• Title, Summary, Keyword: 에너지 소산

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Equivalent damping ratio of a friction damper installed in a structure under collapse load (붕괴하중을 받는 건물에 설치된 마찰감쇠기의 등가감쇠비)

  • Seong, Ji-Young;Min, Kyung-Won
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.602-605
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    • 2011
  • 본 논문에서는 마찰감쇠기가 설치된 건물이 붕괴하중을 받을 때의 에너지소산능력을 고려하여 등가감쇠비를 유도하였다. 마찰감쇠기는 주로 지진과 같은 수평하중에 대한 에너지를 소산하기위해 설치된다. 마찰감쇠기를 대각 가새형으로 설치하면 수평하중에 대한 저항력뿐 만아니라 수직하중에 대한 저항성능도 발휘된다. 건물에 설치된 마찰감쇠기는 외력의 크기에 따라 정지와 운동의 상태를 반복하여 외부 입력에너지를 소산시키기 때문에 외력과 응답관계가 비선형이다. 건물은 고유의 점성감쇠를 가지므로 마찰감쇠기가 설치된 건물은 마찰과 점성감쇠를 동시에 고려해야하므로 해석적인 정해를 구하기가 어렵다. 에너지 평형을 이용하여 등가감쇠비를 구하고 운동방정식을 등가선형화하면 쉽게 저항 성능을 파악할 수 있다. 우선 건물에 영향을 미치는 것은 감쇠이므로 감쇠의 영향력을 마찰력비, ${\gamma}_c$로 나타내었다. 둘째, 정해를 마찰력비로 표현하여 유도하고 응답특성을 파악하였다. 셋째, 에너지 균형식을 통해 등가감쇠비를 산정하였다. 마지막으로 등가감쇠비를 검증하기 위하여 등가감쇠비를 이용하여 등가선형화한 응답과 실제 마찰감쇠기를 설치하여 비선형 수치해석한 결과와 비교, 검증하였다.

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The Leaching of Gold-silver from Refractory Gold Concentrate by Chlorine-hypochlorite Solution (염소-차아염소산 용액에 의한 저항성 금 정광으로부터 Gold-silver 용출)

  • Cho, Kang-Hee;Kim, Bong-Ju;Oh, Su-Ji;Choi, Seoung-Hwan;Choi, Nag-Choul;Park, Cheon-Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 2012
  • Leaching experiments of gold and silver from roasted concentrate were carried out using a chlorine-hypochlorite solution. The leaching rate of gold was 75% at 1.5:1 ratio of chlorine and hypochlorite and increased to 81% with adding 1 M NaCl. However, at 1% pulp density and at $65^{\circ}C$, the leaching rates of Au were close to 100%. XRD analysis identified quartz in the solid residues after digestion of roasted concentrate with aqua regia or chlorine-hypochloride leaching solution. This suggests that the gold may not be leached out of the quartz in aqua regia or chlorine-hypochlorite solution. In order to leach the gold from the quartz, the concentrate will have to be pre-treated through ultra-fine grinding or treated with stronger oxidative agents.

Energy-Based Hysteretic Models for R/C Members (에너지 소산능력에 기초한 철근콘크리트 부재의 이력모델)

  • Eom, Tae-Sung;Park, Hong-Gun
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2004
  • Since existing hysteretic models for R/C members focused on presenting the degrading stiffness using empirical equations based on experiments, they cannot accurately predict the energy dissipation capacity during cyclic loading. Recently, design equations which can evaluate the energy dissipation capacity of R/C members were developed. Based on those equations, in the present study, an energy-based hysteretic model for flexure-dominated R/C members was developed. The proposed model was devised to dissipate the same energy as the actual one dissipated during a complete load cycle. The proposed model represents the hysteretic behaviors of R/C members accompanied by stiffness degradation and pinching using primary and cyclic curves and six unloading/reloading rules. The proposed model was verified by comparisons with various experimental results. The energy-based hysteretic model can be used to develop computer programs for static and dynamic analysis/design because it is simple and easily applicable to numerical analysis.

