• Title/Summary/Keyword: 운동 마찰력

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Comparison of frictional forces between orthodontic brackets and archwires (교정용 브라켓과 호선 간의 마찰 저항력의 비교)

  • Suh, Chung-Whan;Jung, Hye-Seung;Cho, Jin-Hyoung;Kang, Kyung-Hwa
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.116-126
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    • 2005
  • The object of this study was to evaluate how friction that occurs during the sliding movement of an orthodontic archwire through orthodontic brackets is differently affected by variant designs and ingredients of brackets and archwires and bracket-archwire angles. In order to simulate the situations which could occur during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, 4 types of brackets (Gemini, a stainless steel twin bracket, Mini Uni-Twiu. a stainless steel bracket with a single bracket design and narrow mesio-distal width; Clarity, a metal-reinforced ceramic bracket; Transcend, a ceramic bracket) and 3 types of orthodontic archwires $(0.016',\; 0.016{\times}0.022'\;stainless\;steel,\;0.016'\;Nitinol)$ were used and the bracket-archwire angles were controlled as $0^{\circ},\;3^{\circ}\;6^{\circ},\;and\;9^{\circ}$ Gemini significantly show and the lowest static and kinetic frictions (P<0.001) Clarity showed the highest static and kinetic frictions with a bracket-archwire angle of $0^{\circ}$. and Transcend at $6^{\circ}\;and\;9^{\circ}$ (P<0.001). An $0.016{\times}0.022'$ stainless steel rectangular archwire significantly showed the highest static and kinetic frictions (P<0.01). The lowest static and kinetic frictions were observed when the bracket-archwire angles were $0^{\circ}\;and\;3^{\circ}$ with 0.010' stainless steel round archwires (P<0.01), and $6^{\circ}\;and\;9^{\circ}$ with 0.016 Nitinol (P<0.001). The static and kinetic frictions were increased as the bracket-archwire angles were increased (P<0.001)

The comparison of the frictional force by the type and angle of orthodontic bracket and the coated or non-coated feature of archwire (교정용 브라켓의 종류와 각도, 호선의 코팅 여부에 따른 마찰력의 비교)

  • Jang, Tae-Ho;Kim, Sang-Cheol;Cho, Jin-Hyoung;Chae, Jong-Moon;Chang, Na-Young;Kang, Kyung-Hwa
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.399-410
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    • 2011
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance among metal, ceramic, self-ligation brackets and coated or non-coated Ni-Ti archwires at various bracket-archwire angulations during the sliding movement of an orthodontic archwire, using an orthodontic sliding simulation device. Methods: Four types of bracket (Micro-arch Perpect Clear2 Clippy-C and Damon3 and 5 types of orthodontic archwire (0.014", 0.016", and 0.016" ${\times}$ 0.022" inch coated Ni-Ti, and 0.016" and 0.016" ${\times}$ 0.022" inch Ni-Ti) were used. Further, the bracket- archwire angles were set at 4 different angulations: $0^{\circ}$, $3^{\circ}$, $6^{\circ}$, and $9^{\circ}$. Results: The frictions from all the experimental groups were found to be significantly increased in order of self-ligation brackets, Micro-arch and Perpect Clear2 ($p$ < 0.001). The presence of a coat had no effect on the friction of the same sized archwires at $0^{\circ}$ and $3^{\circ}$ bracket-archwire angles ($p$ < 0.001). Coated archwires had significantly higher frictions than the same sized non-coated archwires at $6^{\circ}$ and $9^{\circ}$ bracket-archwire angles ($p$ < 0.001). The frictions increased significantly as the bracket-archwire angles were increased ($p$ < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of self-ligation brackets will be beneficial in clinical situations where a low frictional force is required. Further, in cases where crowding is not severe, the use of coated archwires should not cause problems. However, more additional explanation is required considering the fact that the damage of coated archwire and exposure of the metal portion in case of binding and notching and the effects of saliva were not taken into account.

