• Title, Summary, Keyword: 에너지 소산

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A Study on the Predictability of Eastern Winter Storm Waves Using Operational Wind Forecasts of KMA (기상청 현업 예보 바람자료를 이용한 동해안 동계 파랑 예측 재현도 연구)

  • Do, Kideok;Kim, Jinah
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.223-233
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    • 2018
  • The predictability of winter storm waves using KMA's operational wind forecasts has been studied to predict wind waves and swells in the East coast of Korea using SWAN. The nested model were employed along the East coast of Korea to simulate the wave transformation in the coastal area and wave dissipation term of whitecapping is optimized to improve swell prediction accuracy. In this study, KMA's operational meteorological models (RDAPS and LDAPS) are used as input wind fields. In order to evaluate model accuracy, we also simulate wind waves and swells using ECMWF reanalysis and KIOST WRF wind and they are compared with the KMA's operational wave model and the wave measurement data on the offshore and onshore stations. As a result, it has the lowest RMSE and the highest correlation coefficient in the onshore when the input wind fields are KMA's operational meteorological forecasts. In the offshore, all of the simulate results shows good agreements with similar error statistics. It means that it is very feasible to use SWAN model with the modified whitecapping factor and KMA's operational meteorological forecasts for predicting the wind waves and swells in the East coast of Korea.

A multiphase flow modeling of gravity currents in a rectangular channel (사각형 수로에서 중력류의 다상흐름 수치모의)

  • Kim, Byungjoo;Paik, Joongcheol
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.697-706
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    • 2019
  • A multiphase flow modeling approach equipped with a hybrid turbulence modeling method is applied to compute the gravity currents in a rectangular channel. The present multiphase solver considers the dense fluid, the less-dense ambient fluid and the air above free surface as three phases with separate flow equations for each phase. The turbulent effect is simulated by the IDDES (improved delayed detach eddy simulation), a hybrid RANS/LES, approach which resolves the turbulent flow away from the wall in the LES mode and models the near wall flow in RANS mode on moderately fine computational meshes. The numerical results show that the present model can successfully reproduce the gravity currents in terms of the propagation speed of the current heads and the emergence of large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz type interfacial billows and their three dimensional break down into smaller turbulent structures, even on the relatively coarse mesh for wall-modeled RANS computation with low-Reynolds number turbulence model. The present solutions reveal that the modeling approach can capture the large-scale three dimensional behaviors of gravity current head accompanied by the lobe-and-cleft instability at affordable computational resources, which is comparable to the LES results obtained on much fine meshes. It demonstrates that the multiphase modeling method using the hybrid turbulence model can be a promising engineering solver for predicting the physical behaviors of gravity currents in natural environmental configurations.

Internal Components Arrangement of MR Damper Landing Gear for Cavitation Prevention (캐비테이션 방지를 위한 MR 댐퍼형 착륙장치의 내부 형상 배치에 대한 연구)

  • Joe, Bang-Hyun;Jang, Dae-Sung;Hwang, Jai-Hyuk
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2020
  • The landing gear of an aircraft is a device that absorbs and dissipates shock energy transmitted from the ground to the fuselage. Among the landing gears, the semi-active MR damper landing gear is supposed to show high-shock absorption efficiency under various landing conditions and secure the stability when out of control. In the case of the MR damper landing gear using an annular channel rather than orifice, Amesim, a commercial multi-physics program, is considered as more useful than the conventional two-degree-of-freedom model because the damping force generated by the pressure drop through the flow annular path can cause cavitation in the low-pressure chamber of the MR damper with a specific internal structure. In this paper, the main dynamic characteristics of the MR damper landing gear with an annular type flow path structure has been analyzed under the condition of cavitation. Based on the analysis results using Amesim, a design guideline for the MR damper flow path that prevents cavitation has been proposed based on the modification of the arrangement of internal components of the damper. The guideline was verified through a drop simulation.

