• Title/Summary/Keyword: 이해

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Understanding the Protox Inhibition Activity of Novel 1-(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazolin-5-yl)methoxy-2-chloro-4-fluorobenzene Derivatives Using Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) Methodology (비교 분자 유사성 지수분석(CoMSIA) 방법에 따른 1-(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazolin-5-yl)methoxy-2-chlore-4-fluorobenzene 유도체들의 Protox 저해 활성에 관한 이해)

  • Song, Jong-Hwan;Park, Kyung-Yong;Sung, Nack-Do
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.414-421
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    • 2004
  • 3D QSAR studies for protox inhibition activities against root and shoot of the rice plant (Orysa sativa L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) by a series of new 1-(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazolin-5-yl)methoxy-2-chloro-4-fluorobenzene derivatives were conducted based on the results (Sung, N. D. et al.'s, (2004) J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 47(3), 351-356) using comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methodology. Four CoMSIA models, without hydrogen bond donor field for the protox inhibition activities against root and shoot of the two plants, were derived from the combination of several fields using steric field, hydrophobic field, hydrogen bond acceptor field, LUMO molecular orbital field, dipole moment (DM) and molar refractivity (MR) as additional descriptors. The predictabilities and fitness of CoMSIA models for protox inhibition activities against barnyard-grass were higher than that of rice plant. The statistical results of these models showed the best predictability of the protox inhibition activities against barnyard-grass based on the cross-validated value $r^2\;_{cv}\;(q^2=0.635{\sim}0.924)$, non cross-validated, conventional coefficient $r^2\;_{ncv.}$ value $(r^2=0.928{\sim}0.977)$ and PRESS value $(0.255{\sim}0.273)$. The protox inhibition activities exhibited a strong correlation with the steric $(5.4{\sim}15.7%)$ and hydrophobic $(68.0{\sim}84.3%)$ factors of the molecules. Particularly, the CoMSIA models indicated that the groups of increasing steric bulk at ortho-position on the C-phenyl ring will enhance the protox inhibition activities against barnyard-grass and subsequently increase the selectivity.

A Study on Postconventional Christian Education for Intercultural Conflict Resolution (문화 간 갈등해소를 위한 탈인습적 기독교교육에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jinyoung
    • Journal of Christian Education in Korea
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    • v.62
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    • pp.257-283
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    • 2020
  • Our current society is experiencing a mass upheaval through globalization: mobility, hybridity, and cultural diversity are part of this world phenomenon. We can say that these changes are a result of people crossing borders due to international travel, immigration, emigration, studying abroad, labor, international marriages, fast and comfortable transportation, and the Internet. According to 2018 UNPD(Untied Nations Population Division)'s data, the international migrants have exceeded 258 million as of 2017. The increased number of migrants signifies that people with various backgrounds move from their own culture to a drastically different one. Interacting with different cultures can give people the chance to experience abundant lifestyles and improve life qualities. During that process, however, the differences between cultures can cause not only misunderstandings, conflicts, and violent collisions, but also xenophobia or radical nationalism. The current society is confronted with a problem: the people cannot stubbornly cling to a homogenous ethnicity anymore, which makes the coexistence between the citizens and immigrants necessary. Through these circumstances, I aim to suggest an educational model and a practical curriculum from a Christian perspective as the aim of this study. It seeks to encourage Christians to flexibly respond to these conflicts and collisions, and to fulfill their social responsibilities faithfully. For this reason, I will explore and seek sharing practical values through both shalom's communality as a theological approach and postconventionality in mature adults as a social-scientific approach. Consequently, I have few requests for the readers. First, approach with openness, understanding, and respect for other culture. Second, see this study as one step of confronting the global problem for coexistence and coprosperity of all social agents in the earth, a limited space. Third, notice that this study uses the interdisciplinary approach (theological and social scientific view) for a shareable, practical value that consistently leads the curriculum of my thesis, and a scientific method to eliminate bias. Lastly, understand that this study will eventually be used in educational practice, and as a result it prioritizes giving thought to the Christian educational environment. This study begins by exploring the conflicts and collisions between diverse cultures of our current society in international and national cases. Afterwards, I will reflect on how we can manage these conflicts and collisions by exploring the social-scientific view, postconventionality in mature adults, the theological view, and shalom's communality as a complement for the postconventionality's personal dimension. In conclusion, I suggest a curriculum that achieves peace as a practical value based on postventionality and shalom's communality for this study's goal.

