and collecting $CO_2$ gas out of the reaction vessel. The measurements for ${\delta}^{18}O$ and ${\delta}^{13}C$ of $CO_2$ were performed at Seoul National University using a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (VG Isotech, SIRA Series II) operated in dual-inlet mode. The entire analysis precisions for ${\delta}^{18}O$ and ${\delta}^{13}C$ were evaluated based on the standard deviations of multiple measurements on 15 separate samples of purified $CO_2$. The pure $CO_2$ samples were taken from 100-mg aliquots of a solid calcium carbonate (Solenhofen-ori $CaCO_3$) during 8-day experimental period. The multiple measurements yielded the $1{\sigma}$ precisions of ${\pm}0.01$‰ for ${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\pm}0.05$‰ for ${\delta}^{18}O$, comparable to the internal instrumental precisions of SIRA. Therefore, we conclude the method proposed in this study can serve as a way to produce an accurate secondary and/or laboratory $CO_2$ standard gas. We hope this study helps resolve difficulties in placing a laboratory working standard onto the international isotope scales and does make accurate comparisons with other data sets from other groups.