• Title/Summary/Keyword: 연결부

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Distribution and Favorable Conditions for Mycelial Growth of Cordyceps pruinosa in Korea (한국에 자생하는 붉은자루동충하초(Cordyceps pruinosa)의 분포와 균사생장에 적합한 조건)

  • Shin, Jae-Chul;Shrestha, Bhushan;Lee, Won-Ho;Park, Young-Jin;Kim, Soo-Young;Jeong, Gwang-Ryel;Kim, Ho-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Woong;Sung, Jae-Mo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 2004
  • Cordyceps pruinosa grows upon dead pupae of Lepidoptera and produces one or $3{\sim}4$ club-shaped stromata per host. The stromata have distinct club-shaped head and long stalk. The length of stromata varies from $1{\sim}3\;cm$. Apical head consists of densely crowded semi-immersed perithecia, which are $360{\sim}400\;{\times}\;180{\sim}200\;{\mu}m$ in size. Asci are $150\;{\mu}m$ in length and $2.8{\sim}3\;{\mu}m$ in diameter. Ascospores, which are $124{\sim}141\;{\mu}m$ in length, have thin thread-like structures in the middle with part-spores attached on both sides. Each ascospore does not separate into part-spores after dispersal, but each part-spore germinates and together develops a colony. The imperfect form produces phialides of $15{\sim}24\;{\times}\;2{\sim}3\;{\mu}m$ size, with spherical or spindle shaped conidia of $4{\sim}6\;{\times}\;1.8{\sim}2.4\;{\mu}m$ size, The anamorph was identified as Mariannaea elegans Samson. YMA and SDAY agar media with pH 7 was produced abundant mycelial growth with high density. Best mycelial growth was observed when dextrin was used as a carbon source. Lactose, saccharose and sucrose also produced high mycelial growth. Peptone, yeast extract and tryptone produced abundant mycelial growth, when used as nitrogen sources. Highest mycelial growth and density was observed when C/N ratio was 1 : 1 at the concentration of 12.5 g/l each. $KH_2PO_4$ was the best mineral source for mycelial growth. Highest mycelial dry wt. was produced in YM and SDAY broths. Optimum inoculum for 100 ml of liquid broth was 6 mycelial discs. Similarly, optimum liquid culture period was 7 days.

Sedimentary Characteristics and Evolution History of Chenier, Gomso-Bay tidal Flat, Western Coast of Korea (황해 곰소만 조간대에 발달한 Chenier의 퇴적학적 특성과 진화)

  • 장진호;전승수
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.212-228
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    • 1993
  • A chenier, about 860 m long, 30 to 60 m wide and 0.6∼1.6 m high, occurs on the upper muddy tidal flat in the Gomso bay, western coast of Korea, It consists of medium to fine sands and shells with small amounts of subangular gravels. Vertical sections across the chenier show gently landward dipping stratifications which include small-scale cross-bedded sets. the most probable source of the chenier is considered to be the intertidal sandy sediments. Vibracores taken along a line transversing the tidal flat reveal that the intertidal sand deposits are more than 5 m thick near the low-water line and become thinner toward the chenier. The most sand deposits are undertrain by tidal muds which occur behind the chenier as salt marsh deposits. C-14 age dating suggests that the sand deposits and the chenier are younger than about 1,800 years B.P. The chenier has originated from the intertidal sand shoals at the lower to mid sand flat, and has continuously moved landward. A series of aerial photographs (1967∼1989) reveal that intertidal sand shoals (predecessor of the western part of chenier) on the mid flat have continuously moved landward during the past two decades and ultimately attached to the eastern part of the chenier already anchored at the present position in the late 1960s. Repeated measurements (four times between 1991 and 1992) of morphological changes of the chenier indicate that the eastern two thirds of the chenier, mostly above the mean high water, has rarely moved whereas the western remainder below the mean high water, has moved continuously at a rate of 0.5 m/mo during the last two years (1991∼1992). This displacement rate has been considerably accelerated up to 1.0 m/mo in winter, and during a few days of typhoon in the summer of 1992 the displacement amounted to about 8∼11 m/mo for the entire chenier. these facts suggest that macro-tidal currents, coupled with winter-storm waves and infrequent strong typhoons, should play a major role for the formation and migration of chenier after 1,800 B.P., when the sea level already rose to the present position and thereafter remained constant.