Adrenal and Testicular Androgens in Serum of Men after Physical Endurance Training (격심한 운동후 남성 혈청 내 부신 및 정소 Androgen 변화)

  • Yoon, Yong-Dal;Lee, Chang-Joo;Lee, Joon-Yeong
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2001
  • Recently many studies have reported that total and bioavailable androgens reduced in male and female athletes and that physical exercise reduces the body weight and increases the reproductive abnormalities such as oligomenorrhea, anovulation, inadequate luteal phase, and delayed puberty in women by the inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis . In addition, high mileage endurance 겨nning, psychological stress, and military endurance training in men also reduce the secretion of reproductive hormones. To investigate the efffcts of physical endurance exercise on the secretion of reproductive hormones in men, androgenic hormones from adrenal glands and testis were measured in serum by the conventional radioimmunoassays after long-term (more than3 months), short-term (1 week), and acute (1${sim}$2 hours) physical exercises. Androgenic hormones from adrenal glands and testis such as total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione (A) decreased after thesestrenuous endurance trainings, whereas ACTH, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfetes (DHEAS) increased. Conadotropins (LH and FSH) were not idluenced by the physical exercises. Based upon the present results, we assume that the decrease in adrenal and testicular androgens by physical endurance exercises might be associated with the reproductive abnormalities in athletes by unknown factor(s) in addition to the HPG axis disturbance.

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Au-Ag-Te Mineralization by Boiling and Dilution of Meteoric Ground-water in the Tongyeong Epithermal sold System, Korea: Implications from Reaction Path Modeling (광화유체의 비등과 희석에 의한 통영 천열수계 Au-Ag-Te 장화작용에 대한 반응경로 모델링)

  • Maeng-Eon Park;Kyu-Youl Sung
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.507-522
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    • 2001
  • At the Tongyeong mine, quartz, rhodochrosite (kutnahorite), muscovite, illite, pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite. sphalerite, acanthite, and hessite are the principal vein minerals. They were deposited under epithermal conditions in two stages. Ore mineral assemblages and associated gangue phases in stage can be clearly divided into two general associations: an early cycle (band) that appeared with introduction of most of the sulfides and electrum, and a later cycle in which base metal and carbonate-bearing assemblages (mostly rhodochrosite) became dominant. Tellurides and some electrum occur as small rounded grains within subhedral-to euhedral pyrite or anhedral galena in stageII. Sulfide mineralization is zoned from pyrite to galena and sphalerite. We have used computer modeling to simulate formation of four stages of vein genesis. The reaction of a single fluid with andesite host rock at 28$0^{\circ}C$, isobaric cooling of a single fluid from 26$0^{\circ}C$ to 12$0^{\circ}C$, and boiling and mixing of a fluid with both decreasing pressure and temperature were studied using the CHILLER program. Calculations show that the precipitation of alteration minerals is due to fluid-andesite interaction as temperature drops. Speciation calculations confirm that the hydrothermal fluids with moderately high salinities and pH 5.7 (acid), were capable of transporting significant quantities of base metals. The abundance of gold in fluid depends critically on the ratio of total base metals and iron to sulfide in the aqueous phase because gold is transported as an Au(HS)$_2$- complex, which is sensitive to sulfide activity. Modeling results for Tongyeong mineralization show strong influence of shallow hydrogenic processes such as boiling and fluid mixing. The variable handing in stageII mineralization is best explained by maltiple boilings of hydrothermal fluid followed by lateral mixing of the fluid with overlying diluted, steam-heated ground water. The degree of similarity of calculated mineral assemblages and observed electrum composition and field relationships shows the utility of the numerical simulation method in identifying chemical processes that accompany boiling and mixing in Te-bearing Au-Ag system. This has been applied in models to narrow the search area for epithermal ores.

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Air Sampling and Isotope Analyses of Water Vapor and CO2 using Multi-Level Profile System (다중연직농도시스템(Multi-Level Profile System)을 이용한 수증기와 이산화탄소 시료채취 및 안정동위원소 조성 분석)

  • Lee, Dong-Ho;Kim, Su-Jin;Cheon, Jung-Hwa;Kim, Joon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.277-288
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    • 2010
  • The multi-level $H_2O/CO_2$ profile system has been widely used to quantify the storage and advection effects on energy and mass fluxes measured by eddy covariance systems. In this study, we expanded the utility of the profile system by accommodating air sampling devices for isotope analyses of water vapor and $CO_2$. A pre-evacuated 2L glass flask was connected to the discharge of an Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) of the profile system so that airs with known concentration of $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ can be sampled. To test the performance of this sampling system, we sampled airs from 8 levels (from 0.1 to 40 m) at the KoFlux tower of Gwangneung deciduous forest, Korea. Air samples in the 2L flask were separated into its component gases and pure $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ were extracted by using a vacuum extraction line. This novel technique successfully produced vertical profiles of ${\delta}D$ of $H_2O$ and ${\delta}^{13}C$ of $CO_2$ in a mature forest, and estimated ${\delta}D$ of evapotranspiration (${\delta}D_{ET}$) and ${\delta}^{13}C$ of $CO_2$ from ecosystem respiration (${\delta}^{13}C_{resp}$) by using Keeling plots. While technical improvement is still required in various aspects, our sampling system has two major advantages over other proposed techniques. First, it is cost effective since our system uses the existing structure of the profile system. Second, both $CO_2$ and $H_2O$ can be sampled simultaneously so that net ecosystem exchange of $H_2O$ and $CO_2$ can be partitioned at the same temporal resolution, which will improve our understanding of the coupling between water and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

