This study aims at investigating the characteristics of trends of future education over time though the literature review and examining the accuracy of the framework for forecasting future education proposed by the previous studies by comparing the outcomes between the literature review and media articles. Thus, this study collects the articles dealing with future education searched from the Web of Science and categorized them into four periods during the new millennium. The new articles from media were selected to find out the present of education so that we can figure out the appropriateness of the proposed framework to predict the future of education. Research findings reveal that gradual tendencies of topics could not be found except teacher education and they are diverse from characteristics of agents (students and teachers) to the curriculum and pedagogical strategies. On the other hand, the results of analysis on the media articles focuses more on the projects launched by the government and the immediate responses to the COVID-19, as well as educational technologies related to big data and artificial intelligence. It is surprising that only a few key words are occupied in the latest articles from the literature review and many of them have not been discussed before. This indicates that the predictive framework is not effective to establish the long-term plan for education due to the uncertainty of educational environment, and thus this study will give some implications for developing the model to forecast the future of education.
In this study, an eco-friendly combustion process of waste 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) was developed, and fundamental data for the quantity of the organic matter in the final combustion residues is presented. Because complete combustion of TNT is not possible theoretically, the combustion process was optimized to reduce organic matter content in the combustion residue by performing measures such as heating time changes, addition of propellant material, and after treatment using a high-temp electrical furnace. From the results, it was confirmed that the organic matter content in the residue could be decreased to 7 ~ 10% with each method. The quantity of the organic matter could be minimized by optimizing the combustion conditions of the process. With only a combustion time increase, the amount of organic matter in the combustion residues was measured at about 9 wt%. The environmental friendliness of the final exhaust gas was also confirmed by real time gas component analyses. In addition, the organic contents could be reduced by a further 2 wt% by applying an additional heat treatment using an external electric furnace after the first incineration treatment. In the combustion process of propellant added waste TNT, it was found that various TNT wastes could be treated using the same eco-friendly protocols because the organic content in the residue decreased in accordance with the amount of propellant. The amount of the organic matter content produced by all these methods fulfilled the requirements under the Waste Management Act.
Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
This study analyzed the trends and current status in public libraries in Korea for 14 years, focusing on the overview and facilities of public libraries using public library statistics from 2007 to 2020. The research data were collected from the National Library Statistics System and compared with the population and GDP per capita of Korea. As a result, the number of public libraries in Korea is 1,172 as of 2020, which has nearly doubled compared to 2007, and it was found that this increase has a very strong correlation with GDP per capita and population. There were 229 contracting out public libraries operating by the local government in 2020, and the contracting out rate increased from 18.8% in 2007 to 25.1%. Although the site area of public libraries varies greatly from library to library, it tends to get larger over time. The total floor area of public libraries operating by the Office of Education is larger than that of public libraries operating by the local government, and it gradually increases over time, but the total floor area of public libraries operating by the local government have decreased slightly. The total number of seats in the library is decreasing in all libraries, and the reading seats for children and the reading seats for the elderly and the disabled tend to slightly increase.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
This study focused on the park as a space to support the behavior of urban citizens in modern society. Modern city parks are not spaces that play a specific role but are used by many people, so their function and meaning may change depending on the user's behavior. In addition, current online data may determine the selection of parks to visit or the usage of parks. Therefore, this study analyzed the change of behavior in Yeouido Park, Yeouido Hangang Park, and Yangjae Citizen's Forest from 2000 to 2018 by utilizing a time series analysis. The analysis method used Big Data techniques such as text mining and social network analysis. The summary of the study is as follows. The usage behavior of Yeouido Park has changed over time to "Ride" (Dynamic Behavior) for the first period (I), "Take" (Information Communication Service Behavior) for the second period (II), "See" (Communicative Behavior) for the third period (III), and "Eat" (Energy Source Behavior) for the fourth period (IV). In the case of Yangjae Citizens' Forest, the usage behavior has changed over time to "Walk" (Dynamic Behavior) for the first, second, and third periods (I), (II), (III) and "Play" (Dynamic Behavior) for the fourth period (IV). Looking at the factors affecting behavior, Yeouido Park was had various factors related to sports, leisure, culture, art, and spare time compared to Yangjae Citizens' Forest. The differences in Yangjae Citizens' Forest that affected its main usage behavior were various elements of natural resources. Second, the behavior of the target areas was found to be focused on certain main behaviors over time and played a role in selecting or limiting future behaviors. These results indicate that the space and facilities of the target areas had not been utilized evenly, as various behaviors have not occurred, however, a certain main behavior has appeared in the target areas. This study has great significance in that it analyzes the usage of urban parks using Big Data techniques, and determined that urban parks are transformed into play spaces where consumption progressed beyond the role of rest and walking. The behavior occurring in modern urban parks is changing in quantity and content. Therefore, through various types of discussions based on the results of the behavior collected through Big Data, we can better understand how citizens are using city parks. This study found that the behavior associated with static behavior in both parks had a great impact on other behaviors.