Design of Energy Dissipaters for Improving on Efficiency in Settling Basin (침사지 효율성 제고를 위한 에너지 소산 구조물의 설계)

  • Jung, Sang-Hwa;Kim, Chang-Wan;Lee, Min-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1323-1327
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    • 2006
  • 일반적으로 화력발전소는 원활한 원료 및 냉각수의 공급과 환경적인 요인으로 인해 내륙보다는 해안에 위치하고 있다. 발전소의 안정성을 확보하기 위해서는 고열의 발전기를 냉각하는 냉각설비들이 반드시 필요하며 이를 위해 취수로를 통한 냉각수의 원활한 공급이 이루어져야 한다. 이러한 냉각수 공급은 대용량 펌프에 의해 이루어지며, 취수로 구조물의 형상 및 냉각수의 흐름조건에 따라 성능과 수명이 좌우된다. 특히 해안에 위치하는 지리적 여건상 직접취수가 많으며 이러한 경우 유사가 취수로에 유입되어 펌프 흡입 시 균열과 임펠러 마모 등을 유발시켜 펌프의 안전에 악영향을 미치게 된다. 따라서 취수로에 유사의 퇴적을 유도하는 침사지를 설계하게 되며 Hydraulic Institute Standards(1998)에서는 허용설계유속을 0.2 m/s 이하로 정하고 있다. B 발전소는 직경 3 m의 대형 취수관로 3개를 통해 매우 빠른 유속으로 취수로에 유입되는 냉각수 계통 구조물을 가지고 있어 침사지 내 유속이 허용기준을 초과하였다. 본 연구에서는 침사지내 유속을 만족시키기 위해 다양한 에너지 소산 구조물 설계방안을 제시하였다. 각 설계방안에 따른 흐름 특성 및 유속 분포를 파악하고 common bay 내에서의 난류특성을 분석하여 비교.검토하였다. 수리모형실험 결과를 통해 각각의 설계방안에 따른 침사지의 효율을 평가하였으며 최적의 에너지 소산 구조물에 대한 설계방안을 제안하였다.

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Strength and Ductility of Steel Fiber Reinforced Composite Beams without Shear Reinforcements (전단보강근이 없는 강섬유 보강 합성보의 강도 및 연성 능력)

  • Oh, Young-Hun;Nam, Young-Gil;Kim, Jeong-Hae
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.103-111
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    • 2007
  • Experimental study was carried out to investigate the structural performance of composite beams with steel fiber concrete and angle. For this purpose, seven specimens composed of two RC beams with or without steel fiber and five composite beams with steel fiber and angle were constructed and tested. All specimens had no web shear reinforcement. Main variables for the specimens were tensile reinforcement ratio and fiber volume fraction. Based on the test results, structural performance such as strength, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation capacity was evaluated and compared with the predicted strength. The prediction of flexure and shear strength gives a good relationship with the observed strength. The strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity are increased, as the fiber volume fraction is increased. Meanwhile, high tensile reinforcement ratio resulted in the reduction of ductility and energy dissipation capacity for the composite beams.

Control-Gain Estimation of Energy Dissipation Control Algorithms (에너지소산 제어 알고리듬의 제어이득 산정)

  • Lee Sang Hyun;Kang Sang Hoon;Min Kyung-Won
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2004
  • This study is on control gain estimation of energy dissipation control algorithms. Velocity feedback saturated, bang bang, and energy gain control algorithms are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theory and their performances are evaluated and compared. Saturation problem is considered in the design of the velocity feedback saturated and energy-gain control algorithms, and chattering problem in bang bang control is solved by using boundary layer. Numerical results show that the proposed control algorithms can dissipate the structural energy induced by wind loads efficiently.

