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Coat Color Patterns and Genotypes of Extension and Agouti in Hanwoo and Jeju Black Cattle (제주흑우와 한우에서 Extension, Agouti 유전자형과 모색 출현 양상)

  • Han, Sang-Hyun;Cho, In-Cheol;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Ko, Moon-Suck;Kim, Young-Hoon;Kim, Eun-Young;Park, Se-Pill;Lee, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.494-501
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    • 2011
  • To understand the relationship between coat color inheritance patterns and genotypes of Extension (E) and Agouti (A) loci in cattle, the genotypes for melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and agouti signaling protein (ASIP) were analyzed in Hanwoo, Jeju black cattle (JBC), and their crossbred progeny. Three MC1R alleles ($E^D$, $E^+$, and e) were found in the black-colored JBC population. JBC had no recessive homozygotes (e/e), but this genotype was predominant in the Hanwoo breed. However, MC1R $E^+$/e Hanwoo did not produce a black coat color as they appeared either as brown or solid red. For ASIP, three genotypes (A/A, A/$A^{Br}$, and $A^{Br}/A^{Br}$) were determined by insertion/deletion of an L1-BT element in Hanwoo. The ASIP $A^{Br}$ allele was rarely observed, and no ASIP $A^{Br}/A^{Br}$ homozygotes were detected in the JBC population. Cattle carrying ASIP $A^{Br}$ did not show any agouti-like brindle pigmentation patterns in either breed or their progeny. The coat colors of the crossbred progeny were discriminated by two colors, yellowish-brown versus dark-brown or black, and their coat colors were directly related to the genotypes of the Extension locus, yellowish-brown (e/e) and dark-brown or black ($E^+$/e), but not to the Agouti locus. ASIP genotypes probably did not affect coat color development in the Hanwoo or crossbred progeny. Our results suggest that the ASIP genotypes do not play key roles in coat color variation, but the MC1R genotypes do direct the phenotypes of Hanwoo, JBC, and their progeny.

A Study on the Gene Expression in Shikonin-Induced Inhibition of Adipogenesis (Shikonin에 의한 지방세포형성 억제과정에서의 유전자 발현 연구)

  • Lee, Hae-Yong;Kang, Ryun-Hwa;Chung, Sang-In;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Oh, Dong-Jin;Yoon, Yoo-Sik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1637-1643
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    • 2009
  • Shikonin, a component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc, exerts various characteristics such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-obesity functions. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of shikonin-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, we analyzed the mRNA expression level of various adipogenesis-related factors including C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancerbinding proteins) and $PPAR{\gamma}$ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\gamma$). The data showed that mRNA expressions of C/$EBP{\beta}$ and C/$EPB{\delta}$ were only slightly changed by shikonin treatment, but mRNA expressions of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/$EPB{\alpha}$ were significantly down-regulated. Then, we tested whether upstream regulators of C/$EBP{\beta}$ and $PPAR{\gamma}$ were involved in anti-adipogenesis of shikonin. C/$EBP{\gamma}$ and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), which are upstream regulators of C/$EBP{\beta}$, were not affected by shikonin treatment. On the contrary, the mRNA level of KROX20 was markedly down-regulated by shikonin treatment. These results suggest that KROX20 might regulate downstream factors of adipogenesis through C/$EBP{\beta}$-independent pathway. The expression of KLF15 (Kruppel-like factor15), which is a member of KLF family and is a upstream regulator of $PPAR{\gamma}$, was dramatically decreased by shikonin treatment, but KLF2 was not changed. Shikonin had no impact on the expression of KLF5 in the early stage of adipogenesis, but shikonin increased expression of KLF5 in the late stage of adipogenesis. Even though mRNA expression of KLF5 was moderately changed by shikonin treatment, its effect may be small compared with the effect of KLF15, which was markedly inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that shikonin inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/$EPB{\alpha}$, which is mediated by the down-regulation of two pro-adipogenic factors, KROX20 and KLF15.

