• Title, Summary, Keyword: 응력확대계수

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A Study on Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior with Pure-Ti Plate (순수 티타늄 판재의 피로균열 전파거동에 관한 연구)

  • 오세욱;김태형;김득진;임만배
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.92-100
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    • 1995
  • The effect of different anisotropy and stress ratio on fatigue crack propagation behavior was investigated under various stress ratio(R=-0.4, -0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.4) using pure titanium sheet used in aerospace, chemical and food industry. The rack closure behavior under constant load amplitude fatigue crack propagation test was examined. Fatigue crack propagation rate da/dN was estimated in terms of effective stress intensity factor range, $\Delta$K$_{eff}$, regardless of various stress ratio but was influenced by anisotropy. Also, it was found that the effect of anisotropy was considerably decreased but still not negligible when he da/dN was evaluated by a conventional parameter, $\Delta$$K_{eff}$/E and when the modified da/dN.$\sqrt{\varepsilon}_f$ was evaluated by $\Delta$$K_{eff}$/E. On the other hand, da/dN could be evaluated uniquely by effective new parameter, $\Delta$K$_{eff}$/$sigma_{ys}$, regardless of anisotropy, as int he following equation da/dN=C''[\frac{{\Delta}K_{eff}}{{\sigma}_{ys}}]^{n''}. And effective stress intensity factor range ratio, U was estimated by the following equation with respect to the ratio of reversed plastic zone size, $\Delta r_{p}$ to monotonic plastic zone size, $r_p$ regardless of stress ratio and anisotropy. U=-4.45$(\Delta r_{p}/r_{p})^{2}$+4.1$(\Delta r_{p}/r_{p})$+0.245_{p})$+0.245

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Fracture Toughness Evaluation and Influence Parameter Analysis by Numerical Simulation of Brazilian Test (Brazilian시험의 수치해석 시뮬레이션을 통한 파괴인성 산정 및 영향변수 분석)

  • Synn, Joong-Ho;Park, Chan;Shin, Hee-Soon;Chung, Yong-Bok;Lee, Hi-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics Conference
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2000
  • The numerical simulation of Brazilian fracture toughness test is carried out using PFC code and the influence parameters are analyzed such as shape of loading plane, size of Brazilian disc and unit panicle of model, loading angle and loading rate. The flattened Brazilian disc is adopted for applying uniform load. The range of loading angle(2$\alpha$) necessary to induce the tensile crack at disc center and to obtain the load-displacement curve giving the critical load for the stable crack propagation is shown as 20$^{\circ}$~40$^{\circ}$. In condition that the loading angle is 20$^{\circ}$, the mode-I fracture toughness is evaluated almost constant in the range of particle size less than I mm and loading rate less than 0.01 mm/s. This range of influence parameters seems appropriate condition for the tensile crack initiation at disc center and the control of stable crack propagation, which can give the reliance in evaluation of fracture toughness by Brazilian test.

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Fracture Toughness Evaluation and Influence Parameter Analysis by Numerical Simulation of Brazilian Test (Brazilian 시험의 수치해석 시뮬레이션을 통한 파괴인성 산정 및 영향변수 분석)

  • Synn, Joong-Ho;Park, Chan;Shin, Hee-Soon;Chung, Yong-Bok;Lee, Hi-Keun
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.320-328
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    • 2000
  • The numerical simulation of Brazilian fracture toughness test is carried out using PFC code and the influence parameters are analyzed such as shape of loading plane, size of Brazilian disc and unit particle of model, loading angle and loading rate. The flattened Brazilian disc is adopted for applying uniform load. The range of loading angle(2$\alpha$) necessary to induce the tensile crack at disc center and to obtain the load-displacement curve giving the critical load for the stable crack propagation is shown as 20°∼40°. In condition that the loading angle is 20°, the mode-I fracture toughness is evaluated almost constant in the range of particle size less than 1 mm and loading rate less than 0.01㎜/s. This range of influence parameters seems appropriate condition for the tensile crack initiation at disc center and the control of stable crack propagation, which can give the reliance in evaluation of fracture toughness by Brazilian test.