Complex Terrain and Ecological Heterogeneity (TERRECO): Evaluating Ecosystem Services in Production Versus water Quantity/quality in Mountainous Landscapes (산지복잡지형과 생태적 비균질성: 산지경관의 생산성과 수자원/수질에 관한 생태계 서비스 평가)

  • Kang, Sin-Kyu;Tenhunen, John
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 2010
  • Complex terrain refers to irregular surface properties of the earth that influence gradients in climate, lateral transfer of materials, landscape distribution in soils properties, habitat selection of organisms, and via human preferences, the patterning in development of land use. Complex terrain of mountainous areas represents ca. 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface; and such regions provide fresh water to at least half of humankind. Most major river systems originate in such terrain, and their resources are often associated with socio-economic competition and political disputes. The goals of the TERRECO-IRTG focus on building a bridge between ecosystem understanding in complex terrain and spatial assessments of ecosystem performance with respect to derived ecosystem services. More specifically, a coordinated assessment framework will be developed from landscape to regional scale applications to quantify trade-offs and will be applied to determine how shifts in climate and land use in complex terrain influence naturally derived ecosystem services. Within the scope of TERRECO, the abiotic and biotic studies of water yield and quality, production and biodiversity, soil processing of materials and trace gas emissions in complex terrain are merged. There is a need to quantitatively understand 1) the ecosystem services derived in regions of complex terrain, 2) the process regulation occurred to maintain those services, and 3) the sensitivities defining thresholds critical in stability of these systems. The TERRECO-IRTG is dedicated to joint study of ecosystems in complex terrain from landscape to regional scales. Our objectives are to reveal the spatial patterns in driving variables of essential ecosystem processes involved in ecosystem services of complex terrain region and hence, to evaluate the resulting ecosystem services, and further to provide new tools for understanding and managing such areas.

Wet Deposition of Heavy Metals during Farming Season in Taean, Korea (태안지역 강우의 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Won-Il;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Ko, Byong-Gu;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Kwon, Soon-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: This experiment was conducted to investigate the distribution and burden characteristics of heavy metal in the rainwater sampled at Taean area, in the middle part of Korea, from April 2002 to October 2003. METHODS AND RESULTS: The relationship between concentration of heavy metal and other chemical properties in the rainwaters was also evaluated. Chemical properties in the rainwater were various differences with raining periods and years. It appeared that a weighted average pH values of rainwater was ranged from 5.0 to 5.1. Heavy metal concentrations in the rainwater were ranked as Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > As > Cr > Cd. As compared with heavy metal concentrations of rainwater in 2002, Cu, Pb, and Zn were higher than other elements in 2003. There were positive correlation between major ionic components, such as ${NH_4}^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $K^+$, $Na^+$, ${SO_4}^{2-}$ and ${NO_3}^-$, and As, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Ni concentrations in rainwater. For heavy metal distribution of rainwater, the order of average enrichment factor was Cd > Pb > As > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cr, and these were relatively higher than the natural components such as Fe, Mg and Ca. The monthly enrichment factor were relatively high, from August to October at Taean. The monthly amount of heavy metal precipitation was high in the rainy season from July to August because of great influence of rainfall. CONCLUSION(s): The results of this study suggest that the heavy metals(Cd, Pb, As, Cu, and Zn) of rainwater is strongly influenced by anthropogenic sources rather than natural sources.

An Analysis of Problem Posing in the 5th and 6th Grade Mathematics Textbooks and Errors in Problem Posing of 6th Graders (5, 6학년 수학교재의 문제만들기 내용 및 6학년 학생들의 문제만들기에서의 오류 분석)

