• Title, Summary, Keyword: 유한요소법

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Comparative Study on Soil-Structure Interaction Models for Modal Characteristics of Wind Turbine Structure (풍력 구조물의 진동 특성 분석을 위한 지반-구조물 상호작용 모델의 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Jeongsoo
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.245-253
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    • 2020
  • In this study, natural frequencies are compared using several pile-soil interaction (PSI) models to evaluate the effects of each model on resonance safety checks for a monopile type of wind turbine structure. Base spring, distributed spring, and three-dimensional brick-shell models represented the PSIs in the finite element model. To analyze the effects of the PSI models on a natural frequency, after a stiffness matrix calculation and Winkler-based beam model for base spring and distributed spring models were presented, respectively; natural frequencies from these models were investigated for monopiles with different geometries and soil properties. These results were compared with those from the brick-shell model. The results show that differences in the first natural frequency of the monopiles from each model are small when the small diameter of monopile penetrates hard soil and rock, while the distributed spring model can over-estimate the natural frequency for large monopiles installed in weak soil. Thus, an appropriate PSI model for natural frequency analyses should be adopted by considering soil conditions and structure scale.

Evaluation of Tensions and Prediction of Deformations for the Fabric Reinforeced -Earth Walls (섬유 보강토벽체의 인장력 평가 및 변형 예측)

  • Kim, Hong-Taek;Lee, Eun-Su;Song, Byeong-Ung
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.157-178
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    • 1996
  • Current design methods for reinforced earth structures take no account of the magnitude of the strains induced in the tensile members as these are invariably manufactured from high modulus materials, such as steel, where straits are unlikely to be significant. With fabrics, however, large strains may frequently be induced and it is important to determine these to enable the stability of the structure to be assessed. In the present paper internal design method of analysis relating to the use of fabric reinforcements in reinforced earth structures for both stress and strain considerations is presented. For the internal stability analysis against rupture and pullout of the fabric reinforcements, a strain compatibility analysis procedure that considers the effects of reinforcement stiffness, relative movement between the soil and reinforcements, and compaction-induced stresses as studied by Ehrlich 8l Mitchell is used. I Bowever, the soil-reinforcement interaction is modeled by relating nonlinear elastic soil behavior to nonlinear response of the reinforcement. The soil constitutive model used is a modified vertsion of the hyperbolic soil model and compaction stress model proposed by Duncan et at., and iterative step-loading approach is used to take nonlinear soil behavior into consideration. The effects of seepage pressures are also dealt with in the proposed method of analy For purposes of assessing the strain behavior oi the fabric reinforcements, nonlinear model of hyperbolic form describing the load-extension relation of fabrics is employed. A procedure for specifying the strength characteristics of paraweb polyester fibre multicord, needle punched non-woven geotHxtile and knitted polyester geogrid is also described which may provide a more convenient procedure for incorporating the fablic properties into the prediction of fabric deformations. An attempt to define improvement in bond-linkage at the interconnecting nodes of the fabric reinforced earth stracture due to the confining stress is further made. The proposed method of analysis has been applied to estimate the maximum tensions, deformations and strains of the fabric reinforcements. The results are then compared with those of finite element analysis and experimental tests, and show in general good agreements indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method of analysis. Analytical parametric studies are also carried out to investigate the effects of relative soil-fabric reinforcement stiffness, locked-in stresses, compaction load and seepage pressures on the magnitude and variation of the fabric deformations.

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A Study on Decision of Cut Rock Slope Angle Applied Shear Strength of Continuum Rock Mass Induced from Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion (Hoek-Brown 파괴기준에서 유도된 연속체암반의 전단강도를 적용한 깎기 암반사면 경사 결정 연구)