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Early Changes after Death of Plaice, Paralichthys olivaceus Muscle -5. Effect of Storage Temperature on Morphological Changes of Myofibrils and Histological Changes of Muscle- (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus)육의 사후 조기 변화 -5. 저장 온도가 근원섬유의 형태학적 및 육의 조직학적인 변화에 미치는 영향-)

  • CHO Young-Je;LEE Keun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.114-120
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    • 1994
  • To clarify the effect of storage temperature on the morphological and histological changes of plaice, Paralichthys olivaceus muscle at early stages after killing, the changes in breaking strength of muscle, morphological observation of myofibrils and histological observation of extracellular spaces during storage at $0^{\circ}C\;and\;10^{\circ}C$ were studied. The maximum breaking strength of samples stored at $0^{\circ}C$ was reached within 10hrs and then it dropped significantly (p<0.05) from 10hrs to 25hrs of storage. However, breaking strength was not increased in fresh muscle stored at $10^{\circ}C$ and gradually decreased after 10hrs storage. In myofibrils prepared from dorsal muscle immediately after death, A-band, I-band, H-band and Z-line in sarcomere were clearly distinguishable from each other. Due to muscle contraction, it was not easy to distinguish H-band from I-band observed in sarcomere stored at $0^{\circ}C$ after 10hrs storage. But, in the case of samples stored at $10^{\circ}C$, H-band could be observed dimly until 15hrs of storage. The changes in morphological myofibrils were closely related to increase of breaking strength. No extracellular space was observed among muscle cells immediately after killing. Stored samples at $0^{\circ}C$ showed extracellular spaces after 15hrs storage. On the other hand, samples stored at $10^{\circ}C$ didn't show any extracellular spaces until 15hrs storage and showed extracellular spaces after 24hrs storage. It was thought that the post-mortem tenderization of plaice muscle was closely related to the gradually disintegration of the extracellular matrix structure after killing.

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Dynamic Behavior of Reactor Internals under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (안전정기지진하의 원자로내부구조물 거동분석)

  • 김일곤
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 1994
  • The safety related components in the nuclear power plant should be designed to withstand the seismic load. Among these components the integrity of reactor internals under earthquake load is important in stand points of safety and economics, because these are classified to Seismic Class I components. So far the modelling methods of reactor internals have been investigated by many authors. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of reactor internals of Yong Gwang 1&2 nuclear power plants under SSE(Safe Shutdown Earthquake) load is analyzed by using of the simpled Global Beam Model. For this, as a first step, the characteristic analysis of reactor internal components are performed by using of the finite element code ANSYS. And the Global Beam Model for reactor internals which includes beam elements, nonlinear impact springs which have gaps in upper and lower positions, and hydrodynamical couplings which simulate the fluid-filled cylinders of reactor vessel and core barrel structures is established. And for the exciting external force the response spectrum which is applied to reactor support is converted to the time history input. With this excitation and the model the dynamic behaviour of reactor internals is obtained. As the results, the structural integrity of reactor internal components under seismic excitation is verified and the input for the detailed duel assembly series model could be obtained. And the simplicity and effectiveness of Global Beam Model and the economics of the explicit Runge-Kutta-Gills algorithm in impact problem of high frequency interface components are confirmed.

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The implication of capital restructuring on urban development : Chicago politics as the local contingent facter for urban restructuring (자본재구조화가 도시발달에 미치 는 영향:시카고 정치와 재개발사업을 사례로)

  • Koh, Tae Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.420-437
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    • 1994
  • The starting point of the research is the relation between capital restructuring and urban restructuring. The economic restructuring, which has been caused by the economic crisis in the early 1970s in the United States has brought a spatial restructuring at different geographic scales. The degree of the success of urban restructuring is contingent to the local economic and political environments. The local contingent factor such as local politics should not be neglected for investigating the restructuring process. Through the case study of Chicago, the research provides two inconsistencies in applying the structural approach to the local level: first, the lack of the theoretical link between crisis and restructuring; and second, the crucial importance of local politics in shaping urban development.