The Frictional Resistance Of Tin Ion-Plated Co-Cr Orthodontic Wire (TiN 피막처리된 Co-Cr계 교정용 선재의 마찰저항력)

  • Lee, Ho-Kyu;Kwon, Oh-Won;Kim, Kyo-Han
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 1998
  • The effectiveness of TiN ion-plating was examined with TiN ion-plated Co-Cr wires(.016“, .016”x.022“) on three different types of bracket(TiN ion-plated metal bracket ceramic bracket and plastic bracket). Maximum static frictional forces and characteristic curves obtained from the frictional characteristic graph, were compared and surface roughness of wires and bracket slots before and after friction experiment was observed by SEM. The obtained results were as follows $\cdot$The frictional forces of TiN ion-plated wires were significantly lower than those of non ion-plated wires(p<0.05). $\cdot$On the effect of wire shape, the frictional forces of round wires were significantly lower than those of rectangular wires(p<0.05) $\cdot$As the result of the SEM observation on the wires and bracket slots after the friction experiment the surface of non ion-plated wires was rougher than that of TiN ion-plated ones. $\cdot$The difference between the static frictional forces and the kinetic frictional forces was not significant in case of the TiN ion-plated round ins, but the static frictional forces were a little higher than the kinetic frictional forces in the TiN ion-plated rectangular wires. $\cdot$The static frictional forces were much higher than the kinetic frictional forces in the case of non ion-plated wires.

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Optimal design of tuned mass damper considering the friction between the moving mass and the rail (레일의 운동마찰력을 고려한 TMD 최적 설계)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Woo, Sung-Sik;Cho, Seung-Ho;Chung, Lan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.582-587
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    • 2007
  • In this study, based on the results from the sinusoidal base excitation analyses of a single degree of freedom system with a tuned mass damper (TMD), it is verified that optimal friction force can improve the performance of a TMD like a linear viscous damper which has been usually used in general TMD. The magnitude of the optimal friction increases with increasing mass ratio of the TMD and decreases with increasing structural damping. Particularly, it is observed that the optimized friction force gives better control performance than the optimized viscous damping of the TMD. However, because the performance of the TMD considerably deteriorates when the friction force increases over the optimal value, it is required to keep the friction force from exceeding the optimal value.

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Design and Analysis of V-type Liner Ultrasonic Motor by Using ANSYS (ANSYS를 이용한 V-형 선형 초음파 모터의 해석과 설계)

  • Seo, San-Dong;Park, Tae-Gone
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1986-1988
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    • 2005
  • V-형 선형 초음파 모터를 설계하고 유한 요소 해석 소프트웨어인 ANSYS9.0을 사용하여 모터를 해석하고 그 결과를 도출하였다. 이 모터의 기본적인 구조는 압전 세라믹을 V-형 모터 stator 에 부착한 형태이다. 모터의 동작을 위해서 90도 위상차가 있는 2개의 교류전원을 각각 세라믹에 인가하였다. 그러면 각 세라믹은 압전 역효과와 위상의 차이에 의해 모터 arm을 대칭-비대칭 운동을 하게 만든다. 그리고 이 운동이 타원 제적을 발생시킨다 즉 모터와 슬라이드의 접선에서 이 타원궤적 운동의 마찰력으로 모터가 동작하게 된다. 최적의 조건을 찾기 위해 ANSYS를 이용하여 모터의 구조에 여러 가지 변수-고정점, stator의 재질, arm-body에 부착한 세라믹의 위치, 위상차, arm의 결합각 차, arm-body와 세라믹의 크기 변화, arm의 크기 변화-를 주어 선형 초음파 모터 구조의 최적 조건을 찾아 설계를 하였다.

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Optimal Design of Tuned Mass Damper Considering the Friction between the Moving Mass and the Rail (레일의 운동마찰력을 고려한 TMD 최적 설계)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Woo, Sung-Sik;Cho, Seung-Ho;Chung, Lan
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.553-559
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    • 2007
  • In this study, based on the results from the sinusoidal base excitation analyses of a single degree of freedom system with a tuned mass damper (TMD), it is verified that optimal friction force can improve the performance of a TMD like a linear viscous damper which has been usually used in general TMD. The magnitude of the optimal friction increases with increasing mass ratio of the TMD and decreases with increasing structural damping. Particularly, it is observed that the optimized friction force gives better control performance than the optimized viscous damping of the TMD. However, because the performance of the TMD considerably deteriorates when the friction force increases over the optimal value, it is required to keep the friction force from exceeding the optimal value.

Dynamic Consideration of Athletic Constraints on Skating Motion (스케이트 운동의 생성을 위한 구속조건의 고찰)

  • Hwang, Chang-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.55-67
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    • 2009
  • This paper addresses the dynamic consideration of the athletic constraints on skating motion. In order to generate a human-like skating motion, the athletic constraints are distinctively analyzed into dynamic constraints and physical constraints. A close investigation of the athletic constraints evolved valid extent of dominant parameter for a leg muscle. During the human-like skating motion, the state of actuation was shifted from region of maximum force to region of maximum power. Simulation results were intuitively comprehensible, and the effectiveness of analytic algorithm was demonstrated for skating motion.

