• Title, Summary, Keyword: 이동하중

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A study of Double Sheet Multi-forming Equipment (2겹 판재 멀티포밍 장치에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Jae-Woong;Son, Ok-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2017
  • Most motor cases adopt deep drawing products, which are excellent in waterproof functions, concentricity, right angle, and quality. In addition, the blower motor and seat motor, which are installed in the car interior and do not require waterproof function, adopts a multi-forming manufacturing method. The deep drawing process requires an expensive transfer press that can digest approximately 12 processes, such as drawing, trimming and piercing. On the other hand, products can be produced with low investment because the multi-forming method is composed of one multi-forming machine or one multi-forming machine and one press. The multi-forming machine is a high-priced facility that is mostly imported and a bending / shearing process multi-foaming machine, which was developed by domestic small and medium-sized enterprises, is not enough to reduce the production cost. An integral multi - forming machine is used as a limited working method for thin material and small products. A large product and thick material has a high shear load. A large product and thick material has a high shear load and uses a single crank press. After blanking, the worker manually feeds the material to a multi-forming machine. When the bending operation is performed in the multi-forming machine, it is transferred to the press again to calibrate the dimensions. This variance in work processes has resulted in lower cost competitiveness due to the lower productivity, quality issues, and excessive operator input. The aim of this study was to establish a stable and cost - effective production system through bending / shearing process separation and facility automation.

Studies on the synthesis and characteristics of calcium sulfonate complex grease (칼슘 술폰산염 컴플렉스 그리스 합성과 특성 연구)

  • Woo, Jaegu;Lee, Dongkyu;Ha, KiRyong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we synthesized a calcium sulfonate complex grease and a lithium complex grease to investigate their physical, rheological and tribological properties. The thermal stability of the calcium sulfonate was higher than $300^{\circ}C$ and the lithium complex grease was $245^{\circ}C$ in the dropping point test. In the grease viscosity measurement, the calcium sulfonate complex grease was measured as $7.0Pa{\cdot}s$ and the lithium complex grease was as $4.5Pa{\cdot}s$. Therefore, it was confirmed that the calcium sulfonate complex grease is superior to the lithium complex grease in terms of thermal stability and cohesiveness. In the 4-ball wear test, the calcium sulfonate complex grease was measured to be 0.43 mm and the lithium complex grease to 0.85 mm. In the 4-ball extreme pressure test, calcium sulfonate complex grease was measured as 620 kgf and the lithium complex grease was as 125 kgf. Therefore, it was confirmed that the calcium sulfonate complex grease is superior to the lithium complex grease in abrasion resistance and load-bearing property. It was found that the calcium sulfonate complex grease is more effective than the lithium complex grease in the lubrication at high temperature and high load.

A Motor-Driven Focusing Mechanism for Small Satellite (소형위성용 모터 구동형 포커싱 메커니즘)

  • Jung, Jinwon;Choi, Junwoo;Lee, Dongkyu;Hwang, Jaehyuck;Kim, Byungkyu
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2018
  • The working principle of a satellite camera involves a focusing mechanism for controlling the focus of the optical system, which is essential for proper functioning. However, research on focusing mechanisms of satellite optical systems in Korea is in the beginning stage and developed technology is limited to a thermal control type. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a motor-driven focusing mechanism applicable to small satellite optical systems. The proposed mechanism is designed to generate z-axis displacement in the secondary mirror by a motor. In addition, three flexure hinges have been installed on the supporter for application of preload on the mechanism resulting in minimization of the alignment error arising due to manufacturing tolerance and assembly tolerance within the mechanism. After fabrication of the mechanism, the alignment errors (de-space, de-center, and tilt) were measured with LVDT sensors and laser displacement meters. Conclusively, the proposed focusing mechanism could achieve proper alignment degree, which can be applicable to small satellite optical system.