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Schwannoma of the Extremities (사지에 발생한 신경초종)

  • Bahk, Won-Jong;Rhee, Seung-Koo;Kang, Yong-Koo;Lee, An-Hi
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To correlate the significant MRI findings and histologic features of the Schwannoma of the extremities and to review the clinical characteristic and the result of the surgical enucleation. Materials and Methods: 67 patients with pathologically proven Schwannoma of the extremities, who were surgically treated at our institutes between January 1996 and June 2002, were selected for this study. The clinical records, EMG, MRI and histologic findings were reviewed. Age of the patients ranged from 8 to 75 years with average of 44.7 years. Mean follow-up period was 9.7 months with raging from 3 months to 46 months. Results: On MRI, Schwannoma shows a well-demarcated fusiform mass with a low to intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which is connected to parent nerve. A target pattern with peripheral hyperintensive rim and central low intensity on T2-weighted images was seen in 6 cases (15%), and fasciculation pattern with inhomogenous intensity in the hyperintensity on T2-weighted images was observed in 24 cases (62%). Various degree of cystic degeneration was discovered in 25 cases (64%). Postoperative complications include tingling sense or radiating pain in 5 patients, paresthesia in 2 patients, nerve palsy in 2 patients, but all of the complications were recovered during followup period. There were no local recurrence or malignant change. Conclusion: MRI demonstrates characteristic findings of Schwannoma, and very useful tool for preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgery. Exact preoperative diagnosis and meticulous enucleation are enough option of treatment.

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Spur-like Lesion on the Lateral Tibial Condyle - A Sign of Chronic ACL tear - (경골 외과의 골극 유사 병변 - 만성 전방 십자 인대 파열의 징후 -)

  • Cho Sung-Do;Ko Sang-Hun;Hwang Su-Yeon;Yang Jung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Authors experienced cases of chronic ACL tear with spur-like lesion on the tibial condyle which is different from the lateral capsular sign and degenerative change and evaluated the significance of 'spur-like lesion' in relations with chronic ACL injury. Material and Method : We have 5 patients with spur-like lesion on the lateral tibial condyle in simple radiogram. The location, shape and size of the lesion were studied using radiogram and MRI. Cause of injury, associated injury and chronicity of the ACL tear were analyzed. All 5 patients were male, and mean age was 33.8 $(17\~46)$ years. Result : The spur-like lesion was located from 3.8 mm(avg.) below the articular surface of the lateral tibial condyle to the apex of the fibular head and protruded laterally or inferolaterally from just posterior to the Gerdy's tubercle with a round or sharp-end triangular shape. Average length was 6 mm and average width ortho base was 9.2 mm. The cause of injury were sports jnjury 4 cases and traffic accident in one. The chronicity of the ACL tear was average 10.7(8 months$\~$23 years) years and medial meniscus tear was shown in all cases and lateral meniscus tear in three. Conclusion : We suggest that a patient who has a history of trauma with spur-like lesion on the lateral tibial condyle of the knee is expected to have chronic ACL tear.

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A Document Collection Method for More Accurate Search Engine (정확도 높은 검색 엔진을 위한 문서 수집 방법)

  • Ha, Eun-Yong;Gwon, Hui-Yong;Hwang, Ho-Yeong
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.10A no.5
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    • pp.469-478
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    • 2003
  • Internet information search engines using web robots visit servers conneted to the Internet periodically or non-periodically. They extract and classify data collected according to their own method and construct their database, which are the basis of web information search engines. There procedure are repeated very frequently on the Web. Many search engine sites operate this processing strategically to become popular interneet portal sites which provede users ways how to information on the web. Web search engine contacts to thousands of thousands web servers and maintains its existed databases and navigates to get data about newly connected web servers. But these jobs are decided and conducted by search engines. They run web robots to collect data from web servers without knowledge on the states of web servers. Each search engine issues lots of requests and receives responses from web servers. This is one cause to increase internet traffic on the web. If each web server notify web robots about summary on its public documents and then each web robot runs collecting operations using this summary to the corresponding documents on the web servers, the unnecessary internet traffic is eliminated and also the accuracy of data on search engines will become higher. And the processing overhead concerned with web related jobs on web servers and search engines will become lower. In this paper, a monitoring system on the web server is designed and implemented, which monitors states of documents on the web server and summarizes changes of modified documents and sends the summary information to web robots which want to get documents from the web server. And an efficient web robot on the web search engine is also designed and implemented, which uses the notified summary and gets corresponding documents from the web servers and extracts index and updates its databases.

