• Title/Summary/Keyword: 인 제거

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Recovery of N and P Resources from Animal Wastewater by Struvite Crystallization (Struvite 결정화에 의한 축산폐수로 부터 질소.인 자원의 재생)

  • Jo, W.S.;Yoon, S.J.;Ra, C.S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.875-884
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    • 2003
  • Operational parameters for struvite crystallization, as a process to recover nitrogen and phosphorus resources from animal wastewater, were studied in this research. Crystallization distinctive of NH$_4$-N and PO$_4$$^{3-}$ in accordance to chemical sources, influent pH, aeration and stirring was examined using 2L of working volume of struvite reactor. Also, to find an effective treatment process combining with electrolysis method, removal characteristics of NH$_4$-N and PO$_4$$^{3-}$ in 6 different processes was tested. As chemical sources for the derivation of struvite formation, MgSO$_4$ and MgCl$_2$ were superior to CaCO$_3$ and CaCl$_2$. From experiment which was conducted to know the effects of aeration and stirring on struvite formation, it was revealed that aeration stimulated the crystallization reaction by inducing faster pH increase. While 90% of P removal was achieved within 1 hour under aeration, 14 hours was consumed under stirring condition. Struvite formation under aeration was affected by influent pH. No crystallization was observed at pH 5 level, but active crystallization reaction was induced over pH 6.0. 95% of P removal by struvite formation at pH 6, 7 and 9 was achieved within 3h, 2h and 10 min., respectively. However, over pH 10, operational problem due to excessive foam formation occurred, and blunting of crystallization reaction was observed at pH 11. When consider the pH range of animal wastewater, pH 7 to 9, efficient struvite formation could be achieved by simple aeration, without any chemical usage for pH adjustment. Among tested processes, the treatment process which electrolyzing the supernatant from struvite reactor, providing air to both reactors, showed best pollutant removal efficiencies. In this combined process, the removal efficiencies of NH$_4$-N and PO$_4$$^{3-}$ was 86% and 98%, respectively, and 92.4% of color removal was obtained.

Change of Nutrients and Behaviour of Total Coliforms in the Natural Treatment of Wastewater by Subsurface Flow Wetland System (인공습지를 이용한 자연정화 오수처리시설에서 영양물질의 변화와 대장균군의 행동)

  • Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Kwun, Soon-Kuk;Kim, Hyung-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 1997
  • The constructed wetland system which is applicable to rural wastewater treatment was examined by pilot plant experiment. Removal rates of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus and total coliform were evaluated. The $NH_4\;^+$ concentration of the influent was in the range of 91.57 to 275.88mg/l and the effluent concentration was about 40% lower than the influent. The decreasing of the $NH_4\;^+$ concentration might be due to volatilization, plant uptake, adsorption onto soil particles, and mainly nitrification. However, generally concentrations of $NO_2\;^-$ and $NO_3\;^-$ were increased in the effluents compared to the influent concentrations, which implies that nitrogen components in the system were nitrified. Overall, the average removal rate of the nitrogen was about 5% which seems inadequate as a wastewater treatment system, and this system needs improvement on nitrogen removal mechamism. The removal rate of the phosphorus was quite high and effluent concentration was very low. Reason for high removal rate of the phosphorus might be mainly strong adsorption characteristic onto soil particles. The average removal rate of the total coliforms was about 83%, and main removal mechanisms are thought to be adsorption onto soil and inability to compete against the established soil microflora. From the results of the study, the constructed wetland system needs to be improved in nitrogen removal mechanism for field application.

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Study on Adsorption of PO43--P in Water using Activated Clay (활성 백토를 이용한 수중의 인산성 인(PO43--P) 흡착에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Ji Young;Jin, Ye Ji;Ryoo, Keon Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.65 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2021
  • In this study, activated clay treated with H2SO4 (20% by weight) and heat at 90 ℃ for 8 h for acid white soil was used as an adsorbent for the removal of PO43--P in water. Prior to the adsorption experiment, the characteristics of activated clay was examined by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) and BET surface area analyser. The adsorption of PO43--P on activated clay was steeply increased within 0.25 h and reached equilibrium at 4 h. At 5 mg/L of low PO43--P concentration, roughly 98% of adsorption efficiency was accomplished by activated clay. The adsorption data of PO43--P were introduced to the adsorption isotherm and kinetic models. It was seen that both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were applied well to describe the adsorption behavior of PO43--P on activated clay. For adsorption PO43--P on activated clay, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm coefficients, KF and Q, were found to be 8.3 and 20.0 mg/g, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetics model was more suitable for adsorption of PO43--P in water/activated clay system owing to the higher correlation coefficient R2 and the more proximity value of the experimental value qe,exp and the calculated value qe,cal than the pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The results of study indicate that activated clay could be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of PO43-P from water.

