• Title, Summary, Keyword: 어머니의 양육

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An Ethnography of Child-Rearing Experiences of Korean Mothers Living on Koje Island (우리나라 어머니의 자녀 양육의 의미 - 거제지역을 대상으로 -)

  • Lee, Soo-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.518-535
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    • 2001
  • Nursing practices should be based on the understanding of human beings. In order to understand human beings, it is important to study the lifestyles and thoughts of people in their natural environment. In this sense, the cultural aspects of a society need to be studied for a culture-bound nursing service. Child care, which is an important element of nursing, is also strongly influenced by the culture of a society. Therefore, a cultural study is necessary to understand the child-rearing practices of any society. The major purpose of this dissertation is to provide basic foundations for developing a culture-based theory for nursing intervention through studying traditional cultural elements of child care in Korean society. The study examined child-rearing practices in a small village on Koje Island in the southern part of Korea. It utilized ethnographic methodologies including participatory observations and in-depth interviews. The study participants were 9 Korean mothers living on Koje Island. The average age was 52. The data were collected between July in 1998 and December in 1999. The average number of interviews per person was 7-8, and the duration of each interview was approximately 2 hours. The data were analyzed using the Spradley Analytical Method. The following 9 major child-rearing aspects of mothers on Koje Island were discovered as a result of the study: 1. Firstly, mothers on Koje Island were mostly concerned about the "Old Birth Goddess' Curse", especially during their child's early years. This concern was evidenced by their careful behavior when their child was very young and by their praying to the Old Birth Goddess not to be jealous of their babies. 2. Secondly, they wished their children to live a different and better life than themselves. It was represented by their strong motivation toward their children's education as well as their expectation for their children's success. In traditional Korean culture, Korean people think that the rise and fall of the household depend on their offsprings. Therefore, Korean mothers wish their children attain to a higher level of social status through education. 3. Third, mothers are concerned about their children's righteousness. Mothers on Koje island expect their children to live with discretion, justice, strength, respect, harmony, and to do their best in life. 4. Next was an 'anticipation of their children's happy marriage'. The attributes of this category were an 'anxiety about their children's married life', and 'an expectation of a good spouse for their children'. Because Korean people believe that only a son can continue the bloodline of a family, especially Korean mothers have a great concern of the possibility of their daughters not having a son after marriage. Also they have different expectations toward their daughter-in-laws than son-in-laws. 5. Korean mothers also derived their satisfaction from their son. It was characterized by 'excessive affection toward their son', 'dependency on their son', and 'being afraid of their married daughter having a girl like themselves'. Korean society has been a patriarchy. Therefore, a son is beloved as someone who will take care of his old parents, be in charge of ancestral rites, and provide a daughter-in-law who can conceive a son. 6. The sixth category concerned 'the differences in their expectations for their children'. The attributes in this category were 'different expectations depending on their children's gender', 'different expectations depending on their children's ability', and a 'great sympathy toward children with low abilities'. Korean mothers expect their son to become better than their daughter. 7. The seventh category was related to their 'roles in child-caring practices'. Traditionally a child was raised in an extended family system in Korea So it was not the sole duty of a mother to bring up the child. Korean mothers used to receive much help rasing children from their in-laws, and family members. On the other hand, many children grew up by themselves, because their mothers were very busy taking care of housework. Furthermore, many children also grew up in poverty. 8. Mothers also had issues related to 'conflicts in child rearing'. They were characterized by 'lack of understanding', 'rudeness of children', and 'giving vent to one's anger'. 9. Finally, mothers regretted not doing their best in child-rearing practices. It was characterized by a 'bitter feeling of repentance', 'feeling irritated', and 'feeling of unsatisfaction'.

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A Study on the Relationship with Maternal Beliefs on the Child Rearing and Children's Self-perceptions (양육행동에 대한 어머니 신념과 아동의 자기능력 지각과의 관계)