Electronic Throttle Body Model Allowing for Non-linearity of DC Motor Driver (DC 모터 드라이버의 비선형성을 고려한 전자식 스로틀 바디 모델)

  • Jin, Sung-Tae;Kang, Jong-Jin;Lee, Woo-Taik
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2008
  • This paper proposes an Electronic Throttle Body (ETB) model considering a non-linearity of DC motor driver which is integrated with a H-bridge and a gate driver. A propagation delay and reverse recovery time of switching components cause non-linear characteristic of DC motor driver. This non-linearity affects not only the amateur voltage of DC motor, but also entire behaviour and parameters of ETB. In order to analyze the behavior of ETB more accurately, this non-linear effect of DC motor driver is modeled. The developed ETB model is validated by use of the step response and ramp response experiments, and it shows relatively accurate results compared with linear DC motor driver model.

Methodological Issues in Socio-Economic Assessment of the Hydrogen Economy Development (수소경제로 이행을 위한 사회경제적 영향평가 방법론)

  • Kim, Ho-Seok
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.586-591
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    • 2005
  • 우리나라는 에너지의 안정적 공급과 에너지이용 과정에서 발생하는 환경적, 안보적 외부성을 최소화하는 에너지수급 구조를 마련하기 위해 2003년 12월 '제2차 신재생에너지 기술개발 및 이용보급 기본계획(2003-2012)'을 발표하였다. 이 계획에서는 2011년까지 전체 TPES의 $5\%$를 신재생에너지로 공급하는 것을 정책목표로 수립하고 수소, 태양광 그리고 풍력기술을 중점적으로 추진하기로 하였다. 특히 수소부문에서는 주택 및 건물용, 발전용, 수송용 연료전지의 개발을 중심으로 개발하여 세계 기술시장의 $20\%$를 확보한다는 계획을 발표하였다. 이러한 기술 잠재력을 기반으로 우리 정부도 미국이나 일본과 같이 수소경제로의 전환을 준비하고 있으며 2020년대 이후 우리나라의 에너지부문은 새로운 국면에 접어들 것으로 전망된다. 에너지나 환경기술의 효과적 인 개발을 위해서는 이들 기술의 직접적인 비용측면에 대한 분석 즉 경제성 평가와 새로운 기술변화로 인한 중장기적인 사회경제적 영향평가가 선행되어야 한다. 이러한 평가는 대상 기술의 사회경제적 파급효과가 광범위할수록 더욱 복잡한 분석이 요구된다. 본 연구의 주제인 수소에너지기술은 지금까지 이용되던 것과는 전혀 새로운 에너지캐리어(carrier)를 개발하는 것으로 에너지부문 및 여타 다른 산업부문이 공유하고 있는 에너지 관련 인프라의 전면적인 조정이 요구되며 에너지 이용과 관련된 사회경제적 측면의 급속한 변화를 수반한다. 본 연구는 수소경제로의 이행에 대한 사회경제적 영향평가의 방법론적 요소들과 기법을 제시한다."중등도 독성"으로 나타났다 이상의 결과는 전기도금을 이용하여 교정용 선재의 직경을 증가시키는 방법이 임상에 적용되기 위해서는 세포독성을 줄이기 위한 추가의 연구가 필요함을 시사하였다.의하게 가장 낮은 정지. 운동 마찰력을 보였고 브라켓-호선 각도가 증가함에 따라 유의하게 정지, 운동 마찰력도 증가하였다 (P<0.001)%$ 낮추지만(p value=0.260) 평균 $D_{max}$는 거의동일 하여($0.3\%$ 감소, p value=0.867), 전통적인 방법보다 우수성이 크게는 없는 것으로 평가되었다. 그러나 환자의 체곡선이 보상체와 잘 일치하는 경우에는 DII가 $18\%$까지 감소하였다. 결론 : Multistatic field 방법은 모든 환자에 대하여 선량분포의 균일성을 전반적으로 향상시키는 효과적인 방법으로 평가되는 반면 공용보상체의 사용은 보상체의 크기가 환자의 체 윤곽과 잘 일치하는 경우만 효과적으로, 적용의 범위에는 한계가 있는 방법으로 평가되었다.비교하여 계통에 따르는 차이가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그러므로 가임기 여성의 방사선 진단 및 치료시 Rugh의 10일 법칙을 적용하여 착상전기 방사선 조사로 인한 부작용들을 적극적으로 예방하는 것이 매우 중요하다고 생각한다.equirements of the prematured infants during the early weeks of life. 모든 치근단 수준에서 비표준화 medium 크기 master cone 사용군이 ISO 표준화 규격의 master cone 사용군에 비해

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