Development and Verification of a Rapid Refresh Wave Forecasting System (초단기 파랑예측시스템 구축 및 예측성능 검증)

  • Roh, Min;La, NaRy;Oh, SangMyeong;Kang, KiRyong;Chang, PilHun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.340-350
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    • 2020
  • A rapid refresh wave forecasting system has been developed using the sea wind on the Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System. We carried out a numerical experiment for wind-wave interaction as an important parameter in determining the forecasting performance. The simulation results based on the seasons of with typhoon and without typhoon has been compared with the observation of the ocean data buoy to verify the forecasting performance. In case of without typhoon, there was an underestimate of overall forecasting tendency, and it confirmed that an increase in the wind-wave interaction parameter leads to a decrease in the underestimate tendency and root mean square error (RMSE). As a result of typhoon season by applying the experiment condition with minimum RMSE on without typhoon, the forecasting error has increased in comparison with the result without typhoon season. It means that the wave model has considered the influence of the wind forcing on a relatively weak period on without typhoon, therefore, it might be that the wave model has not sufficiently reflected the nonlinear effect and the wave energy dissipation due to the strong wind forcing.

In-plane and Out-of-plane Seismic Performances of Masonry Walls Strengthened with Steel-Bar Truss Systems (강봉 트러스 시스템으로 보강된 조적벽체의 면내·외 내진 거동 평가)

  • Hwang, Seung-Hyeon;Yang, Keun-Hyeok;Kim, Sanghee
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2021
  • This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the in-plane and out-of-plane seismic performances of an unreinforced masonry walls (URMs) strengthened with prestressed steel-bar truss systems developed in the present investigation. The truss systems were installed on both faces of the walls. All the wall specimens were subjected to lateral in-plane or out-of-plane cyclic loads at the fixed gravity stress of 0.25 MPa. The seismic performance of the strengthened specimens was compared to that measured in the counterpart URM. When compared with the lateral load-displacement curve of the URM, the strengthened walls exhibited the following improvements: 190% for initial stiffness, 180% for peak strength, 610% for accumulated energy dissipation capacity, and 510% for equivalent damping ratio under the in-plane state; the corresponding improvements under the out-of-plane state were 230% for initial stiffness, 190% for peak strength, 240% for accumulated energy dissipation capacity, and 120% for equivalent damping ratio, respectively. These results indicate that the developed technique is very promising in enhancing the overall seismic performance of URM.

Seismic Resistance of Masonry Walls Strengthened with Unbonded Prestressed Steel Bars and Glass Fiber Grids (강봉 및 유리섬유로 비부착 보강된 조적벽체의 내진 저항성 평가)

  • Baik, Ji-Sung;Yang, Keun-Hyeok;Hwang, Seung-Hyeon;Choi, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2020
  • This study examined the structural effectiveness of the unbonded technique originally developed for seismic strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls on the basis of the prestressed steel bars and glass fiber (GF) grids. The masonry walls were strengthened by using individual steel bars or GF grids and their combination. Test results showed that the proposed technique was favorable in enhancing the strength, stiffness, and ductility of the masonry walls. When compared with the lateral load capacity, stiffness at the ascending branch of the lateral load-displacement curve, and energy dissipation capacity of the unstrengthened control wall, the increasing ratios were 110%, 120%, and 360%, respectively, for the walls strengthened with the individual GF grids, 140%, 130%, and 510%, respectively, for the walls strengthened with the individual steel bars, and 160%, 130%, and 840%, respectively, for the walls strengthened with the combination of steel bars and GF grids. The measured lateral load capacities of masonry walls strengthened with the developed technique were in relatively good agreement with the predictions by the equations proposed by Yang et al. Overall, the developed technique is quite promising in enhancing the seismic performance of unreinforced masonry walls.