  • Kim, Gyeong Tak;Ryu, Sung Rim
    • Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.321-350
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study to analysis of problem posing in 5th and 6th grade mathematics textbooks and to comprehend errors in the problem posing activity of 6th graders in elementary school. For solving the research problems, problem posing contents were extracted from mathematics textbooks and practice books for the 5th and 6th grade of elementary school in the 2007 revised national curriculum, and they were analyzed, according to each grade, domain and type. Based on the analysis results, 10 problem posing questions which were extracted and developed, were modified and supplemented through a pre-examination, and a questionnaire that problem posing questions are evenly distributed, according to each grade, domain and type, was produced. This examination was conducted with 129 6th graders, and types of error in problem posing were analyzed using collected data. The implications from the research results are as follows. First, it was found that there was a big numerical difference of problem posing questions in the 5th and 6th grade, and problem posing questions weren't properly suggested in even some domains and types, because the serious concentration in each grade, type and domain. Therefore, textbooks to be developed in the future would need to suggest more various and systematic of problem posing teaching learning activity for each domain and type. Second, the 'error resulting from the lack of information' occurred the most in the problems that 6th graders posed, followed by the 'error in the understanding of problems', 'technical errors', 'logical errors' and 'others'. This implies that a majority of students missed conditions necessary for problem solving, because they have been used to finding answers to given questions only. For such reason, there should be an environment in which students can pose problems by themselves, breaking from the way of learning to only solve given problems.

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Development and Application of Instructional Module for the Conceptual Change of the Earth and Moon's Movement in the Elementary Science Class (초등 과학수업에서 지구와 달의 운동 개념변화를 위한 수업모듈의 개발 및 적용)

  • Son, Junho;Kim, Jonghee
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.58-71
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to categorize preconceived notions by elementary science gifted students about the reason why only one side of the moon is visible and develop an instructional module to correct these notions scientifically. The effectiveness of these modules will then be tested. The participants of this study were 15 (5th and 6th grade students) from Gwangju Metropolitan City and Chonnam Province who passed a gifted student assessment test developed by J university. The student's notions about the reason only one side of the moon is visible were assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and reenactments. Instructional modules to minimize these notions were developed and then improved upon by class reenactments. And then these modules were used to teach a real class with cameras recording the students. Protocols were analyzed using this footage, and emphasis was placed on how the developed class module changed student's misconceptions. The instructional module developed in this study was: student conception assessment writing materials exploration activity stage 1 (moon's orbit) exploration activity stage 2 (moon's rotation) - exploration activity stage 3 (moon's orbit and rotation) - exploration activity stage 4 (verbalizing the moon's orbit and rotation) - exploration activity stage 5 (thinking about moon movement considering earth's rotation - exploration activity stage 6 (relating the earth and moon's movement) and verifying student conception change. An important conclusion of this study was that all 15 students had misconceptions that could be divided into categories A, B, and C. Category A could be separated with more specifics into A-1 and A-2, and C into C-1 and C-2. After the instructional module was utilized, the student categories show positive change in the following stages: Category A at exploration activity stage 1 and 2, Category B at exploration activity stage 3, Category C-1 at exploration activity stage 4 and 5, and Category C-2 at exploration activity stage 6. Category C-1 students immediately changed to Category C-2 after going through a few stages, and their misconceptions were finally corrected after going through exploration activity stage 6. The misconceptions of students in all categories were corrected scientifically after completing stage 6 education. This study proposes that a combined education of reenactments, exploration materials development, and exploration activities by stages will effectively correct misconceptions about the Earth and moon's movement.

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Production of In-Vitro Fertilized Embryos and Result of Transfer with Fresh or Frozen Embryos for Hanwoo and Holstein Cattle (한우 및 젖소에서 체외 수정란 생산과 신선 및 동결 수정란 이식 결과)

  • Kim Y. J.;Kim H. C.;Seo S. H.;Jeong K. N.;Kim Y. S.;Lee H. R.;Shin D. S.;Jo S. W.;Kim S. H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2005
  • The ovaries from Hanwoo and Holstein were collected from labattoir and transferred to laboratory. Oocytes were aspirated and incubated in $CO_2$ incubator for 24 hours for maturation. Oocytes were coincubated with the sperms for 5 hours. Cleaved oocytes were selected 48 hours after coincubation and half of the medium was changed newly every 48 hour until blastocyst formation. Cleavage rate and blastocyst rate were investigated according to different breeds and different status of cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes. Blastocysts were either transferred to the recipients or frozen until use. The result of embryo transfer with fresh or frozen embryos was investigated. The rate of male offspring following embryo transfer was also investigated. The rate of cleavage was $66.4\%$ for Hanwoo and $62.4\%$ for Holstein oocytes. The rate of cleavage according to status of oocyte was shown highest in the oocytes completely surrounded with cumulus cells and lowest in denuded oocytes for both Hanwoo and Holstein oocytes. The rate of blastocyst from cleaved oocytes was $40.6\%$ for Hanwoo and $36.9\%$ for Holstein. The rate of pregnancy/delivery following embryo transfer with fresh IVF embryos was $57.2\%$ for Hanwoo and $53.3\%$ for Holstein. The rate of pregnancy/delivery following embryo transfer with frozen IVF embryos was $40.9\%$ for Hanwoo and $36.4\%$ for Holstein. The rate of male calf produced by embryo transfer was $63.6\%$ for Hanwoo and $50.0\%$ for Holstein.