  • Kim, Hyungmin;Lee, Byokkyu;Woo, Jaegyung;Hur, Ik;Lee, Junki;Lee, Sugon
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2019
  • There are many cuts or natural rock slopes that remain stable for a long time in the natural environment with steep slopes ($65^{\circ}$ to $85^{\circ}$). In terms of design practice, the rock mass consisting of similar rock condition and geological structures is defined as a good continuum rock slope, and during the process of decision making angle of this rock slope, it will be important to establish the geotechnical properties estimating method of the continuum rock on the process of stability analysis in the early stages of design and construction. In this study, the stability analysis of a good continuum rock slope that can be designed as a steep slope proposed a practical method of estimating the shear strength by induced from the Hoek-Brown failure criterion, and in addition, the design applicability was evaluated through the stability analysis of steep rock slope. The existing method of estimating the shear strength was inadequate for practical use in the design, as the equivalent M-C shear strength corresponding to the H-B envelope changes sensitively, even with small variations in confining stress. To compensate for this problem, it was proposed to estimate equivalent M-C shear strength by iso-angle division method. To verify the design applicability of the iso-angle division method, the results of the safety factor and the displacement according to the change in angle of the cut slope constructed at the existing working design site were reviewed. The safety factor is FS=16~59 on the 1:0.5 slope, FS=12~52 on the 1:0.3 slope, most of which show a 10~12 percent reduction. Displacement is 0.126 to 0.975 mm on the 1:0.5 slope, 0.152 to 1.158 mm on the 1:0.3 slope, and represents an increase of 10 to 15%. This is a slightly change in normal proportion and is in good condition in terms of stability. In terms practical the working design, it was confirmed that applying the shear strength estimated by Iso-angle division method derived from the H-B failure criterion as a universal shear strength for a good continuum rock mass slope was also able to produce stable and economic results. The procedure for stability analysis using LEM (Limit Equilibrium Analysis Method) and FEM (Finite Element Analysis Method) will also be practical in the rock slope where is not distributed fault. The study was conducted by selecting the slope of study area as a good rock condition, establishing a verification for which it can be applied universal to a various rock conditions will be a research subject later on.

The Place Where the Cabin or Flight Crew of International Air Carrier Habitually Carries Out his/her Work - CJEU, 2017. 9. 14., C-168/16, C-169/16 - Sandra Nogueira and Others v. Crewlink Ltd Miguel José Moreno Osacar v. Ryanair (국제항공운송 승무원의 일상적 노무제공지)

  • Kwon, Chang-Young;Kim, Sun-Ah
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.39-77
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    • 2019
  • Crew members engaged in international air transportation provide work in many countries due to the nature of their work. According to the Private International Act, the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work plays an important role in the determination of the governing law of the international labor contract (Article 28, Paragraph 2) and in the decision of international jurisdiction (Article 28, Paragraphs 3 and 4). The concept of the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work was proposed by the EU to determine international jurisdiction and governing law. In international aviation law, the legislative purpose of the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work is different from that of home base, which is a concept introduced for fatigue management of the crew in order to secure the aviation safety; thus the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work and home base are not the same concept. In order to determine the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work, following matters should be considered comprehensively; (i) where the crew starts and ends work, (ii) where the aircraft the crew is performing work on is primarily parked, (iii) where the crew is informed of the instructions and organizes his/her work activities, (iv) where the crew is obliged to reside according to the labor contract, (v) where there is an office provided by the employer and available to the crew, (vi) where the crew is obliged to be when he/she is ineligible for the work or subject to discipline. However, since all of the above items are the same as the location of the home base, it is reasonable to consider the home base as the most important factor when deciding on the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work. In contrast, the state where the aircraft is registered (Article 17 of the Chicago Convention), should not be regarded as a place of where the employee habitually carries out his/her work. In this case, CJEU provided the first judging standard for the concept of the place where the employee engaged in international air transportation habitually carries out his/her work. It is the interpretation of the Brussels regulations which became a model -for the Korean Private International Act,- so it would be helpful to understand the concept of the place where the employee habitually carries out his/her work.

A Study on Load-carrying Capacity Design Criteria of Jack-up Rigs under Environmental Loading Conditions (환경하중을 고려한 Jack-up rig의 내하력 설계 기준에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Joo Shin;Ha, Yeon Chul;Seo, Jung Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.103-113
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    • 2020
  • Jack-up drilling rigs are widely used in the offshore oil and gas exploration industry. Although originally designed for use in shallow waters, trends in the energy industry have led to a growing demand for their use in deep sea and harsh environmental conditions. To extend the operating range of jack-up units, their design must be based on reliable analysis while eliminating excessive conservatism. In current industrial practice, jack-up drilling rigs are designed using the working(or allowable) stress design (WSD) method. Recently, classifications have been developed for specific regulations based on the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method, which emphasises the reliability of the methods. This statistical method utilises the concept of limit state design and uses factored loads and resistance factors to account for uncertainly in the loads and computed strength of the leg components in a jack-up drilling rig. The key differences between the LRFD method and the WSD method must be identified to enable appropriate use of the LRFD method for designing jack-up rigs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare and quantitatively investigate the differences between actual jack-up lattice leg structures, which are designed by the WSD and LRFD methods, and subject to different environmental load-to-dead-load ratios, thereby delineating the load-to-capacity ratios of rigs designed using theses methods under these different enviromental conditions. The comparative results are significantly advantageous in the leg design of jack-up rigs, and determine that the jack-up rigs designed using the WSD and LRFD methods with UC values differ by approximately 31 % with respect to the API-RP code basis. It can be observed that the LRFD design method is more advantageous to structure optimization compared to the WSD method.