Artificial joint replacement is one of the major surgical advances of the 21th century. The primary purpose of a TKA (Total Knee Arthroplasty) is to restore normal knee Auction. Therefore, ideally, a TKA should: (a) maintain the natural leverage of the knee joint muscles to ensure generating adequate knee muscle moments to accomplish daily tasks such as rising from a chair or climbing stairs;(b) allow the same range of motion as an complete knee; and (c) provide adequate knee joint stability. Four individuals (2 peoples after surgery one year and 2 peoples after surgery three years) participated in this study. All they were prescreened for health and functional status by the same surgeon who performed the operations. Two days of accommodation practice occurred prior to the actual strength testing. The isometric strength (KIN-COM III) of the quadriceps and hamstring were measured at 60$^\circ$ and 30$^\circ$ of knee flexion, respectively. During isokinetic concentric testing, the range of motion was between 10$^\circ$ to 80$^\circ$ of knee flexion (stand-to-sit) and extension (sit-to-stand). for a given test, the trial exhibiting maximum torque was analyzed. A 16-channel MYOPACTM EMG system (Run Technologies, Inc.) was used to collect the differential input surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis(VL), rectus femoris (RF) during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tests. Disposable electrodes (Blue SensorTM, Medicotest, Inc.) were used to collect the EMG signals. The results were as follows; 1. Less maximum concentric (16% and 21% less for 1 yew man and 3 years mm, respectively) and isometric (12% and 29%, respectively) quadriceps torque for both participants. 2.14% less maximum hamstrings concentric torque for 1 year man but 16% greater torque for 3 years mm. However, 1 year man had similar hamstring isometric peak torque for both knees. 3. Less quadriceps co-contraction by 1 year man except for the VM at 10$^\circ$-20$^\circ$ and 30$^\circ$-50$^\circ$ range of knee flexion.
Since the 20th century, automobiles, which are the most common means of transportation, have been evolving as the use of electronic control devices and automotive semiconductors increases dramatically. Automotive semiconductors are a key component in automotive electronic control devices and are used to provide stability, efficiency of fuel use, and stability of operation to consumers. For example, automotive semiconductors include engines control, technologies for managing electric motors, transmission control units, hybrid vehicle control, start/stop systems, electronic motor control, automotive radar and LIDAR, smart head lamps, head-up displays, lane keeping systems. As such, semiconductors are being applied to almost all electronic control devices that make up an automobile, and they are creating more effects than simply combining mechanical devices. Since automotive semiconductors have a high data rate basically, a microprocessor unit is being used instead of a micro control unit. For example, semiconductors based on ARM processors are being used in telematics, audio/video multi-medias and navigation. Automotive semiconductors require characteristics such as high reliability, durability and long-term supply, considering the period of use of the automobile for more than 10 years. The reliability of automotive semiconductors is directly linked to the safety of automobiles. The semiconductor industry uses JEDEC and AEC standards to evaluate the reliability of automotive semiconductors. In addition, the life expectancy of the product is estimated at the early stage of development and at the early stage of mass production by using the reliability test method and results that are presented as standard in the automobile industry. However, there are limitations in predicting the failure rate caused by various parameters such as customer's various conditions of use and usage time. To overcome these limitations, much research has been done in academia and industry. Among them, researches using data mining techniques have been carried out in many semiconductor fields, but application and research on automotive semiconductors have not yet been studied. In this regard, this study investigates the relationship between data generated during semiconductor assembly and package test process by using data mining technique, and uses data mining technique suitable for predicting potential failure rate using customer bad data.