High Yield Bacterial Expression and Purification of Active Cytochrome P450 p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase (C3H), the Arabidopsis Membrane Protein (대장균 시스템을 이용한 Arabidopsis 막 단백질 cytochrome P450 p-coumarate-3hydroxylase (C3H) 활성형의 과발현 및 분리정제)

  • Yang, Hee-Jung;Kim, Wan-Yeon;Yun, Young-Ju;Yoon, Ji-Won;Kwon, Tae-Woo;Youn, Hye-Sook;Youn, Bu-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1039-1046
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    • 2009
  • The cytochrome P450s (P450s) metabolizing natural products are among the most versatile biological catalysts known in plants, but knowledge of the structural basis for their broad substrate specificity has been limited. The activity of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) is thought to be essential for the biosynthesis of lignin and many other phenylpropanoid pathway products in plants however, all attempts to express and purify the protein corresponding C3H gene have failed. As a result, no conditions suitable for the unambiguous assay of the enzyme are known. The detailed understanding of the mechanism and substrate-specificity of C3Hdemands a method for the production of active protein on the milligram scale. We have developed a bacterial expression and purification system for the plant C3H, which allows for the quick expression and purification of active wild-type C3H via introduction of combinational mutagenesis. The modified cytochrome P450 C3H ($C3H_{mod}$) could be purified in the absence of detergent using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography following extraction from isolated membranes in a high salt buffer and catalytically activated. This method makes the use of isotopic labeling of C3H for NMRstudies and X-ray crystallography practical, and is also applicable to other plant cytochrome P450 proteins.

Effects of the Upright Body Type Excercise on Lung Capacity and Depression of People with Mental Illness (바른체형운동 지도가 정신장애인의 우울감 및 폐활량에 미치는 효과)

  • Woo, Kyung-Hee;Yang, Jeong-Ok;Lee, Joong-Sook;Lee, Bom-Jin;Kim, Eui-Suk;Jung, Sook-Hee;Kwak, Yi-Sub
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1169-1181
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the regular Upright Body Type Excercise on posture, muscle strength of leg, lung capacity and depression of people with mental illness. The subjects of this study were recruited from B mental health center (5 years and more mental illness patients, n=19) located in P city. For the exercise group, They were carried out the Upright Body Type Excercise Program during 8 weeks (60 min/time, 3 times/week). They were randomly divided into two groups. Exercise group (n=10) and Control group (n=9). And also, they were agreed with consent forms before the experiments. Research results were as follows. Through the upper body type exercise, there was significantly difference in PEF and FEV1/FVC in the trained group. And also, there was much improved in depression level in the trained group. The change of melancholy feeling before and after the program was not statistically significant. However, because of limitations of sampling size due to the peculiarities of the program participants, in consideration of the limit of statistical validation exists clearly, intended to better understand the subjective experience of attendees, qualitative analyzing(qualitative research) was carried out in parallel. It was conducted a deep interview only person accepted among program participants, thematic analysis, subject analysis tasks to be subdivided by classifying by considering the semantic units of what participants expressed, was thus carried out. It found that the degree of melancholy feeling of mental disorders who participated in the Upright Body Typed Exercise Program was reduced. The course of the experience of change in depression appered the three subjects and six sub-themes such as "the start of the change", "interest of the program", "recognition of the need of the body’s health", "physical health promotion", "recovery of physical function", "negative change of habits (attitude)", "reduction of sense of depression", "confidence that it is possible to", "hope for the future". Therefore, upper body type exercise is much helpful in lung capacity and mental health of people with mental illness. So, this type of exercise mostly needed in the people with mental illness group than the other group for the quality of life.

Efficacy of a Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for the Locally Advanced Unresectable Rectal Cancer (국소진행성 직장암에서 수술 전 방사선 및 항암화학 동시요법의 효과)

  • Cho Jae Ho;Seong Jinsil;Keum Ki Chang;Kim Gwi Eon;Suh Chang Ok;Roh Jae Kyung;Chung Hyun Cheol;Min Jin Sik;Kim Nam Kyu
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2000
  • Purpose :We conducted a prospective non-randomized clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and toxic of the preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1995 and June 1998, 37 conecutive patients with locally unresectable advanced rectal cancer were entered into the study. With 3- or 4- fields technique, a total of 45 Gy radiation was delivered on whole pelvis, followed by 5.4 Gy boost to the primary tumor in some cases. Chemotherapy was done at the first and fifth week of radiation with bolus i.v. 5-Fluorouracil (FU) 370$\~$450 mg/m$^{2}$, days 1$\~$5, plus Leucovorin 20 mg/m$^{2}$, days 1$\~$5. OF 37 patients, 6 patients did not receive all planned treatment course (refusal in 4, disease progression in 1, metastasis to lung in 1). Surgical resection was undergone 4$\~$6 weeks after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Results :Complete resection rate with negative margins was 94$\%$ (29/31). Complete response was seen in 7 patients (23$\%$) clinically and 2 patients (6$\%$) pathologically. Down staging of tumor occured in 21 patients (68$\%$). Treatment related toxicity was minimal except grade III & IV leukopenia in 2 patients, respectively. Conclusion : Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer was effective in inducing down staging and complete resection rate. Treatment related toxicity was minimal. Further follow up is on-going to determine long term survival following this treatment.

