• Title/Summary/Keyword: 유한요소 해석

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Evaluating Impact Resistance of Externally Strengthened Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slab with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (섬유 보강재로 외부 보강된 강섬유 보강 콘크리트 슬래브의 충격저항성능 평가)

  • Yoo, Doo-Yeol;Min, Kyung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Young;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2012
  • Recently, as construction technology improved, concrete structures not only became larger, taller and longer but were able to perform various functions. However, if extreme loads such as impact, blast, and fire are applied to those structures, it would cause severe property damages and human casualties. Especially, the structural responses from extreme loading are totally different than that from quasi-static loading, because large pressure is applied to structures from mass acceleration effect of impact and blast loads. Therefore, the strain rate effect and damage levels should be considered when concrete structure is designed. In this study, the low velocity impact loading test of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs including 0%~1.5% (by volume) of steel fibers, and strengthened with two types of FRP sheets was performed to develop an impact resistant structural member. From the test results, the maximum impact load, dissipated energy and the number of drop to failure increased, whereas the maximum displacement and support rotation were reduced by strengthening SFRC slab with FRP sheets in tensile zone. The test results showed that the impact resistance of concrete slab can be substantially improved by externally strengthening using FRP sheets. This result can be used in designing of primary facilities exposed to such extreme loads. The dynamic responses of SFRC slab strengthened with FRP sheets under low velocity impact load were also analyzed using LS-DYNA, a finite element analysis program with an explicit time integration scheme. The comparison of test and analytical results showed that they were within 5% of error with respect to maximum displacements.

Dynamic Behavior of Reactor Internals under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (안전정기지진하의 원자로내부구조물 거동분석)

  • 김일곤
    • Computational Structural Engineering
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 1994
  • The safety related components in the nuclear power plant should be designed to withstand the seismic load. Among these components the integrity of reactor internals under earthquake load is important in stand points of safety and economics, because these are classified to Seismic Class I components. So far the modelling methods of reactor internals have been investigated by many authors. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of reactor internals of Yong Gwang 1&2 nuclear power plants under SSE(Safe Shutdown Earthquake) load is analyzed by using of the simpled Global Beam Model. For this, as a first step, the characteristic analysis of reactor internal components are performed by using of the finite element code ANSYS. And the Global Beam Model for reactor internals which includes beam elements, nonlinear impact springs which have gaps in upper and lower positions, and hydrodynamical couplings which simulate the fluid-filled cylinders of reactor vessel and core barrel structures is established. And for the exciting external force the response spectrum which is applied to reactor support is converted to the time history input. With this excitation and the model the dynamic behaviour of reactor internals is obtained. As the results, the structural integrity of reactor internal components under seismic excitation is verified and the input for the detailed duel assembly series model could be obtained. And the simplicity and effectiveness of Global Beam Model and the economics of the explicit Runge-Kutta-Gills algorithm in impact problem of high frequency interface components are confirmed.

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A Study on the Structural Reinforcement of the Modified Caisson Floating Dock (개조된 케이슨 플로팅 도크의 구조 보강에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Jo;Seo, Kwang-Cheol;Park, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.172-178
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    • 2021
  • In the ship repair market, interest in maintenance and repair is steadily increasing due to the reinforcement of prevention of environmental pollution caused by ships and the reinforcement of safety standards for ship structures. By reflecting this effect, the number of requests for repairs by foreign shipping companies increases to repair shipbuilders in the Southwest Sea. However, because most of the repair shipbuilders in the southwestern area are small and medium-sized companies, it is difficult to lead to the integrated synergy effect of the repair shipbuilding companies. Moreover, the infrastructure is not integrated; hence, using the infrastructure jointly is a challenge, which acts as an obstacle to the activation of the repair shipbuilding industry. Floating docks are indispensable to operating the repair shipbuilding business; in addition, most of them are operated through renovation/repair after importing aging caisson docks from overseas. However, their service life is more than 30 years; additionally, there is no structure inspection standard. Therefore, it is vulnerable to the safety field. In this study, the finite element analysis program of ANSYS was used to evaluate the structural safety of the modified caisson dock and obtain additional structural reinforcement schemes to solve the derived problems. For the floating docks, there are classification regulations; however, concerning structural strength, the regulations are insufficient, and the applicability is inferior. These insufficient evaluation areas were supplemented through a detailed structural FE-analysis. The reinforcement plan was decided by reinforcing the pontoon deck and reinforcement of the side tank, considering the characteristics of the repair shipyard condition. The final plan was selected to reinforce the side wing tank through the structural analysis of the decision; in addition, the actual structure was fabricated to reflect the reinforcement plan. Our results can be used as reference data for improving the structural strength of similar facilities; we believe that the optimal solution can be found quickly if this method is used during renovation/repair.