This study aims to review the trends of the population outflows in the metropolitan area of Busan and to investigate the factors that affect population out-migration to the Seoul metropolitan area. The following variables are considered for analysis: traditional population movement variables and quality of life variables, such as population, society, employment, housing, culture, safety, medical care, greenery, education, and childcare. The 'domestic population movement data', provided by the MDIS of the National Statistical Office, was used for this research. Out of the total of 57 million population movement data in the period 2012 - 2017, population outmigration from Busan to the Seoul metropolitan area was extracted. Independent variables were drawn from public data sources in accordance with the temporal and spatial settings of the study. The multiple linear regression model was specified based on the dataset, and the fit of the model was measured by the p-value, and the values of Adjusted R2, Durbin-Watson analysis, and F-statistics. The results of the analysis showed that the variables that have a significant effect on population movement from Busan to the Seoul metropolitan area were as follows: 'single-person households', 'the elderly population', 'the total birth rate', 'the number of companies', 'the number of employees', 'the housing sales price index', 'cultural facilities', and 'the number of students per teacher'. More positive (+) influences of the population out-movement were observed in areas with higher numbers of single-person households, lowers proportions of the elderly, lower numbers of businesses, higher numbers of employees, higher numbers of housing sales, lower numbers of cultural facilities, and lower numbers of students. The findings suggest that policies should enhance the environments such as quality jobs, culture, and welfare that can retain young people within Busan. Improvements in the quality of life and job creation are critical factors that can mitigate the outflows of the Busan residents to the Seoul metropolitan area.
Platform is considered as an alternative strategy to the traditional linear pipeline based business. Moreover, in the 4th industrial revolution period, efficiency driven pipeline business model needs to be changed to platform business. We have such success stories about platform as Apple, Google, Amazon, Uber, and so on. However, for those smaller corporations, it is not easy to find out the transformation strategy. The essence of platform business is to leverage network effect in management. Thus platform based management can be rephrased as network management across the business functions. Research on platform business is popular and related to diverse facets. But few scholars cover what the research trend of the domain is. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the research trend on platform business in Korea. To do that we first propose the analytical model for platform architecture whose components are consumers, suppliers, artifacts, and IT platform system. We conjecture that mapping of the research work on platform to the components of the model will make us understand the hidden domain of platform research. We propose three hypotheses regarding the characteristics of research and one proposition for the transitional path from pipeline to platform business model. The mapping is based on the research articles filtered from the Korea Citation Index, using keyword search. Research papers are searched through the keywords provided by authors using the word of "platform". The filtered articles are summarized in terms of the attributes such as major component of platform considered, platform type, main purpose of the research, and research method. Using the filtered data, we test the hypotheses in exploratory ways. The contribution of our research is as follows: First, based on the findings, scholars can find the areas of research on the domain: areas where research has been matured and territory where future research is actively sought. Second, the proposition provided can give business practitioners the guideline for changing their strategy from pipeline to platform oriented. This research needs to be considered as exploratory not inferential since subjective judgments are involved in data collection, classification, and interpretation of research articles.