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Adhesive Performance and Fracture Toughness Evaluation of FRP-Reinforced Laminated Plate (FRP 보강적층판의 접착성능 및 파괴인성평가)

  • Jung, Hong-Ju;Hong, Soon-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.868-875
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    • 2015
  • In order to replace existing slit type steel plate on the wooden structure joint, the FRP-reinforced laminated plates were produced. Four types of FRP-reinforced laminated plates were produced according to the type of reinforcement and adhesive, and before applying to the joint, the adhesion performance test according to KSF 3021 and KSF 2160 and the Compact Tension (CT) type fracture toughness test specified in ASTM D5045-99 were carried out. As a result of adhesion performance test, all GFRP textile, GFRP sheet, and GFRP Textile-Sheet type FRP-reinforced laminated plates satisfied the requirement of soaking delamination percentage with smaller than 5% based on KS standard. However, aramid type specimen satisfied the standard as the soaking delamination percentage of 4.8% but it did not satisfied the standard as the water proof soaking delamination percentage of 70%. As a result of fracture toughness test, the volume ratio of reinforcement to timber became 23% so that the strength of FRP-reinforced laminated plates increased by two to four times in comparison to the control specimen. It was confirmed that the GFRP Textile-Sheet type specimen was most resistant to the fracture most since the ratio of stress intensity factor compared with that of the control increased to 61% owing to the parallel arrangement of glass fiber to the load. As a result of tensile shear strength test using FRP-reinforced laminated plates and nonmetal dowels, it is about 12% lower than metal connectors.

Development of Computational Evaluation Method for Fatigue Crack Growth Rate based on Viscoplastic-Damage Model (점소성-손상모델 기반 피로균열 진전속도 전산 평가법 개발)

  • Kim, Seul-Kee;Kim, Jeong-Hyeon;Lee, Chi-Seung;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Myung
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, computational evaluation method for fatigue crack growth rate(FCGR) based on material viscoplastic-damage model is proposed. Viscoplastic-damage model expressing material constitutive behavior of 7% nickel steel is introduced and is implemented into commercial finite element analysis(FEA) code, ABAQUS, as a user defined material subroutine(UMAT) for application in the FEA environments. Verification of developed UMAT and material parameters of material model are carried out by uniaxial tensile test simulations of 7% nickel steel. Moreover, jump-in-cycles procedure and rearrangement of critical damage are employed and also implemented to the ABAQUS UMAT for fatigue damage analysis. Typical FCGR test results such as relationship between crack length and number of cycles and relationship between da/dN and ${\Delta}K$ could be obtained from FCGR test simulation using developed UMAT and these results are compared with experimental results in order to verify of proposed computational method.

Laterally Unbraced Length for Preventing Inelastic Lateral-Torsional Buckling of High-Strength Steel Beams (고강도 강재보의 비탄성 횡-비틀림좌굴 제어를 위한 횡지지 거리)

  • Park, Chang Hee;Lee, Cheol Ho;Han, Kyu Hong;Kim, Jin Ho;Lee, Seung Eun;Ha, Tae Hyu;Kim, Jin Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-130
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    • 2013
  • In this study, lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) strength of high-strength H-beams built up from 800MPa tensile-strength steel was experimentally and analytically evaluated according to current lateral stability provisions (KBC 2009, AISC-LRFD 2010). The motivation was to evaluate whether or not current LTB provisions, which were originally developed for ordinary steel with different stress-strain characteristics, are still applicable to high-strength steel. Two sets of compact-section specimens with relatively low (Set A) or high (Set B) warping stiffness were prepared and tested under uniform moment loading. Laterally unbraced lengths of the test specimens were controlled such that inelastic LTB could be induced. All specimens exhibited LTB strength exceeding the minimum limit required by current provisions by a sufficient margin. Moreover, some specimen in Set A reached a rotation capacity required for plastic design, although its laterally unbraced length belonged to the inelastic LTB range. All the test results indicated that extrapolation of current provisions to high-strength steel is conservative. In order to further analyze the test results, the relationship between inelastic moment and laterally unbraced length was also derived in explicit form for both ordinary- and high-strength steel based on the effective tangent modulus of inelastic section. The analytical relationship derived again showed that extrapolation of current laterally unbraced length limit leads to a conservative design in the case of high-strength steel and that the laterally unbraced length to control the inelastic LTB behavior of high-strength steel beam should be specified by including its unique post-yield strain-hardening characteristics.

