This study is aimed at examining the ethical values of EMT students. The results below are based on the revised questionnaires, which can be applicable to EMT from the original questionnaires developed by Lee(1990), with a sample of 124 students consisting of 63 first and 61 second year students, conducted November 2-8, 2001. Data were analyzed using SPSS in terms of means, standard deviations, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results are as follows: 1. In the area of Human life, all subjects showed utilitarian disposition. All respondents perceived the item "When patients recognizing there is no hope for survival ask for euthanasia, it is ethically right to accommodate their opinions." as the most utilitarian item, whereas they perceived the item "When an hopeless patient is on cardiac arrest, it is ethically right to do CPR as the most deontoogical item. 2. In the area of patient relationship, all students of two groups took on deontoogical characteristics, but there were no statistically significant differences between two groups. All students perceived an item "EMT have to keep it secret if patients disclose their suicide intentions and ask for absolute secrecy" the most utilitarian item, whereas they perceived an item "Even though patients act and speak in a very rude manner, EMT people should do their best to provide care for patients." as the most deontoogical item. 3. In the area of task relationship, first year students perceived an item "Given time limitations, it is ethically right to give priority to the patients who can be rehabilitated over the patients who can't be fully recovered." as the most utilitarian item, whereas second year students perceived an item "Under no circumstances should any placebo be administered to patients." as the most utilitarian item. All students perceived an item "When EMT students see an unconscious person lying in the street, they have to give him/her emergency treatment." as the most deontoogical item. 4. In the area of coworker relationship, all students of two groups took on deontoogical disposition, but there were no significant differences between two groups. All students of two groups perceived an item "Suppose you are regarded as the person who would be promoted. However, you think that your coworker is more competent than you. In that case you should tell your supervisor about your coworker." as the most utilitarian item. First year students perceived an item, whereas second year students perceived an item "When you observe coworkers' misconduct at work, it is ethically right to ignore their misdeeds." as the most deontoogical item. 5. This study demonstrated that for the first year students, there is a correlational relationship between areas of human life and task relationship, and between areas of task relationship and coworker relationship, whereas for the second year students, there is a correlational relationship between areas of human life and task relationship. 6. In areas of human life and task relationship, there are significant differences according to attitudes toward EMT and attendance at ethics training sessions. In the area of coworker relationship, there are significant differences according to religion, attendance at ethics training sessions, and a code of ethics. Recommendations for future research, 1. Sample items to measure ethical values and the instrument tailored to the needs of EMT should be developed. 2. A longitudinal study to track ethical value changes according to the amount of work experience is needed. 3. A code of ethics and/or ethics training, which could apply in actual situations, should be implemented.
To prevent the VAT evasion and to form a sound VAT paying culture, we can draw the policy directions for government as follows: First, it is necessary to strengthen the tax supervision of small business and the administration of tax sources of cash-income industry. Second, the tax-deductible rate of the received tax invoices should be increased in a short-term base, and a simplified taxation system should be abolished in a long-term base. Third, in cases a trader has not received a tax invoice, an additional tax should be applied. Forth, to issue the tax invoice faster and conveniently, it is requested to introduce a new system which issues electronic card of registration when a businessman applies for his/her business registration. Fifth, to make tax standard transparent, it is desirable to punish the violator, relating to credit card regulations, stricter than present and to enforce the electronic bookkeeping. Sixth, for the reduction of noncompliance rate and creating a climate for autonomous, faithful tax return, it is necessary to expand and intensify tax investigation. And also it is necessary to make the level of penalty tax higher up and the level of criminal punishment less down, to keep up tax audit coverage. Seventh, a trader who is eligible for simplified taxation, whose tax base is under 12,000 thousand won, should not be required to pay the value added tax. But it is desirable to cut down them for the fairness of tax burden. Eighth, the effective date of the revised tax law should be fixed. Ninth, it is necessary to reinforce publicity and to educate on tax system and administration, for reducing tax evasion or tax avoidance and encouraging faithful tax return. Tenth, as the tendency of VAT evasion of distribution industry turns out to be the highest, it is requested not only to intensify tax administration on them but also to establish system and incentives, for introducing information system in distribution industry(introducing POS system, computerization of transaction record, establishing EDI between traders).