Due to the wide spread of customers' frequent access of non face-to-face services, there have been many attempts to improve customer satisfaction using huge amounts of data accumulated throughnon face-to-face channels. Usually, a call center is regarded to be one of the most representative non-faced channels. Therefore, it is important that a call center has enough agents to offer high level customer satisfaction. However, managing too many agents would increase the operational costs of a call center by increasing labor costs. Therefore, predicting and calculating the appropriate size of human resources of a call center is one of the most critical success factors of call center management. For this reason, most call centers are currently establishing a department of WFM(Work Force Management) to estimate the appropriate number of agents and to direct much effort to predict the volume of inbound calls. In real world applications, inbound call prediction is usually performed based on the intuition and experience of a domain expert. In other words, a domain expert usually predicts the volume of calls by calculating the average call of some periods and adjusting the average according tohis/her subjective estimation. However, this kind of approach has radical limitations in that the result of prediction might be strongly affected by the expert's personal experience and competence. It is often the case that a domain expert may predict inbound calls quite differently from anotherif the two experts have mutually different opinions on selecting influential variables and priorities among the variables. Moreover, it is almost impossible to logically clarify the process of expert's subjective prediction. Currently, to overcome the limitations of subjective call prediction, most call centers are adopting a WFMS(Workforce Management System) package in which expert's best practices are systemized. With WFMS, a user can predict the volume of calls by calculating the average call of each day of the week, excluding some eventful days. However, WFMS costs too much capital during the early stage of system establishment. Moreover, it is hard to reflect new information ontothe system when some factors affecting the amount of calls have been changed. In this paper, we attempt to devise a new model for predicting inbound calls that is not only based on theoretical background but also easily applicable to real world applications. Our model was mainly developed by the interactive decision tree technique, one of the most popular techniques in data mining. Therefore, we expect that our model can predict inbound calls automatically based on historical data, and it can utilize expert's domain knowledge during the process of tree construction. To analyze the accuracy of our model, we performed intensive experiments on a real case of one of the largest car insurance companies in Korea. In the case study, the prediction accuracy of the devised two models and traditional WFMS are analyzed with respect to the various error rates allowable. The experiments reveal that our data mining-based two models outperform WFMS in terms of predicting the amount of accident calls and fault calls in most experimental situations examined.
Due to the growth of internet data and the rapid development of internet technology, "big data" analysis is actively conducted to analyze enormous data for various purposes. Especially in recent years, a number of studies have been performed on the applications of text mining techniques in order to overcome the limitations of existing structured data analysis. Various studies on sentiment analysis, the part of text mining techniques, are actively studied to score opinions based on the distribution of polarity of words in documents. Usually, the sentiment analysis uses sentiment dictionary contains positivity and negativity of vocabularies. As a part of such studies, this study tries to construct sentiment dictionary which is customized to specific data domain. Using a common sentiment dictionary for sentiment analysis without considering data domain characteristic cannot reflect contextual expression only used in the specific data domain. So, we can expect using a modified sentiment dictionary customized to data domain can lead the improvement of sentiment analysis efficiency. Therefore, this study aims to suggest a way to construct customized dictionary to reflect characteristics of data domain. Especially, in this study, movie review data are divided by genre and construct genre-customized dictionaries. The performance of customized dictionary in sentiment analysis is compared with a common sentiment dictionary. In this study, IMDb data are chosen as the subject of analysis, and movie reviews are categorized by genre. Six genres in IMDb, 'action', 'animation', 'comedy', 'drama', 'horror', and 'sci-fi' are selected. Five highest ranking movies and five lowest ranking movies per genre are selected as training data set and two years' movie data from 2012 September 2012 to June 2014 are collected as test data set. Using SO-PMI (Semantic Orientation from Point-wise Mutual Information) technique, we build customized sentiment dictionary per genre and compare prediction accuracy on review rating. As a result of the analysis, the prediction using customized dictionaries improves prediction accuracy. The performance improvement is 2.82% in overall and is statistical significant. Especially, the customized dictionary on 'sci-fi' leads the highest accuracy improvement among six genres. Even though this study shows the usefulness of customized dictionaries in sentiment analysis, further studies are required to generalize the results. In this study, we only consider adjectives as additional terms in customized sentiment dictionary. Other part of text such as verb and adverb can be considered to improve sentiment analysis performance. Also, we need to apply customized sentiment dictionary to other domain such as product reviews.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.