Electrical properties of multilayer actuator and linear ultrasonic motor using low temperature PZW-PMN-PZT ceramics (저온소결 PZW-PMN-PZT 세라믹을 이용한 적층액츄에이터 및 선형초음파 모터의 전긱적 특성)

  • Lee, Il-Ha;Yoo, Ju-Hyun;Hong, Jae-Il;Jeong, Yeong-Ho;Yoon, Hyun-Sang
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.206-206
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    • 2008
  • 압전소자를 이용한 초음파 모터는 전자기적 원리로 동작하는 기존의 모터에 비해 구조가 간단하고 소형, 경량화가 가능하며 저속에서 큰 토크가 가능하고 ${\mu}m$단위 까지 정밀제어가 가능하다는 장점 등으로 인해 그 응용분야가 점차 확대되고 있다. 초음파 모터의 원리는 수평과 수직방향에서 변위가 타원형 운동을 형성하는 것이다. 따라서 선택한 타원운동의 방식에 의해서 모터의 형상이 달라진다. 초음파 모터는 액츄에이터를 사용하여 만들기 때문에 액츄에이터의 특성은 모터의 타원변위나 토크에 영향을 미친다. 단판형 액츄에이터에 비하여 적층 액츄에이터는 입력 임피던스를 낮추어 낮은 구동전압에서 구동이 가능하며 큰 변위와 토크를 발생하기 때문에 진동자의 수명 향상과 구동전압을 낮추기에 적합하다. 적층 액츄에이터는 변위량이나 응력 등을 개선하기 위해서 전기기계 결합계수(kp) 및 압전 d상수가 큰 재료가 요구되며, 고전압에서 장시간 구동 시 마찰에 의한 열손실을 감소시키기 위해 높은 기계적 품질계수(Qm)를 가져야한다. 적층 시 내부전극으로 사용하는 Pd, Pt가 함유된 전극은 가격이 비싸 제조비용을 상승시킨다. 상대적으로 값싼 Ag전극을 사용하면 비용절감을 할 수 있지만 융점이 낮아서 저온소결이 불가피하다. 따라서, 특성이 우수한 적층 액츄에이터를 제조하기 위해서 저손실, 저온소결 할 수 있는 액츄에이터 재료가 필요한 실정이다. L1-B4 혈 선혈 초음파 모터는 L1모드와 B4모드의 공진 주파수가 일치하여야 큰 변위를 얻을 수 있는데 이전의 논문에서 Atila를 이용한 시뮬레이션 결과를 분석한 봐 있다. 적층 액츄에이터의 층수를 5,7,9,11,13,15층으로 하여 L1-B4모드에서의 공진주파수를 비교한 결과 13 층일 때 두 모드가 비슷한 공진주파수를 보였고, 티원변위궤적도 다른 층수에 비해 크게 나타났다. 본 연구에서는 시뮬레이션 결과 가장 좋은 특성을 보인 13층 액츄에이터로 선형 초음파 모터를 제작하였다. 또한, 액츄에이터는 압전 및 유전특성이 우수한 저온소결 PZW-PMN-PZT세라믹을 이용하여 제작하였고, 내부전극으로 Ag전극을 사용하였다. 제작된 13 층 선형초음파모터를 가지고 프리로드 및 전압에 따른 속도를 조사하였고, 시뮬레이션 결과와 비교해 보았다.