The Sasang Constitutional Medicine seeks the psychosomatic balance, and the Basic principle of treatment according to the symptom(病證藥理) in Sasang Constitutional Medicine could be summarize as follows. 1. The pursuit of Shape-Image Medicine (形象醫學) and the Symptoms of shape - Symptoms of disease (形置病證). It established emotion, symptoms of constitution, and symptoms of constitutional disease on the base of Shape-Image Medicine (形象醫學) which means qi (氣) is inside and shape is outside (氣裡形表). 2. The inductive medicine and positive medicine. It systematized the Symptoms of shape - Symptoms of disease (形證病證) on the base of the medical practice of the ancients and Lee Jae-Ma (李濟馬)'s own experience inductively, and it present show to control the psychosomatic balance practically. 3. The pathology centering on human. Oriental medicine is based on Yin-Yang (陰陽) and Five elements (五行) and the harmony of nature and human (天人相應) of Taoism, but Sasang Constitutional Medicine is based on emotional and ethical pathology of Confucianism (儒學). 4. The treatment according to the symptom (病證藥理) in Sasang Constitutional Medicine centering on clear qi (正氣). The promotion and demotion (補瀉) which is based on clear qi (正氣) and evil qi (邪氣) is a basic principle in Oriental medicine, but In Sasang Constitutional Medicine it is attached importance to control of clear qi and classify obedience symptom and disobedience symptom (順 逆症) as the type to oppose disease. 5. The treatment according to the psychomatic symptoms. It takes importances to control of one-sided emotion as well as the treatment of psychical symptoms, and also to remedy disease as keeping under control one's mind. 6. The preventive medicine and the medicine to develop one's health. It is in pursuit of social health to develop personality through clear qi (正氣) in real life, to prevent disease, and to spread the sickness control of individual person. Sasang Constitutional Medicine pursuits the psychosomatic balance through 'Balance', 'Control', 'Self regulating Control' of the 'Golden Mean (中庸)' with the treatment according to the symptom (病證藥理) in Sasang Constitutional Medicine.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
This study was to know the influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder. Subjects were composed of 47 male and female patients with conduct disorder(patients group), 113 general male and female students(normal group), and 173 juvenile prisoners(JP group). The Korean Form of the Family Environment Scale(FES) was used to assess the family environment of the subjects and the Korean Defining Issues Test(DIT) was used to assess the moral development. Conduct disorder was diagnosed with the DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder. The influence of familial environment and moral development on conduct disorder was analyzed with ANOVA and the differences among groups were verified with Scheffe test. There was no difference in the socioeconomic status and the physical abuse by the parents among the three groups. But the rates of divorce or separation of the parents were significantly highest in the JP group and higher in the patients group than in the normal group. Especially the subjects of the JP group experienced the divorce or separation of their parents during the preschool or the elementary school periods. In regard to the family environment, there was no difference among the three groups in the Subscales of Expressiveness, Independence, Intellectual-cultural orientation, Moral-religious emphasis, Organization, and Control. ‘Cohesion Subscale’ was significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. ‘Conflict Subscale’ was significantly higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. ‘Achievement orientation Subscale’ was significantly lower in the JP group than in the patients and normal groups. ‘Activerecreational orientation’ was significantly lower in the normal group than in the JP and patients groups. In gegard to the moral developmental stage, the lower moral developmental step was higher in the JP and patients groups than in the normal group. The higher steps were significantly higher in the normal group than in the JP group. There was no significant correlation between the degree of ‘Moral-religious emphasis Subscale’ and the moral development. The clinical implication and limitation of present study were listed and discussed.