Re-conservation of the Iron Sword with Ring Pommel with Three-Pointed Leaf Decoration Excavated from Tomb No. 55 at the Dalseong Ancient Tomb Complex in Daegu and a Study of Its Production Method (대구 달성 55호분 출토 삼엽문이자태도의 재보존처리와 제작 기법 연구)

  • Lee, Huisung;Huh, Ilkwon;Ro, Jihyun;Park, Seungwon
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.24
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2020
  • This paper presents the process of re-conservation and the results of research on the production method of the Iron Sword with Ring Pommel with Three-Pointed Leaf Decoration, one of the excavation findings from Tomb No. 55 in the Dalseong Ancient Tomb Complex in Daegu. This iron sword is a double weapon with two large swords housed within a single sheath. Four smaller swords are attached to the surface of the sheath, two on the upper portion and the other two below. It is the only such two-in-one weapon excavated intact thus far from an ancient Korean tomb. The records show that it underwent conservation treatment twice in the past. In this study, it was subjected to conservation treatment again to replace the stiffener in some cracking areas, and its material, composition, and production method were analyzed by CT, XRF analysis, and stereoscopic microscopy. The sword is mainly made of copper, but the golden component contains both gold and mercury, which suggests that the copper was plated in gold using mercury amalgamation. The examination of the production methods indicates that it was intended more to demonstrate the authority of its owner rather than to serve any practical use. The two upper small swords on the sheath were made in the same manner as the main swords, and the two small lower swords were cut from a single metal sheet. The sheath was made by cutting two metal sheets. Supports were used to attach the two small swords to the upper portion of the sheath, while the lower portion of the sheath was slit to allow the other two small swords to be inserted into it. The ring pommels of the main swords have a three-pointed leaf decoration. As for the other designs, the handle of the main sword features a series of semicircles, the decorative bands on the sheath have waves in dots, and the fish tail of the sheath shows diagonal lines of dots.

Operating Cases of Farmer Organizations in the Rice Industry of Korea and Its Implication for Uganda (한국의 쌀 재배 농가조직 운영사례가 우간다에 주는 시사점)

  • Yi, Hyangmi;Guma, Allen Peter;Lee, Seokjoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.217-225
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    • 2017
  • South Korea and developing countries like Uganda have sought to re-energize their agriculture sector growth using $6^{th}$ Industrialization of Agriculture strategies. These strategies seek to upgrade farming households from just being producers or primary industry players to participants in the secondary and tertiary industry. This convergence is known as $1{\times}2{\times}3=6^{th}$ Industrialization. This involves farmers strengthening production and investing in higher value chain activities such as agro-tourism, agro-processing, farm restaurants, and the export market. These developments are driven by investment in institutional arrangements and technology that is often beyond the capacity of individual farming households as well as some farmer organizations and cooperatives. Qualitative approaches were used to draw lessons from two typical rice farmer organizations and two rice value addition groups and other sector players to investigate group formation dyanamics and the capacity of farmer organizations to attain goals for grouping. The results show being a member of a farmer organization increases access to inputs such as machinery, however, the key determinant to joining is trust/mistrust of leadership. In regard to attainment of $6^{th}$ Industrialization, farmer organizations still have to hassle with uncertainty of marketing a new $6^{th}$ industry product. Nevertheless farmer organizations seem closer to attaining the $6^{th}$ industry goal due to exposure to primary processing and export business. Some implications have been drawn for Korea as well as localization to Uganda's situation.