Modeling of Wave Breaking in Spectral Wave Evolution Equation (스펙트럼 파랑모형에서의 쇄파모형)

  • Cho, Yong-Jun;Ryu, Ha-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.303-312
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    • 2007
  • There is still a controversy going on about how to model energy dissipation due to breaking over frequency domain. In this study, we unveil the exact structure of energy dissipation using stochastic wave breaking model. It turns out that contrary to our present understanding, energy dissipation is cubically distributed over frequency domain. The verification of proposed model is conducted using the acquired data during SUPERTANK Laboratory Data Collection Project (Krauss et al., 1992). For further verification, we numerically simulate the nonlinear shoaling process of Conoidal wave over a beach of uniform slope, and obtain very promising results from the viewpoint of a skewness and asymmetry of wave field, usually regarded as the most fastidious parameter to satisfy.

Evaluation of the Energy Dissipation Capacity of an Unstiffened Extended End-plate Connection (비보강 확장단부판 접합부의 에너지소산능력 평가)

  • Lee, Soo Kueon;Yang, Jae Guen
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2015
  • An extended end-plate connection displays different behavioral properties and energy dissipation capacity based on the thickness and length of the end-plate comprising the connection in the form of a beam-to-column moment connection, the number and diameter of the high strength bolt, the gauge distance of the high strength bolt, and the size and length of the welds. Such extended end-plate is applied to beam-to-column connections in various geometric forms in the US and European regions. Currently in Korea, however, the extended end-plate beam-to-column connection is not actively applied due to the lack of proper design formulas, the evaluation of the energy dissipation capacity, and the provision of construction guidelines. Accordingly, this study was conducted to provide the basic data for the proposal of a prediction model of energy dissipation capacity by evaluating the energy dissipation capacity of unstiffened extended end-plate connections with relatively thin end plate thicknesses. To achieve this, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis has been conducted on unstiffened extended end-plate connections, with the thickness of the end plate as the set variable.

Hysteretic Behavior of Compressive Braces upon Repeated Cyclic Loading Based on the Review of Existing Data (기존 실험 자료를 통한 압축 철골가새의 반복 이력거동에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Kangmin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.359-368
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    • 2003
  • Design and detailing requirements of seismic provisions for Concentrically Braced Frames (CBF) were specified based on the premise that bracing members with large KL/r and low b/t have superior seismic performance. However, relatively few tests have been done to investigate the cyclic behavior of CBF. Therefore, the question lies on whether the compression member of CBF plays as significant a role as what has been typically assumed by design providers. In this paper, existing experimental data were reviewed to quantify the extent of hysteretic energy achieved by bracing members in past compression tests as well as the extent of degradation of the compression force given repeated cycling loading.

Modeling and Theoretical Analysis of Thermodynamic Characteristic of Nano Vibration Absorber (나노 진동 흡수기의 모델링 및 열역학적 특성 해석에 대한 이론적 연구)

  • 문병영;정성원
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2003
  • In this study, new shock absorbing system is proposed by using nano-technology based on the theoretical analysis. The new shock absorbing system is complementary to the hydraulic damper, having a cylinder-piston-orifice construction. Particularly for new shock absorbing system, the hydraulic oil is replaced by a colloidal suspension, which is composed of a porous matrix and a lyophobic fluid. The matrix of the suspension is consisted of porous micro-grains with a special architecture: they present nano-pores serially connected to micro-cavities. Until now, only experimentally qualitative studies of new shock absorbing system have been performed, but the mechanism of energy dissipation has not been clarified. This paper presents a modeling and theoretical analysis of the new shock absorbing system thermodynamics, nono-flows and energy dissipation. Compared with hydraulic system, the new shock absorbing system behaves more efficiently, which absorb a large amount of mechanical energy, without heating. The theoretical computations agree reasonably well with the experimental results. As a result. the proposed new shock absorbing system was proved to be an effective one, which can replace with the conventional one.