Effect of thread design on the marginal bone stresses around dental implant (임플란트 나사산 디자인이 변연골 응력에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Jo, Kwang-Heon;Lee, Kyu-Bok
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.316-323
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different thread designs on the marginal bone stresses around dental implant. Materials and methods: Standard ITI implant(ITI Dental Implant System; Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland), 4.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, was selected as control. Test implants of four different thread patterns were created based on control implant, i.e. maintaining all geometrical design of control implant except thread pattern. Four thread designs used in test implants include (1) small V-shape screw (model A), (2) large V-shape screw (model B), (3) buttress screw (model C), and (4) trapezoid screw (model D). Surface area for unit length of implant was 14.4 $mm^2$ (control), 21.7 (small V-shape screw), 20.6 (large V-shape screw), 17.0 (buttress screw) and 28.7 $mm^2$ (trapezoid screw). Finite element models of implant/bone complex were created using an axisymmetric scheme with the use of NISA II/DISPLAY III (Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation, Troy, MI, USA). A load of 100 N applied to the central node on the crown top either in parallel direction or at 30 degree to the implant axis (in order to apply non-axial load to the implant NKTP type 34 element was employed). Quantification and comparison of the peak stress in the marginal bone of each implant model was made using a series of regression analyses based on the stress data calculated at the 5 reference points which were set at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mm from implant wall on the marginal bone surface. Results: Results showed that although severe stress concentration on the marginal bone cannot be avoided a substantial reduction in the peak stress is achievable using different thread design. The peak marginal bone stresses under vertical loading condition were 7.84, 6.45, 5.96, 6.85, 5.39 MPa for control and model A, B, C and D, respectively. And 29.18, 26.45, 25.12, 27.37, 23.58 MPa when subject to inclined loading. Conclusion: It was concluded that the thread design is an important influential factor to the marginal bone stresses.

A Study on Setup for Preliminary Decision Criterion of Continuum Rock Mass Slope with Fair to Good Rating (양호한 연속체 암반사면의 예비 판정기준 설정 연구)

  • Kim, Hyung-Min;Lee, Su-gon;Lee, Byok-Kyu;Woo, Jae-Gyung
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2019
  • It can be observed that steep slopes ($65^{\circ}$ to $80^{\circ}$) consist of rock masses were kept stable for a long time. In rock-mass slopes with similar ground condition, steeper slopes than 1 : 0.5 ($63^{\circ}$) may be applied if the discontinuities of rock-mass slope are distributed in a direction favorable to the stability of the slope. In making a decision the angle of the slope, if the preliminary rock mass conditions applicable to steep slope are quantitatively setup, they may be used as guidance in design practice. In this study, the above rock mass was defined as a good continuum rock mass and the quantitative setup criterion range was proposed using RMR, SMR and GSI classifications for the purpose of providing engineering standard for good continuum rock mass conditions. The methods of study are as follows. The stable slope at steep slopes ($65^{\circ}$ to $80^{\circ}$) for each rock type was selected as the study area, and RMR, SMR and GSI were classified to reflect the face mapping results. The results were reviewed by applying the calculated shear strength to the stable analysis of the current state of rock mass slope using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. It is intended to verify the validity of the preliminary criterion as a rock mass condition that remains stable on a steep slope. Based on the analysis and review by the above research method, it was analyzed that a good continuum rock mass slope can be set to Basic RMR ${\geq}50$ (45 in sedimentary rock), GSI and SMR ${\geq}45$. The safety factor of the LEM is between Fs = 14.08 and 67.50 (average 32.9), and the displacement of the FEM is 0.13 to 0.64 mm (average 0.27 mm). This can be seen as a result of quantitative representation and verification of the stability of a good continuum rock mass slope that has been maintained stable for a long period of time with steep slopes ($65^{\circ}$ to $80^{\circ}$). The setup guideline for a good continuum rock mass slope will be able to establish a more detailed setup standard when the data are accumulated, and it is also a further study project. If stable even on steep slopes of 1 : 0.1 to 0.3, the upper limit of steep slopes is 1 : 0.3 with reference to the overseas design standards and report, thus giving the benefit of ensuring economic and eco-friendlyness. Also, the development of excavation technology and plantation technology and various eco-friendly slope design techniques will help overcome psychological anxiety and rapid weathering and relaxation due to steep slope construction.