Making Daxue("大學") which was originally the 43rd chapter of Liji("禮記") independent, Zhuzi(朱子) had reedited it into Daxuezhangju("大學章句") and in this process, he had added 134 letters thereto. Those 134 letters that added were concerned with gewuzhizhi(格物致知) and Zhuzi(朱子)'s such interpretation had made a great deal of contribution to the later interpretations of Daxue("大學") conducted by those scholars who followed him in a later age. Zhuzi(朱子) had interpreted gewu(格物) as to make a exhaustive study on principles of things or noumena that exist between heaven and earth. If gewu(格物) taking it for granted, denotes thorough investigation of the principles of things, it is considered that qiongli(窮理) is a more appropriate expression. Meanwhile, however, Zhuzi(朱子) argues that the reason for dubbing it gewu(格物), not calling it qiongli(窮理), is to see a thing as it is in itself. This is to emphasize that investigation of things and extension of knowledge gewuzhizhi(格物致知) is shixue(實學), not a xuxue(虛學). Zhizhi(致知) is a step through which my knowledge is being culminating in the most comprehensive and profound fashion. Specifically, Zhizhi(致知) is the phase to seek zhenzhi(眞知) having put together all knowledge gained through gewu(格物). In this true understanding, there is no room for one's own free will to intervene; zhenzhi(眞知) becomes the same as universal knowledge. The things accumulated in quantity through gewuzhizhi(格物致知) are to be changed by means of huoranguantong(豁然貫通). If we put gewuzhizhi(格物致知) as the quests of basic and general subjects, meanwhile, huoranguantong(豁然貫通) corresponds to more profound and sophisticated learning. Huoranguantong(豁然貫通) is a phase in which my principle and the universal principle become unified, and so, this is the phase where the standards in my mind will attain universality. That is to say, this means that the standards in my mind and the universal standards grow into one. Then, what is the ultimate purpose of gewuzhizhi(格物致知)? The ultimate purpose of gewuzhizhi(格物致知) is to reach zhishan(至善). If gewuzhizhi(格物致知) seeks zhishan(至善), those universal standards in my mind that attained through huoranguantong(豁然貫通) shall also be the criteria of that zhishan(至善). Viewing it from this perspective, it can be said that Zhuzi(朱子)'s gewuzhizhi(格物致知) contains both epistemological and logical aspect.
Purpose : Many believe that the Sasang mentioned in the I Ching and the Sasang of Sasang Medicine (as expounded by Dr. Lee Je-ma in the book Longevity and Life Preservation in Oriental Medicine) refer to different concepts. This is untrue. In order to understand the thought patterns of Dr. Lee Je-ma and his book, it is necessary to first understand the concepts of the I Ching. The I Ching was the most respected text in Dr. Lee Je-ma time, and served as the foundation upon which his medicine stood. The purpose of this research is to understand the concept of Sasang in the I Ching and how it applies to the Sasang medicine. Method : The authors first defined the term Sasang according to the theory of I Ching. It was then discussed in relation to theories of modern science. Inferences were made as to how Sasang corresponds to the terminologies and concepts of modern science. The characteristics of Sasang interpreted through modern science were then applied to the physiology, pathology and pharmacology of Sasang Medicine. Results and Conclusion : 1. The Sasang theory of the I Ching organizes seemingly random and isolated natural phenomena into four distinct groups according to various attributes. The particular characteristics representing each of these four categories are known as Sasang. 2. The Sasang theory of I Ching has a strong correlation to the Theory of Relativity and the Theory of Complementarity, as well as the Digital and Fractal Theories. 3. By applying the Sasang Theory to various fields, the seemingly unrelated principles of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine can be seen as parts of a whole. 4. Sasang Medicine categorizes human morphology, physiology and pharmacology into four categories according to the characteristics defined by the Sasang Theory of the I Ching. 5. Grouping new discoveries of modern physics, chemistry, biology and medicine according to the Sasang Theory will bring to light the intricacies of the Sasang Theory while facilitating the incorporation of modern science into Sasang Medicine.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
There are many bioethical issues in line with the rapid advance of biology. In this situation, it is important for students to make a rational decision on value problem. In this study 'value inquiry in biology education' is defined as 'the process of rational value judgement and wise decision-making in the biology-related value problem' and the model was developed. To develop the model, value inquiry models were reviewed. Value clarification model is helpful for the formation of the personal value as the process of individual value inquiry, but it isn't helpful for clarifying the value conflicts. Value analysis model focuses on the rational solution of value problem through the logical procedure. But it has the limitations that overemphasizing the logical and systematic aspects results in devaluating students' affective aspects. So it is necessary to coordinate psychological and logical aspects of value inquiry. In this regard, the model was developed, including identifying and clarifying value problem, understanding biological knowledge related to conflict situation, considering on the related persons, searching for alternatives, predicting the consequences of each alternative, selecting the alternative, evaluating the alternative, and final value judgement and affirming it. The educational objectives of value inquiry were selected in consideration of the ability to carry out the steps of the developed model. And the selected contents were animal duplication, test-tube baby, genetic engineering, growth hormone injection problem, brain death, organ transplant, animal to be experimented and were organized on the basis of the 6th and the 7th science curriculum. And the suitable instructional models for the value inquiry education were selected: bioethical value clarification decision-making model, group presentation according to the value analysis model, role play and debate, and discussion through web forum. And the interview was considered to be suitable to evaluate the students' value inquiry ability and the rubric was made to evaluate the attainment of the educational objectives for value inquiry.