A STUDY OF THE STRESS DISTRIBUTION OF THE ABUTMENT AND SUPPORTING TISSUES ACCORDING TO THE SLOPES AND TYPES OF CHIDING FLAMES OF THE LAST ABUTMENT IN DISTAL EXTENSION REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE USING THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS METHOD (국소의치 최후방 지대치 유도면의 기울기와 형태가 지대치 및 지지조직의 응력분산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yang-Kyo;Lee, Cheong-Hee;Jo, Kwang-Hun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.581-596
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress distribution of the abutment and sup-porting tissues according to the slopes and types of the guiding plane of distal extension removable partial dentures. The 3-dimensional finite element method was used and the finite element models were prepared as follows. Model I : Kratochvil type guiding plane with $90^{\circ}$ to residual ridge Model II : Kratochvil type guiding plane with $95^{\circ}$ to residual ridge Model III : Kratochvil type guiding plane with $100^{\circ}$ to residual ridge Model IV : Krol type guiding plane with $90^{\circ}$ to residual ridge Distal extension partial denture which right mandibular first and second molar were lost was used and the second premolar was prepared as primary abutment with RPI type retainer. Then 150N of compressive force was applied to central fossae of the first and second molars and von Mises stress and displacement were measured. The results were as follows 1. Model I and Model IV showed a similar stress distribution pattern and the stress was concentrated on the apex of the root of the abutment. 2. The stress was increased and concentrated on mesial side of the root of the abutment in Model II. The stress was concentrated on buccal and mesiobuccal side of the root of the abutment in Model IV. 3. In Model I, the root of the abutment displaced and twisted a little in clockwise. In Model IV, the root of the abutment displaced to distolingually at apical region of the root and mesiobuccally at cervical region of the root. 4. In Model II, the root of the abutment displaced to mesiolingually at apical region of the root and more displaced and twisted in counterclockwise at cervical region of the root. In Model III, the root of the abutment displaced to mesiobucally at apical region of the root and more displaced and twisted in clockwise at cervical region of the root.

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Two Dimensional Size Effect on the Compressive Strength of Composite Plates Considering Influence of an Anti-buckling Device (좌굴방지장치 영향을 고려한 복합재 적층판의 압축강도에 대한 이차원 크기 효과)

  • ;;C. Soutis
    • Composites Research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2002
  • The two dimensional size effect of specimen gauge section ($length{\;}{\times}{\;}width$) was investigated on the compressive behavior of a T300/924 $\textrm{[}45/-45/0/90\textrm{]}_{3s}$, carbon fiber-epoxy laminate. A modified ICSTM compression test fixture was used together with an anti-buckling device to test 3mm thick specimens with a $30mm{\;}{\times}{\;}30mm,{\;}50mm{\;}{\times}{\;}50mm,{\;}70mm{\;}{\times}{\;}70mm{\;}and{\;}90mm{\;}{\times}{\;}90mm$ gauge length by width section. In all cases failure was sudden and occurred mainly within the gauge length. Post failure examination suggests that $0^{\circ}$ fiber microbuckling is the critical damage mechanism that causes final failure. This is the matrix dominated failure mode and its triggering depends very much on initial fiber waviness. It is suggested that manufacturing process and quality may play a significant role in determining the compressive strength. When the anti-buckling device was used on specimens, it was showed that the compressive strength with the device was slightly greater than that without the device due to surface friction between the specimen and the device by pretoque in bolts of the device. In the analysis result on influence of the anti-buckling device using the finite element method, it was found that the compressive strength with the anti-buckling device by loaded bolts was about 7% higher than actual compressive strength. Additionally, compressive tests on specimen with an open hole were performed. The local stress concentration arising from the hole dominates the strength of the laminate rather than the stresses in the bulk of the material. It is observed that the remote failure stress decreases with increasing hole size and specimen width but is generally well above the value one might predict from the elastic stress concentration factor. This suggests that the material is not ideally brittle and some stress relief occurs around the hole. X-ray radiography reveals that damage in the form of fiber microbuckling and delamination initiates at the edge of the hole at approximately 80% of the failure load and extends stably under increasing load before becoming unstable at a critical length of 2-3mm (depends on specimen geometry). This damage growth and failure are analysed by a linear cohesive zone model. Using the independently measured laminate parameters of unnotched compressive strength and in-plane fracture toughness the model predicts successfully the notched strength as a function of hole size and width.