Study of lubrication and rheological properties of urea grease with respect to PTFE powder addition (PTFE 분말 첨가에 따른 우레아 그리스의 윤활 및 유변학 특성 연구)

  • Son, Kihun;Lee, Dongkyu;Lee, Youngseok;Woo, Jaegu;Ha, KiRyong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.634-643
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the rheological and tribological properties of urea grease were studied according to the type and amount of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powders added to the urea grease, which is the most widely used among solid lubricants, to develop an optimal lubrication system. Urea grease was synthesized using 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate)(MDI), oleylamine, and cyclohexylamine, and PTFE powders prepared by dispersion or suspension polymerization process were then added. The basic rheological and tribological properties of the prepared greases were compared. The worked penetration numbers of urea grease decreased with increasing amount of PTFE powders, but both PTFE powders caused no significant changes in heat resistance and copper corrosion resistance. The shear viscosity increased with increasing PTFE powder content, and the dispersion-type PTFE powder was more effective in increasing the viscosity. In the value of the loss coefficient = 1, the shear stress was higher for the grease containing PTFE powders than the non-PTFE added grease, and the dispersion-type PTFE-added grease showed higher viscosity than the suspension-type PTFE-added grease. Finally, urea grease was found to have a low-performance improvement in terms of wear reduction effects by adding PTFE powders, but the load-bearing performance was up to 2.5 times higher for the dispersion-type PTFE and five times higher for the suspension-type PTFE.

In situ stress estimation in KURT site (KURT 부지 암반 초기응력 특성 규명)

  • Jo, Yeonguk;Chang, Chandong;Park, Kyung-Woo;Ji, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Changsoo
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.689-701
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    • 2017
  • We conducted hydraulic fracturing (HF) tests and borehole image logging, to investigate in situ stress state at KURT (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel) site, Daejeon, Korea. The HF tensile fractures and drilling induced borehole wall failures, observed from borehole images, consistently indicated the E-W orienting maximum horizontal principal stress ($S_{Hmax}$). The magnitudes of the minimum horizontal principal stress ($S_{hmin}$) were determined using the pressure-time curves recorded during HF tests and those of $S_{Hmax}$ using the relationship between logged borehole wall failure and rock strength. The vertical stress ($S_v$), calculated from overburden weight of rocks, was either the minimum or the intermediate principal stress depending on depths. It indicates that the stress regime in KURT site is variable between thrust faulting ($S_v$ < $S_{hmin}$ < $S_{Hmax}$) and strike-slip faulting ($S_{hmin}$ < $S_v$ < $S_{Hmax}$) regimes. Our stress estimation results agree with the regional scale crustal stress pattern in Korean Peninsula reported from the previous studies.

Carbon diffusion behavior and mechanical properties of carbon-doped TiZrN coatings by laser carburization (레이저 침탄된 TiZrN 코팅에서 탄소확산거동과 기계적 특성)

  • Yoo, Hyunjo;Kim, Taewoo;Kim, Seonghoon;Jo, Ilguk;Lee, Heesoo
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.32-36
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    • 2021
  • This study was investigated in carbon diffusion behavior of laser-carburized TiZrN coating layer and the changes of mechanical properties. The carbon paste was deposited on TiZrN coatings, and the laser was irradiated to carburize into the coatings. The XRD peak corresponding to the (111) plane shifted to a lower angle after the carburization, showing the lattice expansion by doped carbon. The decreased grain size implied the compression by the grain boundary diffusion of carbon. The XPS spectra for the bonding states of carbon was analyzed that carbon was substitute to nitrogen atoms in TiZrN, as carbide, through the thermal energy of laser. In addition, the combination of sp2 and sp3 hybridized bonds represented the formation of an amorphous carbon. The cross-sectional TEM image and the inverse FFT of the TiZrN coating after carburizing were observed as the wavy shape, confirming the amorphous phase located in grain boundaries. After the carburization, the hardness increased from 34.57 GPa to 38.24 GPa, and the friction coefficient decreased by 83 %. In particular, the ratio of hardness and elastic modulus (H/E) which is used as an index of the elastic recovery, increased from 0.11 to 0.15 and the wear rate improved by 65 %.

Study on the Performance Verification of PRB Isolation Device using Simulation and Experiment (PRB 지진격리장치의 성능 검증을 위한 해석 및 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Jo;Kim, Se-Yun;Ji, Yongsoo;Kim, Bongsik;Han, Tong-Seok
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2020
  • This study introduces a technique for improving the elastomeric-isolator performance using modular devices. The modular devices are shear resistance block, polymer spring, displacement acceptance guide, and anti-falling block. They are installed on the elastomeric isolator as a supplementary device. Each modularized device improves the isolator performance by performing step-by-step actions according to the seismic intensity and displacement. The PRB isolation device works in four stages, depending on the seismic magnitude, to satisfy the target performance. It is designed to accommodate design displacement in the first stage and large magnitude of earthquakes in the second and third stages. This design prevents superstructures from falling in the fourth stage due to large-magnitude earthquakes by increasing the capacity limit of the elastomeric isolator. In this study, the PRB isolation device is analyzed using finite element analysis to verify that the PRB isolation device works as intended and it can withstand loads corresponding to large-magnitude earthquakes. The performance of the PRB isolation device is validated by the analysis, which is further corroborated by actual experiments.