Purpose : Today, people usually die in hospitals and institution-sterile and strange, and equipped with a complex range of technology capable of supporting and prolonging life, frequently only biological one, when a return to health and vitality is no longer possible. Consequently, 'dying with dignity' has become a slogan of opposition to useless and degrading prolongation of life when a patient's organ, though still minimally functional, can no longer support or permit the exercise of self-fulfilling personal control over life's events. Dying with dignity, however, means entirely different things to different people. This study is to investigate the college students' attitude on terminal care and passive euthanasia. Methods : During June 1997, 337 college students participated in this study by responding to the pre-made questionnaire. It deft with the attitude to passive euthanasia, hospice, the most suffering fear facing the death, the preferred place and person to be with if dying. Results : 63.2% of subjects agreed to passive euthanasia. Only 14.2.% of college students can explain the concept of hospice, exactly They got the information about hospice by TV(43%), book(33.5%), religious group(12%) in order. The preferred death place was home(76.6%) and hospital(11.9%) in order. The Most suffering fear facing the death were about unknown(41.5%), loosing colleague(13.6%), pain(11%), isolation(6.5%) in order. Conclusion : About two-thirds of college students agreed to passive euthanasia. But euthanasia is dangerous and unnecessary. We should vigorously promote programmes of education in hospice and palliative medicine and care.
Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
At present, we are at the point of change of the 4th industrial revolution era due to the development of artificial intelligence(AI) and rapid technological innovation that no one can predict until now. This study started from the question of 'What role should home economics education play in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution?'. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterized by AI, cloud computing, Internet of Things(IoT), big data, and Online to Offline(O2O). It will drastically change the social system, science and technology and the structure of the profession. Since the dehumanization of robots and artificial intelligence may occur, the 4th Industrial Revolution Education should be sought to foster future human resources with humanity and citizenship for the future community. In addition, the implication of education in the fourth industrial revolution, which will bring about a change to a super-intelligent and hyper-connected society, is that the role of education should be emphasized so that humans internalize their values as human beings. Character education should be established as a generalized and internalized consciousness with a concept established in the integration of the curriculum, and concrete practical strategies should be prepared. In conclusion, home economics education in the 4th industrial revolution era should play a leading role in the central role of character education, and intrinsic improvement of various human lives. The fourth industrial revolution will change not only what we do, or human mental and physical activities, but also who we are, or human identity. In the information society and digital society, it is important how quickly and accurately it is possible to acquire scattered knowledge. In the information society, it is required to learn how to use knowledge for human beings in rapid change. As such, the fourth industrial revolution seeks to lead the family, organization, and community positively by influencing the systems that shape our lives. Home economics education should take the lead in this role.
MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
This study examines the universal meaning of the roof-end tile, our cultural property, and especially focuses on an ontological interpretation of the "Smile of Silla" roof-end tile. In addition, the problem of good and evil read here is considered in connection with the universal problem of philosophy. The issue of good and evil is a theme in philosophy, theology, religion, and culture that will endure throughout human history in both the East and the West. Augustine and Schelling inquired deeply into the source of evil and obtained an answer to this question based on their methods, but their answer is not universal or absolute, or an answer that applies to everyone. This is because the issue of good and evil possesses both a direct relationship with every human being and a characteristic that will remain unresolved. That is to say, the metaphysical question regarding the source of evil will always be one that is open. Nietzsche, however, repudiated the morals handed down through Socrates and Christianity, and urged that we reside "beyond good and evil." This brief review argues that good and evil exists in the form of a being in itself, whether it is within our grasp or not, and reveals that good and evil is more "this-worldly" than it is "other-worldly". The roof-end tiles with facial markings passed on to us also presuppose that evil is in full force in this world and exerts its influence. This review taps into several folk methods for coping with the existence of an invincible evil that surpasses human capability and contemplates the extraordinary and creative ideas of the Silla people through their "Smile of Silla" roof-end tiles with facial markings that were used to counter evil.
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