Improvement of Fatigue Life with Local Reinforcement for Offshore Topside Module during Marine Transportation (해양플랫폼 탑사이드 모듈의 해상 운송 시 국부 보강을 통한 피로 수명 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Ho-Yun;Seo, Kwang-Cheol;Park, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.387-393
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    • 2021
  • In this study, finite element analysis was performed to evaluate a method of increasing the fatigue life of the pipe connection structure commonly used in the topside structure of offshore platforms. MSC Patran/Nastran, a commercial analysis program, was used, and the critical structural model was selected from the global analysis. To realize the stress concentration phenomenon according to the load, modeling using 8-node solid elements was implemented. The main loads were considered to be two lateral loads and a tensile load on a diagonal pipe. To check the hotspot stress at the main location, a 0.01 mm dummy shell element was applied. After calculating the main stress at the 0.5-t and 1.5-t locations, the stress generated in the weld was estimated through extrapolation. In some sections, this stress was observed to be below the fatigue life that should be satisfied, and reinforcement was required. For reinforcement, a bracket was added to reduce the stress concentration factor where the fatigue life was insufficient without changing the thickness or diameter of the previously designed pipe. Regarding the tensile load, the stress in the bracket toe increased by 23 %, whereas the stress inside and outside of the pipe, which was a problem, decreased by approximately 8 %. Regarding the flexural load, the stress at the bracket toe increased by 3 %, whereas the stress inside and outside of the pipe, which was also a problem, decreased by approximately 48 %. Owing to the new bracket reinforcement, the stress in the bracket toe increased, but the S-N curve itself was better than that of the pipe joint, so it was not a significant problem. The improvement method of fatigue life is expected to be useful; it can efficiently increase the fatigue life while minimizing changes to the initial design.

A study on the effect of tunnelling to adjacent single piles and pile groups considering the transverse distance of pile tips from the tunnel (말뚝의 횡방향 이격거리를 고려한 터널굴착이 인접 단독말뚝 및 군말뚝에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Jeon, Young-Jin;Kim, Sung-Hee;Lee, Cheol-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.637-652
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    • 2015
  • In the present work, a number of three-dimensional (3D) parametric numerical analyses have been carried out to study the influence of tunnelling on the behaviour of adjacent piles considering the transverse distance of the pile tip from the tunnel. Single piles and $5{\times}5$ piles inside a group with a spacing of 2.5d were considered, where d is the pile diameter. In the numerical modelling, several key issues, such as the tunnelling-induced pile settlements, the interface shear stresses, the relative shear displacements, the axial pile forces, the apparent factors of safety and zone of influence have been rigorously analysed. It has been found that when the piles are inside the influence zone, the pile head settlements are increased up to about 111% compared to those computed from the Greenfield condition. Larger pile settlements and smaller axial pile forces are induced on the piles inside the pile groups than those computed from the single piles since the piles responded as a block with the surrounding ground. Also tensile pile forces are induced associated with the upward resisting skin friction at the upper part of pile and the downward acting skin friction at the lower part of pile. On the contrary, when the piles were outside the influence zone, tunnelling-induced compressive pile forces developed. Based on computed load and displacement relation of the pile, the apparent factor of safety of the piles was reduced up to about 45%. Therefore the serviceability of the piles may be substantially reduced. The pile behaviour, when considering the single piles and the pile groups with regards to the influence zone, has been analysed by considering the key features in great details.

Structural Safety Test and Analysis of Type IP-2 Transport Packages with Bolted Lid Type and Thick Steel Plate for Radioactive Waste Drums in a NPP (원자력발전소의 방사성폐기물 드럼 운반을 위한 볼트체결방식의 두꺼운 철판을 이용한 IP-2형 운반용기의 구조 안전성 해석 및 시험)

  • Lee, Sang-Jin;Kim, Dong-hak;Lee, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Jeong-Mook;Seo, Ki-Seog
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.199-212
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    • 2007
  • If a type IP-2 transport package were to be subjected to a free drop test and a penetration test under the normal conditions of transport, it should prevent a loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents and a more than 20% increase in the maximum radiation level at any external surface of the package. In this paper, we suggested the analytic method to evaluate the structural safety of a type IP-2 transport package using a thick steel plate for a structure part and a bolt for tying a bolt. Using an analysis a loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents and a loss of shielding integrity were confirmed for two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages to transport radioactive waste drums from a waste facility to a temporary storage site in a nuclear power plant. Under the free drop condition the maximum average stress at the bolts and the maximum opening displacement of a lid were compared with the tensile stress of a bolt and the steps in a lid, which were made to avoid a streaming radiation in the shielding path, to evaluate a loss or dispersal of radioactive waste contents. Also a loss of shielding integrity was evaluated using the maximum decrease in a shielding thickness. To verify the impact dynamic analysis for free drop test condition and evaluate experimentally the safety of two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages, free drop tests were conducted with various drop directions. For the tests we examined the failure of bolts and the deformation of flange to evaluate a loss or dispersal of radioactive material and measured the shielding thickness using a ultrasonic thickness gauge to assess a loss of shielding integrity. The strains and accelerations acquired from tests were compared with those by analyses to verify the impact dynamic analysis. The analytic results were larger than the those of test so that the analysis showed the conservative results. Finally, we evaluated the safety of the type IP-2 transport package under the stacking test condition using a finite element analysis. Under the stacking test condition, the maximum Tresca stress of the shielding material was 1/3 of the yielding stress. Two kinds of a type IP-2 transport package were safe for the free drop test condition and the stacking test condition.