  • Song, Soon;Song, Hee-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.417-432
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between mother's beliefs on child rearing and children's self-perceptions. The subject of this study were comprised of 167 children aged 8-10 in Iksan & Kunsan city from Dec. 2 to Dec. 8, 2000. The children's self-perceptions were assessed by the self perceptions profile for children. Mother's beliefs questionnaire, developed by Okagaki and Sternberg, was used to obtain the data on mother's beliefs of parenting. The methods of analyses included basic descriptive categorical analysis as well as t-test, one way ANOVA-test, and multiple regression analyses. The major findings from the analyses are as follows: First, a significant difference was found in the degree of mother's beliefs about child rearing by mother's religion(p<.01), mother's education(p<.05), income(p<.001), level of life (p<.0l), mother's job, mother and fathers' agreement of child rearing(p<.05), relationship between mother and child(p<.05) in independence but a significant difference was not found in the degree of mother's beliefs about child rearing in accommodation. Second, the levels of children's scholastic performance were related to higher levels of mother's education(p<.001), mother's income(p<.001), mother and fathers' agreement of child rearing(p<.01). The levels of children's social competence was related to higher, child's gender (p<.01); girls were higher than boys. The levels of children's athletic abilities were not significant. The levels of children's physical appearance was related to higher levels of mother's education(p<.01), mother's income(p<.01), level of life(p<.05), mother's marriage(not divorce)(p<.01). The levels of children's behavioral conduct were related to higher levels of child's gender (p<.05), mother's education(p<.01), mother's income (p<.01), relationship between father and child(p<.0l). The levels of children's global self worth were related to higher levels of mother's age(p<.05), mother's education(p<.001), level of life(p<.05). Third according to the multiple regression analyses for the relationships between mother's beliefs about child rearing and children's self perceptions, mother's beliefs on the creativity were related to higher levels of children's scholastic performance, social competence, and mother's beliefs on the problem solving skills to higher levels of children's behavioral conduct and mother's beliefs on the accommodation to lower levels of children's scholastic performance, social conduct.

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The Effects of the Child Care Center-Family Linked Sensory Activity on Infant's Physical Development and Infant-Parent Interaction (보육시설과 가정의 연계를 통한 감각활동이 영아의 신체발달과 영아-부모 상호작용에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Sook Hwa;Hwang, Sung Ha;Nam, Mi Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.103-125
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of 1 or 2 years old infant to target infant care facilities and the sense of family activities conducted in conjunction with the infant's physical development and infant-parent interaction. The purpose of this study, research questions are as follows. First, child care center-family linked sensory activity is effective in the infant's physical development? Second, child care center-family linked sensory activity is effective in the infant-parent interaction? The subjects of this study are 56 infants of 1-2 year old and their mother or father 56 people in S and D infant care facilities in K city. S infant care center, experimental group, carry out child care center-family linked sensory activity. D infant care center is control group to apply an integrated program. The child care center-family linked sensory activity are conduct on 24 times, 3 times a week, totally 8 weeks. The results were as follows. First, child care center-family linked sensory activities are partially effective on the infant's physical development than the control group. Therefore, in order to promote the development of the infant's physical development, home and child care center will be done in conjunction with sensory activities are needed. Second, child care center-family linked sensory activities had positive effect on infant-parent interaction than the control group. Therefore, to improve infant-parent interaction, it is necessary to carry out child care center-family linked sensory activities. In conclusion, child care center-family linked sensory activities are correlated in positive effects on the physical development of infants and the infant-parent interaction.

The Usefulness of Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging for Differentiation between Degenerative Spines and Infectious Spondylitis (퇴행성 척추와 감염성 척추염의 감별에 있어서 확산강조영상의 유용성)

  • 박원규;변우목;최준혁
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : The differential diagnosis between Modic type I degenerative spine and infectious spondylitis sometimes is difficult, because the affected bone marrows in both disease show similar signal intensity on conventional MR imaging. We evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-wighted MR imaging for differential diagnosis between Modic type I degenerative spine and infectious spondylitis. Materials and methods : The spin-echo and diffusion-weighted MR images of eight patients with Modic type I degenerative spines and 14 patients with infectious spondylitis diagnosed by clinical findings or CT-guided biopsies we re analyzed. The diffusion-weighted imaging sequence was based on reversed fast imaging with steady-state precession (PSIF). Signal intensity changes of the vertebral bone marrow on conventional spin-echo and diffusion-weighted MR imaging were compared between degenerative spine and infectious spondylitis. Results : On T1-weighte d images, the affeted bone marrow in both disease showed hypointense signals. On T 2-weighted images, all of type I degenerative spine and 11 of infectious spondylitis showed hyperintensity, and three of infectious spondylitis showed heterogeneo us mixed signal intensity. On diffusion-weighted MR images, all of type I degenerative spine were hypointense with peripheral high signal intensity to normal vertebral body, but infectious spondylitis was hyperintense (n = 11) and hypointense (n=3). Conclusion : Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is useful to differentiate Modic type I degenerative spine from infectious spondylitis. On diffusion-weighted images, the high singal intensity of bone marrow suggests infectious spondylitis, whereas the low signal intensity of bone marrow with peripheral focal high signal intensity suggests type I degenerative spine.

