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A study on the Degradation and By-products Formation of NDMA by the Photolysis with UV: Setup of Reaction Models and Assessment of Decomposition Characteristics by the Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behnken Technique (UV 공정을 이용한 N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 광분해 및 부산물 생성에 관한 연구: 박스-벤켄법 실험계획법을 이용한 통계학적 분해특성평가 및 반응모델 수립)

  • Chang, Soon-Woong;Lee, Si-Jin;Cho, Il-Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2010
  • We investigated and estimated at the characteristics of decomposition and by-products of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a design of experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behken design in an UV process, and also the main factors (variables) with UV intensity($X_2$) (range: $1.5{\sim}4.5\;mW/cm^2$), NDMA concentration ($X_2$) (range: 100~300 uM) and pH ($X_2$) (rang: 3~9) which consisted of 3 levels in each factor and 4 responses ($Y_1$ (% of NDMA removal), $Y_2$ (dimethylamine (DMA) reformation (uM)), $Y_3$ (dimethylformamide (DMF) reformation (uM), $Y_4$ ($NO_2$-N reformation (uM)) were set up to estimate the prediction model and the optimization conditions. The results of prediction model and optimization point using the canonical analysis in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions were $Y_1$ [% of NDMA removal] = $117+21X_1-0.3X_2-17.2X_3+{2.43X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2+{3.2X_3}^2-0.08X_1X_2-1.6X_1X_3-0.05X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 96%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 88%) and 99.3% ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;190\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.2$), $Y_2$ [DMA conc] = $-101+18.5X_1+0.4X_2+21X_3-{3.3X_1}^2-{0.01X_2}^2-{1.5X_3}^2-0.01X_1X_2+0.07X_1X_3-0.01X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 99.4%, 수정 $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 35.2 uM ($X_1$: 3 $mW/cm^2$, $X_2$: 220 uM, $X_3$: 6.3), $Y_3$ [DMF conc] = $-6.2+0.2X_1+0.02X_2+2X_3-0.26X_1^2-0.01X_2^2-0.2X_3^2-0.004X_1X_2+0.1X_1X_3-0.02X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 94.4%) and 3.7 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;$mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;290\;uM$, $X_3:\;6.2$) and $Y_4$ [$NO_2$-N conc] = $-25+12.2X_1+0.15X_2+7.8X_3+{1.1X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2-{0.34X_3}^2+0.01X_1X_2+0.08X_1X_3-3.4X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98.5%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 74.5 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;220\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.1$). This study has demonstrated that the response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken statistical experiment design can provide statistically reliable results for decomposition and by-products of NDMA by the UV photolysis and also for determination of optimum conditions. Predictions obtained from the response functions were in good agreement with the experimental results indicating the reliability of the methodology used.