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A Survey on the Perceptions of Consumer Organizations to Promote Risk Communication for Food Additives (식품첨가물의 리스크 커뮤니케이션 촉진을 위한 소비자단체의 인식조사)

  • So, Yun-Ji;Kim, Suna;Lee, Jee-Hyeon;Park, Eun-Young;Kim, Hee-Jung;Kim, Ji-Sun;Kim, Jeong-Weon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2013
  • Consumer organizations usually lead the opinions of the consumers. This study was performed to investigate the perceptions and information needs of consumer organizations on food additives for the promotion of risk communication. A survey was conducted for 4 weeks in March 2012 by using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 32 questions. Total 111 responses were collected for analysis. 'Safety (91.0%)' was the most important factor influencing the purchase of processed food, and both 'food additives (24.3%)' and 'environmental pollution (23.4%)' were considered as main risk factors. The longer the career of the members had, the higher negative perceptions on food additives (p<0.01). About 70% of the respondents who had known KFDA's researches on evaluating safety of food additives answered that researches were not enough to make sure the safety. Although lectures and other domestic organization were the main channels for getting information, 'TV' was considered as the most suitable way for it. 'Poor risk communication (32.4%)' was pointed out as the serious problem of government's food safety policy. Based on these results, consumer organizations' low level of trust on government should be overcome by continuous supply of information what they need to facilitate risk communication on food additives.

Projecting future hydrological and ecological droughts with the climate and land use scenarios over the Korean peninsula (기후 및 토지이용 변화 시나리오 기반 한반도 미래 수문학적 및 생태학적 가뭄 전망)

  • Lee, Jaehyeong;Kim, Yeonjoo;Chae, Yeora
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.427-436
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    • 2020
  • It is uncertain how global climate change will influence future drought characteristics over the Korean peninsula. This study aims to project the future droughts using climate change and land use change scenarios over the Korean peninsula with the land surface modeling system, i.e., Weather Research and Forecasting Model Hydrological modeling system (WRF-Hydro). The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6 and 8.5 are used as future climate scenarios and the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), specifically SSP2, is adopted for the land use scenario. The using Threshold Level Method (TLM), we identify future hydrological and ecological drought events with runoff and Net Primary Productivity (NPP), respectively, and assess drought characteristics of durations and intensities in different scenarios. Results show that the duration of drought is longer over RCP2.6-SSP2 for near future (2031-2050) and RCP8.5-SSP2 (2080-2099) for the far future for hydrological drought. On the other hand, RCP2.6-SSP2 for the far future and RCP8.5-SSP2 for the near future show longer duration for ecological drought. In addition, the drought intensities in both hydrological and ecological drought show different characteristics with the drought duration. The intensity of the hydrological droughts was greatly affected by threshold level methods and RCP2.6-SSP2 for far future shows the severest intensity. However, for ecological drought, the difference of the intensity among the threshold level is not significant and RCP2.6-SSP2 for near future and RCP2.6-SSP2 for near future show the severest intensity. This study suggests a possible future drought characteristics is in the Korea peninsula using combined climate and land use changes, which will help the community to understand and manage the future drought risks.

A Study on the Importance and Needs of Clinical Practice in Ophthalmic Optics for Students and Optical Shop Owner (안경광학과 임상실습에 대한 학생과 산업체의 중요도와 필요도에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Jin-Ah;Jung, Sae-Hoon;Lee, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.353-363
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: To establish basic data for effective clinical practice program by investigating the clinical practice importance and needs for ophthalmic optics students and optical shop owners. Methods: 263 students and 100 optical shop owners who had experience in clinical practice were surveyed in importance and needs of clinical practice and analyzed the results. Results: In general importance for clinical practice, realized the optician's job aptitude $4.29{\pm}0.72$ was highest among students and understanding the work of optician $4.48{\pm}0.52$ was highest among shop owners. Importance of specific duty for clinical practice, communication strategy & customer service was highest in both students $4.46{\pm}0.70$ and shop owners $4.18{\pm}0.86$ each. Importance of time & optical shop for clinical practice, supportive guide and education by opticians & shop owner was highest in both students $4.53{\pm}0.66$ and shop owners $4.35{\pm}0.59$ each. Importance of school support for clinical practice, administrative support for optical shop and students was highest among students $4.10{\pm}0.78$ and orientation from the school before clinical practice $3.98{\pm}0.68$ was highest among shop owners. In general needs for clinical practice, expanding the clinical practice field $4.43{\pm}0.73$ was highest among students and needs of clinical practice in the curriculum $4.39{\pm}0.65$ was highest among shop owners. Needs of specific duty for clinical practice, spectacle fitting $4.40{\pm}0.71$ was highest among students and ophthalmic dispensing $4.12{\pm}0.83$ was highest among shop owners. Conclusions: For effective clinical practice, clinical practice program should be develop which is reflecting the importance and needs of students and optical shop and also cooperation and interest of school and optical shop are required.