Live Load Distribution in Prestressed Concrete I-Girder Bridges (I형 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 거더교의 활하중 분배)

  • Lee, Hwan-Woo;Kim, Kwang-Yang
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 2008
  • The standard prestressed concrete I-girder bridge (PSC I-girder bridge) is one of the most prevalent types for small and medium bridges in Korea. When determining the member forces in a section to assess the safety of girder in this type of bridge, the general practice is to use the simplified practical equations or the live load distribution factors proposed in design standards rather than the precise analysis through the finite element method or so. Meanwhile, the live load distribution factors currently used in Korean design practice are just a reflection of overseas research results or design standards without alterations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an equation of the live load distribution factors fit for the design conditions of Korea, considering the standardized section of standard PSC I-girder bridges and the design strength of concrete. In this study, to develop an equation of the live load distribution factors, a parametric analysis and sensitivity analysis were carried out on the parameters such as width of bridge, span length, girder spacing, width of traffic lane, etc. As a result, the major variables to determine the size of distribution factors were girder spacing, overhang length and span length in case of external girders. For internal adjacent girders, the determinant factors were girder spacing, overhang length, span length and width of bridge. For internal girders, the factors were girder spacing, width of bridge and span length. Then, an equation of live load distribution factors was developed through the multiple linear regression analysis on the results of parametric analysis. When the actual practice engineers design a bridge with the equation of live load distribution factors developed here, they will determine the design of member forces ensuring the appropriate safety rate more easily. Moreover, in the preliminary design, this model is expected to save much time for the repetitive design to improve the structural efficiency of PSC I-girder bridges.

Development of Evaluation Method for Jointed Concrete Pavement with FWD and Finite Element Analysis (FWD와 유한요소해석을 이용한 줄눈콘크리트포장 평가법 개발)

  • Yun, Kyong-Ku;Lee, Joo-Hyung;Choi, Seong-Yong
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.107-119
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    • 1999
  • The joints in the jointed concrete pavement provide a control against transverse or longitudinal cracking at slab, which may be caused by temperature or moisture variation during or after hydration. Without control of cracking, random cracks cause more serious distresses and result in structural or functional failure of pavement system. However, joints nay cause distresses due to its inherent weakness in structural integrity. Thus, the evaluation at joint is very important. and the joint-related distresses should be evaluated reasonably for economic rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper was to develop an evaluation system at joints of jointed concrete pavement using finite element analysis program, ILLI-SLAB, and nondestructive testing device. FWD. To develop an evaluation system for JCP, a sensitivity analysis was performed using ILLI-SLAB program with a selected variables which might affect fairly to on the performance of transverse joints. The most significant variables were selected from precise analysis. An evaluation charts were made for jointed concrete pavement by adopting the field FWD data. It was concluded that the variables which most significantly affect to pavement deflections are the modulus of subgrade reaction(K) and the modulus of dowel/concrete interaction(G), and limiting criteria on the performance of joints at JCP are 300pci. 500,000 lb/in. respectively. Using these variables and FWD test, a charts of load transfer ratio versus surface deflection at joints were made in order to evaluate the performance of JCP. Practically, Chungbu highway was evaluated by these evaluation charts and FWD field data for jointed concrete pavement. For Chungbu highway, only one joint showed smaller value than limiting criterion of the modulus of dowel/concrete interaction(G). The rest joints showed larger values than limiting criteria of the modulus of subgrade reaction(K) and the modulus of dowel/concrete interaction(G).

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Behaviors of the High-profile Arch Soil-steel Structure During Construction (높은 아치형 지중강판 구조물의 시공 중 거동 분석)

  • 이종구;조성민;김경석;김명모
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.71-84
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    • 2003
  • The metallic shell of soil-steel structures are so weak in bending moment that it should sustain the applied load by the interaction of the backfill soil around the structures. The shell can be subjected to excessive bending moment during side backfilling or under live-load when the soil cover is less than the minimum value. The current design code specifies the allowable deformation and Duncan(1979) and McGrath et al.(2001) suggested the strength analysis methods to limit the moments by the plastic capacity of the shell. However, the allowable deformation is an empirically determined value and the strength analysis methods are based on the results of FE analysis, hence the experimental verification is necessary. In this study, the full-scale tests were conducted on the high-profile arch to investigate its behaviors during backfilling and under static live-loads. Based on the measurements, the allowable deformation of the tested structure could be estimated to be 1.45% of rise, which is smaller than the specified allowable deformation. The comparison between the measurements and the results of two strength analyses indicate that Duncan underestimates the earth-load moment and overestimates the live-load moment, while McGrath et al. predicts both values close to the actual values. However, as the predicted factors of safeties using two methods coincide with the actual factor of safety, it can be concluded that both methods can predict the structural stability under live-loads adequately when the cover is less than the minimum.