Evaluating Impact Resistance of Externally Strengthened Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slab with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (섬유 보강재로 외부 보강된 강섬유 보강 콘크리트 슬래브의 충격저항성능 평가)

  • Yoo, Doo-Yeol;Min, Kyung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Young;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2012
  • Recently, as construction technology improved, concrete structures not only became larger, taller and longer but were able to perform various functions. However, if extreme loads such as impact, blast, and fire are applied to those structures, it would cause severe property damages and human casualties. Especially, the structural responses from extreme loading are totally different than that from quasi-static loading, because large pressure is applied to structures from mass acceleration effect of impact and blast loads. Therefore, the strain rate effect and damage levels should be considered when concrete structure is designed. In this study, the low velocity impact loading test of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs including 0%~1.5% (by volume) of steel fibers, and strengthened with two types of FRP sheets was performed to develop an impact resistant structural member. From the test results, the maximum impact load, dissipated energy and the number of drop to failure increased, whereas the maximum displacement and support rotation were reduced by strengthening SFRC slab with FRP sheets in tensile zone. The test results showed that the impact resistance of concrete slab can be substantially improved by externally strengthening using FRP sheets. This result can be used in designing of primary facilities exposed to such extreme loads. The dynamic responses of SFRC slab strengthened with FRP sheets under low velocity impact load were also analyzed using LS-DYNA, a finite element analysis program with an explicit time integration scheme. The comparison of test and analytical results showed that they were within 5% of error with respect to maximum displacements.

The Effects of Winch-curtain Ventilation on the Indoor Environment of a Fattening Swine House (윈치커튼 환기가 비육돈사의 실내 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Song, Jun-Ik;Choi, Hong-Lim
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2012
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of climate on indoor environment of a swine house with natural. This study was tested in the beef swine stall at Young-in, Kyung-ki do. The test was experimented for the effect of interior environment by the outdoor environment and the interior-pan. The results are as follows. 1. In test 1 ($T_{out}$ : $25.7^{\circ}C$, without fan), an indoor air flow pattern was showed that entered from sidewall winch-curtain to went out of a indoor by the ridge winch-curtain. And the velocity of a section of the center was measured two times as large as the velocity of the floor. It is the acceleration of the velocity by thermal buoyancy. And, the entered air was rapidly dissipated by flow energy. So that in the swain livestock with sidewall winch-curtain is effected by thermal buoyancy. And the air temperature of the indoor was distributed more higher as compared with the outdoor temperature. This result is caused by the sensible heat from swine and the ventilation is restricted. 2. In test 2 (($T_{out}$ : $25.7^{\circ}C$, with fan), the velocity of a section of the center was measured more higher as compared with the test 1. And the variance of air velocity was distributed higher as compared with the test 1. This result is showed dead region of air flow with a fan operation. And, the variance of gas density was distributed lower as compared with the test 1.

Seismic Design of Columns in Inverted V-braced Steel Frames Considering Brace Buckling (가새좌굴을 고려한 역 V형 가새골조의 기둥부재 내진설계법)

  • Cho, Chun-Hee;Kim, Jung-Jae;Lee, Cheol-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2010
  • According to the capacity design concept which forms the basis of the current steel seismic codes, the braces in concentrically braced frames (CBFs) should dissipate seismic energy through cyclic tension yielding and cyclic compression buckling while the beams and the columns should remain elastic. Brace buckling in inverted V-braced frames induces unbalanced vertical forces which, in turn, impose the additional beam moments and column axial forces. However, due to difficulty in predicting the location of buckling stories, the most conservative approach implied in the design code is to estimate the column axial forces by adding all the unbalanced vertical forces in the upper stories. One alternative approach, less conservative and recommended by the current code, is to estimate the column axial forces based on the amplified seismic load expected at the mechanism-level response. Both are either too conservative or lacking technical foundation. In this paper, three combination rules for a rational estimation of the column axial forces were proposed. The idea central to the three methods is to detect the stories of high buckling potential based on pushover analysis and dynamic behavior. The unbalanced vertical forces in the stories detected as high buckling potential are summed in a linear manner while those in other stories are combined by following the SRSS(square root of sum of squares) rule. The accuracy and design advantage of the three methods were validated by comparing extensive inelastic dynamic analysis results. The mode-shape based method(MSBM), which is both simple and accurate, is recommended as the method of choice for practicing engineers among the three.