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A Study on Load-carrying Capacity Design Criteria of Jack-up Rigs under Environmental Loading Conditions (환경하중을 고려한 Jack-up rig의 내하력 설계 기준에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Joo Shin;Ha, Yeon Chul;Seo, Jung Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.103-113
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    • 2020
  • Jack-up drilling rigs are widely used in the offshore oil and gas exploration industry. Although originally designed for use in shallow waters, trends in the energy industry have led to a growing demand for their use in deep sea and harsh environmental conditions. To extend the operating range of jack-up units, their design must be based on reliable analysis while eliminating excessive conservatism. In current industrial practice, jack-up drilling rigs are designed using the working(or allowable) stress design (WSD) method. Recently, classifications have been developed for specific regulations based on the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method, which emphasises the reliability of the methods. This statistical method utilises the concept of limit state design and uses factored loads and resistance factors to account for uncertainly in the loads and computed strength of the leg components in a jack-up drilling rig. The key differences between the LRFD method and the WSD method must be identified to enable appropriate use of the LRFD method for designing jack-up rigs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare and quantitatively investigate the differences between actual jack-up lattice leg structures, which are designed by the WSD and LRFD methods, and subject to different environmental load-to-dead-load ratios, thereby delineating the load-to-capacity ratios of rigs designed using theses methods under these different enviromental conditions. The comparative results are significantly advantageous in the leg design of jack-up rigs, and determine that the jack-up rigs designed using the WSD and LRFD methods with UC values differ by approximately 31 % with respect to the API-RP code basis. It can be observed that the LRFD design method is more advantageous to structure optimization compared to the WSD method.

Evaluation of Tensions and Prediction of Deformations for the Fabric Reinforeced -Earth Walls (섬유 보강토벽체의 인장력 평가 및 변형 예측)

  • Kim, Hong-Taek;Lee, Eun-Su;Song, Byeong-Ung
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.157-178
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    • 1996
  • Current design methods for reinforced earth structures take no account of the magnitude of the strains induced in the tensile members as these are invariably manufactured from high modulus materials, such as steel, where straits are unlikely to be significant. With fabrics, however, large strains may frequently be induced and it is important to determine these to enable the stability of the structure to be assessed. In the present paper internal design method of analysis relating to the use of fabric reinforcements in reinforced earth structures for both stress and strain considerations is presented. For the internal stability analysis against rupture and pullout of the fabric reinforcements, a strain compatibility analysis procedure that considers the effects of reinforcement stiffness, relative movement between the soil and reinforcements, and compaction-induced stresses as studied by Ehrlich 8l Mitchell is used. I Bowever, the soil-reinforcement interaction is modeled by relating nonlinear elastic soil behavior to nonlinear response of the reinforcement. The soil constitutive model used is a modified vertsion of the hyperbolic soil model and compaction stress model proposed by Duncan et at., and iterative step-loading approach is used to take nonlinear soil behavior into consideration. The effects of seepage pressures are also dealt with in the proposed method of analy For purposes of assessing the strain behavior oi the fabric reinforcements, nonlinear model of hyperbolic form describing the load-extension relation of fabrics is employed. A procedure for specifying the strength characteristics of paraweb polyester fibre multicord, needle punched non-woven geotHxtile and knitted polyester geogrid is also described which may provide a more convenient procedure for incorporating the fablic properties into the prediction of fabric deformations. An attempt to define improvement in bond-linkage at the interconnecting nodes of the fabric reinforced earth stracture due to the confining stress is further made. The proposed method of analysis has been applied to estimate the maximum tensions, deformations and strains of the fabric reinforcements. The results are then compared with those of finite element analysis and experimental tests, and show in general good agreements indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method of analysis. Analytical parametric studies are also carried out to investigate the effects of relative soil-fabric reinforcement stiffness, locked-in stresses, compaction load and seepage pressures on the magnitude and variation of the fabric deformations.

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