Design and Full Size Flexural Test of Spliced I-type Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders Having Holes in the Web (분절형 복부 중공 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 교량 거더의 설계 및 실물크기 휨 실험 분석)

  • Han, Man Yop;Choi, Sokhwan;Jeon, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.31 no.3A
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    • pp.235-249
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    • 2011
  • A new form of I-type PSC bridge girder, which has hole in the web, is proposed in this paper. Three different concepts were combined and implemented in the design. First of all, a girder was precast at a manufacturing plant as divided pieces and assembled at the construction site using post-tensioning method, and the construction period at the site will be reduced dramatically. In this way, the quality of concrete can be assured at the manufacturing factory and concrete curing can be well controlled, and the spliced girder segments can be moved to the construction site without a transportation problem. Secondly, a numerous number of holes was made in the web of the girder. This reduces the self-weight of the girder. But more important thing related to the holes is that about half of the total anchorages can be moved from the girder ends into individual holes. The magnitude of negative moment developed at girder ends will be reduced. Also, since the longitudinal compressive stresses are reduced at ends, thick end diaphragm is not necessary. Thirdly, Prestressing force was introduced into the member through multiple stages. This concept of multi-stage prestressing method overcomes the prestressing force limit restrained by the allowable stresses at each loading stage, and maximizes the magnitude of applicable prestressing force. It makes the girder longer and shallower. Two 50 meter long full scale girders were fabricated and tested. One of them was non-spliced, or monolithic girder, made as one piece from the beginning, and the other one was assembled using post-tensioning method from five pieces of segments. It was found from the result that monolithic and spliced girder show similar load-deflection relationships and crack patterns. Girders satisfied specific girder design specification in flexural strength, deflection, and live load deflection control limit. Both spliced and monolithic holed web post-tensioned girders can be used to achieve span lengths of more than 50m with the girder height of 2 m.

Three-dimensional finite element analysis on intrusion of upper anterior teeth by three-piece base arch appliance according to alveolar bone loss (치조골 상실에 따른 three-piece base arch appliance를 이용한 상악전치부 intrusion에 대한 3차원 유한요소법적 연구)

  • Ha, Man-Hee;Son, Woo-Sung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.209-223
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    • 2001
  • At intrusion of upper anterior teeth in patient with periodontal defect, the use of three-piece base arch appliance for pure intrusion is required. To investigate the change of the center of resistance and of the distal traction force according to alveolar bone height at intrusion of upper anterior teeth using this appliance, three-dimensional finite element models of upper six anterior teeth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone were constructed. At intrusion of upper anterior teeth by three-piece base arch appliance, the following conclusions were drawn to the locations of the center of resistance according to the number of teeth, the change of distal traction force for pure intrusion and the correlation to the change of vertical, horizontal location of the center of resistance according to alveolar bone loss. 1. When the axial inclination and alveolar bone height were normal, the anteroposterior locations of center of resistance of upper anterior teeth according to the number of teeth contained were as follows : 1) In 2 anterior teeth group, the center of located in the mesial 1/3 area of lateral incisor bracket. 2) In 4 anterior teeth group. the center of resistance was located in the distal 2/3 of the distance between the bracket of lateral incisor and canine. 3) In 6 anterior teeth group, the center of resistance was located in the central area of first premolar bracket .4) As the number of teeth contained in anterior teeth group increased, the center of resistance shifted to the distal side. 2. When the alveolar bone height was normal, the anteroposterior position of the point of application of the intrusive force was the same position or a bit forward position of the center of resistance at application of distal traction force for pure intrusion. 3. When intrusion force and the point of application of the intrusive force were fixed, the changes of distal traction force for pure intrusion according to alveolar bon loss were as follows :1) Regardless of the alveolar bone loss, the distal traction force of 2, 4 anterior teeth groups were lower than that of 6 anterior teeth group. 2) As the alveolar bone loss increased, the distal traction forces of each teeth group were increased. 4. The correlations of the vertical, horizontal locations of the center of resistance according to maxillary anterior teeth groups and the alveolar bone height were as follows : 1) In 2 anterior teeth group, the horizontal position displacement to the vortical position displacement of the center of resistance according to the alveolar bone loss was the largest. As the number of teeth increased, the horizontal position displacement to the vertical position displacement of the center of resistance according to the alveolar bone loss showed a tendency to decrease. 2) As the alveolar bone loss increased, the horizontal position displacement to the vertical position displacement of the center of resistance regardless of the number of teeth was increased.