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Experimental Study on Fatigue Characteristics of the Single Spot Welded Joint (점용접재(点熔接材)의 피로(疲勞) 특성(特性)에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chang-Min Suh;Sung-Soo Kang;Nam-Seong Hwang;Yong-Ich Cho
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.214-226
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    • 1992
  • In this paper, the characteristics of fatigue crack growth in the spot welded joint of the same kinds of specimens($HS{\times}HS,\;GA{\times}GAB$) and different kinds of specimens($HS{\times}GA,\;HS{\times}GAB$) which consist of dual phase high strength steel(HS) and monogalvanized steel(GA) were examined with static tension tests and axial tension fatigue tests. Some of the important results are as follows : 1. The divergence of tensile strengths among the same and different kinds of spot welds under the same conditions is comparatively low regardless of the difference of stiffness. 2. At the low load bevel and long life legion, the fatigue crack is initiated near the nugget. However, in the high load level and short life region, it occurs a tittle far from the nugget. 3. It has shown a linear relation between maximum stress Intensity factor, Kmax and fatigue life, $N_f$ among each of the spot welds and has gathered in a narrow band on the log-log graph paper. $Kmax=H{\cdot}{N_f}^{P}$ where H and P are a material constant.

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고강도 및 파괴인성을 갖는 AI-Li-Cu 합금 개발

  • Kim, Song-Hui;Yun, Yeo-Beom;Hwang, Yeong-Hwa;Choe, Chang-U;Hong, Jun-Pyo;Lee, Eung-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 1993
  • High strength and fracture toughness of Al-Li-Cu alloy(2090 Al alloy) have been achieved by the improvement of melting and casting, extrusion and heat treatment techniques. To establish the sucessful process for semi-industrial scale ingot(20Kg) the following areas have been investigated: (1) Improvement of melting and casting techniques for ingot by introducing atmospheric modifications, vacuum and rotary degassing, and deslagging. (2) The effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties (3) Mechanical characterization by tensile test, fracture toughness test and fatigue crack propagation test. High mechanical properties were found to be intimately related with ingot soundness. Tensile strength of final products varied from 534MPa to 566MPa in peak aged condition while elongation/ductility ranged from 9.0% to 11.9%. From the fracture toughness test with using compact tensile specimen, plane strain fracture toughness($K_{Ic}$) appeared to be 39MPa${\surd}$m in peak aged condition and 23MPa${\surd}$ m in underaged condition. When load ratios of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 were given ${\Delta}K_{th}$ was 6.0MPa${\surd}$ m, 5.3MPa${\surd}$ m and 4.3MPa${\surd}$ m respectively.

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Numerical analysis for deformation characteristics under the freezing and bursting of Al pipe (알루미늄 관의 동파 거동특성에 관한 수치적 연구)

  • Choi, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Won;Ko, Young-Bae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.4763-4768
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    • 2014
  • Recently, aluminum pipes have been used instead of steel pipes for open and shut machines in vinyl housing because of its corrosion-resistance and light weight. In particular, the light weight is very useful for fitting and removal by human resources. On the other hand, an aluminum pipe is weak in winter because aluminum has a larger thermal expansion coefficient than steel. This study examined the freezing and bursting of aluminum pipes by numerical analysis. The mechanical-thermal deformation characteristics were analyzed under the condition of ice volumetric expansion in aluminum pipes reaching 50%. From numerical analysis, large stresses above the yield stress occurred in aluminum pipe after ice expanded in the net diameter immediately. In addition, the freezing and bursting of aluminum pipes was predicted around an ice volumetric expansion of 6 - 7% because the thickness of the aluminum pipe reached an aluminum elongation ratio of 17%. Therefore, it is recommended that aluminum pipes be sealed perfectly to prevent water flow in the pipe. These results suggest that it is very difficult to prevent freezing and bursting of aluminum pipes by water freezing in the pipe.