A Survey on the Understanding of Breast-feeding in Pregnant Woman (임신시 모유수유에 대한 인식조사)

  • Seo, Jeong Wan;Kim, Yong Joo;Lee, Kee Hyoung;Kim, Jae Young;Sim, Jay G;Kim, Hae Soon;Ko, Jae Sung;Bae, Sun Hwan;Park, Hye Sook;Park, Beom Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.575-587
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    • 2002
  • Objective : To investigate the understanding of breast-feeding in pregnant woman and the proper way of encouraging breast-feeding. Methods : Each questionnaire included items about demographic characteristics and the understanding of breast-feeding. The questionnaires were filled up by pregnant women visiting obstetric clinics in Seoul and its vicinities, Busan, Choongjoo and Chungjoo from July 2001 to August 2001. One thousand, two hundred ninety questionnaires were analysed by Chi square tests and multiple logistic regressions. Results : The majority of pregnant women(87.4%) planned breast-feeding. Forty three percent of them had plans to breast-feed for 4-6 months. There were no differences in the level of education, the family size and the source of information about breast-feeding in planning to breast-feed (P>0.05). The main reasons for not choosing to breast-feed were returns to work(41.3%), previous failures of breast-feeding(17.4%), concerns about insufficient amount of breast milk(10.9%), breast and nipple problems(10.3%) and maternal illness(9.4%). The average score on the test of the understanding about breast-feeding was 59.7/100. The average scores on the understanding about the methods and advantages of breast-feeding were 45.3/100 and 86.1/100, respectively. The maternal status of employment, previous history of breast-feeding, the time of decision to breastfeed, person advocating breast-feeding and the understanding on the advantages of breast-feeding were significant determinant factors in planning to breast-feed(P<0.05). Conclusion : Pediatricians should take steps to make an effort to increase the breast-feeding rate and to encourage breast-feeding by timely education. Beyond the medical field, political and social supports for breast-feeding are urgently needed.

Mutational Analysis of MECP2 Gene in 34 Rett Syndrome (Rett 증후군 34례의 MECP2 유전자 변이에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sang Jo;Hwang, Tae Gyu;Son, Byeong Hee;Kim, Chul Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1263-1272
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Rett syndrome(RTT) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 per 10,000-15,000 female births worldwide. It was initially described by Andreas Rett in 1966. RTT involves developmental regression characterized stereotypic hand movements, tremors, gait apraxia, seizures, deceleration of head growth after the age of 6-18 months. The disease-causing gene was identified as MECP2 on chromosome Xq28. We carried out mutational analysis of MECP2 genes in RTT patients. Methods : Whole blood(5 cc) of 34 sporadic RTT patients was collected in EDTA-anticoagulated tubes. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using the E.Z.N.A. blood DNA kit. Four exons of the MECP2 gene were amplified by PCR in 34 Korean with RTT. We carried out PCR divided the exon three into two parts and the exon four into five parts. Primer sequences designed by Amir et al. in 1999 were almost used(AF030876). Sequencing primers used were the same as PCR. DNA sequencing reactions were performed using an ABI 377 DNA sequencer and ABI PRISM dye terminator cycle sequencing reaction kit(Perkin-elmer). The results were compared with the normal DNA sequence(X99686). To confirm the change of sequence on novel mutations, RFLP analysis was performed. Results : The MECP2 mutations were detected in 23(67.6%) of the 34 patients. The mutations consisted of 12 different types including nine missense and three nonsense mutations. Of these, three (L100V, G161E and T311M) mutations were newly identified. Most of the mutations discovered are located within MBD(39.1%) and TRD(39.1%). In this study, three(T158M, R270X, R306C) mutations were identified high frequency. Conclusion : MECP2 gene was also an important cause of Korean RTT patients. MECP2 gene study is an important tool for diagnosis of Korean RTT patients.