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Semantic Access Path Generation in Web Information Management (웹 정보의 관리에 있어서 의미적 접근경로의 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Wookey
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2003
  • The structuring of Web information supports a strong user side viewpoint that a user wants his/her own needs on snooping a specific Web site. Not only the depth first algorithm or the breadth-first algorithm, but also the Web information is abstracted to a hierarchical structure. A prototype system is suggested in order to visualize and to represent a semantic significance. As a motivating example, the Web test site is suggested and analyzed with respect to several keywords. As a future research, the Web site model should be extended to the whole WWW and an accurate assessment function needs to be devised by which several suggested models should be evaluated.

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Depression, Anxiety, Alexithymia, Stress Response in Caregivers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patient (주의력결핍 과잉행동장애 환아 보호자의 우울, 불안, 감정표현불능, 스트레스반응)

  • Jeong, Jong-Hyun;Hong, Seung-Chul;Han, Jin-Hee;Lee, Sung-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : This study was designed to investigate depression, anxiety, alexithymia, stress res ponses in caregivers of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods : The subjects were 38 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients caregivers(38 women, mean age $37.5{\pm}6.5$). Patients were diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD criteria. Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), Toronto Alexithymia Scale(TAS) and Stress Response Inventory(SRI) were used for assessment. Results 1) The BDI scores of ADHD patients caregiver group were significantly higher than control group$(16.4{\pm}7.1\;vs.\;10.9{\pm}5.5)(p=0.011)$. 7 of the 38 caregivers(18.4%) and none of control group(0%) had BDI scores over 20 points(p=0.021). Calculated relative risk for ADHD in the presence of caregivers' depression was 1.516 overall(95% confidence interval, 1.234-1.862). 2) In ADHD patient's caregiver group, the scores of Stress Response Inventory were significantly higher than control group$(44.2{\pm}20.2\;vs.\;26.5{\pm}16.8)(p=0.006)$. 3) No significant differences were found in the score of STAI, SIAIS, SIAI-T, TAS between caregiver and control group. Conclusion : This study suggest that ADHD patients' caregivers are likely to have more depressive symptoms and higher stress response level than control group. We propose that physicians should consider integrated approaches for caregiver's psychopathology in the management of ADHD.

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Features of International Marriage of Vietnamese Immigrant Women and Plans for Institutional Improvement (베트남결혼이주여성의 혼인의 특징과 국제결혼의 제도적 개선 방안)

  • Moon, Heung-Ahn
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.44
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    • pp.757-799
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    • 2013
  • Ever since Korea and Vietnam reestablished diplomatic relations, the two countries'bond has become stronger than ever, augmenting the range of exchange between them in almost every possible field including politics, economy, society, and culture at such a high speed. Among many, an increase in number of Vietnamese immigrant women in international marriage is worthy of close attention. Since 2010, Vietnamese has topped the proportion of total foreign women married to Korean men, having surpassed Chinese. Nonetheless, the quick international marriage between Korean men and Vietnamese women, which usually happens without sufficient time to get to know about different cultures and languages, has not only raised problems for people concerned, but numerous social issues as well. Recognizing these problems, a number of government departments have provided various support on policies and legal issues toprotect multicultural families as a means of social integration and settlement support. Nevertheless, the support policies until now have been generalizing all of the immigrant women in international marriage as people subject to protection. Thus, considering every immigrant women as people in need, and trying to help them with various social issues have caused the government a high cost and low efficiency. This thesis emphasizes the point that through the cases of Vietnamese immigrant women in international marriage, there should be a specific support plan for specific people in need, reflecting various traits of different cultures and societies, in order to ease their settlement in Korea. Moreover, it suggests detailed plans for improvements on legal and institutional problems. Although the Vietnamese government forbids commercial agents for international marriage, many of agencies are still active and to help the immigrant women, who desire to return and resettle in Vietnam in case of divorce, this thesis suggests legal and institutional remedies for Korean and Vietnamese government. The composition of the thesis follows below: Part II on social and cultural traits of international marriage between Korean men and Vietnamese women. Part III on institutional problems and plans for improvements regarding settlement of immigrant women in international marriage. Part IV on legal and institutional problems and plans for improvements regarding divorced immigrant women and their return to Vietnam. Part V on conclusion. Divorce is not a flaw anymore nowadays, but in case of Vietnamese immigrant women ininternational marriage, an inadequate legal system hampers their resettlement process. Cases of not being ableto remove their own names from the family register due to poor financial and legal abilities are often identified and it is both the Vietnamese and Korean governments'duty to acquit their ethical responsibilities by seeking ways to institutionally and financially support them.