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무령왕릉보존에 있어서의 지질공학적 고찰

  • 서만철;최석원;구민호
    • Proceedings of the KSEEG Conference
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    • pp.42-63
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    • 2001
  • The detail survey on the Songsanri tomb site including the Muryong royal tomb was carried out during the period from May 1 , 1996 to April 30, 1997. A quantitative analysis was tried to find changes of tomb itself since the excavation. Main subjects of the survey are to find out the cause of infiltration of rain water and groundwater into the tomb and the tomb site, monitoring of the movement of tomb structure and safety, removal method of the algae inside the tomb, and air controlling system to solve high humidity condition and dew inside the tomb. For these purposes, detail survery inside and outside the tombs using a electronic distance meter and small airplane, monitoring of temperature and humidity, geophysical exploration including electrical resistivity, geomagnetic, gravity and georadar methods, drilling, measurement of physical and chemical properties of drill core and measurement of groundwater permeability were conducted. We found that the center of the subsurface tomb and the center of soil mound on ground are different 4.5 meter and 5 meter for the 5th tomb and 7th tomb, respectively. The fact has caused unequal stress on the tomb structure. In the 7th tomb (the Muryong royal tomb), 435 bricks were broken out of 6025 bricks in 1972, but 1072 bricks are broken in 1996. The break rate has been increased about 250% for just 24 years. The break rate increased about 290% in the 6th tomb. The situation in 1996 is the result for just 24 years while the situation in 1972 was the result for about 1450 years. Status of breaking of bircks represents that a severe problem is undergoing. The eastern wall of the Muryong royal tomb is moving toward inside the tomb with the rate of 2.95 mm/myr in rainy season and 1.52 mm/myr in dry season. The frontal wall shows biggest movement in the 7th tomb having a rate of 2.05 mm/myr toward the passage way. The 6th tomb shows biggest movement among the three tombs having the rate of 7.44mm/myr and 3.61mm/myr toward east for the high break rate of bricks in the 6th tomb. Georadar section of the shallow soil layer represents several faults in the top soil layer of the 5th tomb and 7th tomb. Raninwater flew through faults tnto the tomb and nearby ground and high water content in nearby ground resulted in low resistance and high humidity inside tombs. High humidity inside tomb made a good condition for algae living with high temperature and moderate light source. The 6th tomb is most severe situation and the 7th tomb is the second in terms of algae living. Artificial change of the tomb environment since the excavation, infiltration of rain water and groundwater into the tombsite and bad drainage system had resulted in dangerous status for the tomb structure. Main cause for many problems including breaking of bricks, movement of tomb walls and algae living is infiltration of rainwater and groundwater into the tomb site. Therefore, protection of the tomb site from high water content should be carried out at first. Waterproofing method includes a cover system over the tomvsith using geotextile, clay layer and geomembrane and a deep trench which is 2 meter down to the base of the 5th tomb at the north of the tomv site. Decrease and balancing of soil weight above the tomb are also needed for the sfety of tomb structures. For the algae living inside tombs, we recommend to spray K101 which developed in this study on the surface of wall and then, exposure to ultraviolet light sources for 24 hours. Air controlling system should be changed to a constant temperature and humidity system for the 6th tomb and the 7th tomb. It seems to much better to place the system at frontal room and to ciculate cold air inside tombs to solve dew problem. Above mentioned preservation methods are suggested to give least changes to tomb site and to solve the most fundmental problems. Repairing should be planned in order and some special cares are needed for the safety of tombs in reparing work. Finally, a monitoring system measuring tilting of tomb walls, water content, groundwater level, temperature and humidity is required to monitor and to evaluate the repairing work.

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