Charaterization of Biomass Production and Wastewater Treatability by High-Lipid Algal Species under Municial Wastewater Condition (실제 하수조건에서 고지질 함량 조류자원의 생체생성과 하수처리 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Jang-Ho;Park, Joon-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2010
  • Wastewater treatment using algal communities and biodiesel production from wastewater-cultivated algal biomass is a promising green growth technology. In literature, there are many studies providing information on algal species producing high content of lipid. However, very little is known about adaptability and wastewater treatability of such high-lipid algal species. In this study, we attempted to characterize algal biomass production and wastewater treatability of high-lipid algal species under municipal wastewater condition. For this, four known high-lipid algal strains including Chlorella vulgaris AG 10032, Ankistrodesmus gracilis SAG 278-2, Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Botryococcus braunii UTEX 572 were individually inoculated into municipal wastewater where its indigenuous algal populations were removed prior to the inoculation, and the algae-inoculated wastewater was incubated in the presence of light source (80${\mu}E$) for 9 days in laboratory batch reactors. During the incubations, algal biomass production (dry weight) and the removals of dissolved organics (COD), nitrogen and phosphorous were measured in laboratory batch reactors. According to algal growth results, C. vulgaris, A. gracilis and S. quadricauda exhibited faster growth than indigenuous wastewater algal populations while B. braunii did not. The wastewater-growing strains exhibited efficient removals of total-N, ${NH_4}^+$-N, Total-P and ${PO_4}^{3-}$-P which satisfy the Korea water quality standards for effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A. gracilis and S. quadricauda exhibited efficient and stable treatability of COD but C. vulgaris showed unstable treatability. Taken together with the results, A. gracilis and S. quadricauda were found to be suitable species for biomass production and wastewater treatment under municipal wastewater condition.

Influence of Organic Acids Residual Concentration by the Change of F/M Ratio on Sludge Settleability in Advanced Sewage Treatment Processes (하.폐수 고도처리시 F/M비 변화에 따른 유기산 잔류 농도가 슬러지 침강성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Young-Ki;Kim, Young-Il;Kim, Sl-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2006
  • The biological nutrient treatment is formed with repetition and rearrangement of anaerobic, anoxic and oxic tank. In this case, VFAs is generated in the anaerobic tank and the anoxic tank. The VFAs is an important factor for removal of nitrogen and phosphate and SVI. So, in this study I investigated to find a relationship among the generation rate of the VFAs according to the change of F/M ratio and the characteristic which can eliminate organic matter and nitrogen according to the change of residual concentration of the VFAs and the efficiency of the process and also SVI in wastewater treatment. $A^2/O$ process was used for wastewater treatment. F/M ratio was under the control of the change of MLSS concentration. When the F/M ratio was changed from 0.16 to 0.08 kg-BOD/kg-MLSS/day, the VFAs's production volume increased based on the reduction of F/M ratio in batch reaction. And the residual concentration of the VFAs decreased at first and then increased later. SVI and SS were high when F/M ratio was $0.16kg/kg{\cdot}d$ and showed stable status when F/M ratio decreased $0.11{\sim}0.13kg/kg{\cdot}d$. However, SVI and SS continuously increased with decrease of F/M ratio and were high at $0.08kg/kg{\cdot}d$. In the result of comparison between residual concentration of the VFAs and denitrification rate in anoxic tank, the less residual volume of the VFAs was in anoxic tank, the higher denitrification ratio became. The optimal residual-concentration of the VFAs considering SVI and removal efficiency of nitrogenwas $1.4{\sim}2.2mg/L$. At that time F/M ratio was $0.11{\sim}0.13$ kg-BOD/kg-MLSS/day.

Nutrient Recovery from Sludge Fermentation Effluent in Upflow Phosphate Crystallization Process (상향류 인 결정화공정을 이용한 슬러지 발효 유출수로 부터의 영양소 회수)

  • Ahn, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.866-871
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    • 2006
  • The nutrient recovery in phosphate crystallization process was investigated by using laboratory scale uptlow reactors, adopting sequencing batch type configuration. The industrial waste lime was used as potential cation source with magnesium salt($MgCl_2$) as control. The research was focused on its successful application in a novel integrated sludge treatment process, which is comprised of a high performance fermenter followed by a crystallization reactor. In the struvite precipitation test using synthetic wastewater first, which has the similar characteristics with the real fermentation effluent, the considerable nutrient removal(about 60%) in both ammonia and phosphate was observed within $0.5{\sim}1$ hr of retention time. The results also revealed that a minor amount(<5%) of ammonia stripping naturally occurred due to the alkaline(pH 9) characteristic in feed substrate. Stripping of $CO_2$ by air did not increase the struvite precipitation rate but it led to increased ammonia removal. In the second experiment using the fermentation effluent, the optimal dosage of magnesium salt for struvite precipitation was 0.86 g Mg $g^{-1}$ P, similar to the mass ratio of the struvite. The optimal dosage of waste lime was 0.3 g $L^{-1}$, resulting in 80% of $NH_4-N$ and 41% of $PO_4-P$ removal, at about 3 hrs of retention time. In the microscopic analysis, amorphous crystals were mainly observed in the settled solids with waste lime but prism-like crystals were observed with magnesium salt. Based on mass balance analysis for an integrated sludge treatment process(fermenter followed by crystallization reactor) for full-scale application(treatment capacity Q=158,880 $m^3\;d^{-1}$), nutrient recycle loading from the crystallization reactor effluent to the main liquid stream would be significantly reduced(0.13 g N and 0.19 g P per $m^3$ of wastewater, respectively). The results of the experiment reveal therefore that the reuse of waste lime, already an industrial waste, in a nutrient recovery system has various advantages such as higher economical benefits and sustainable treatment of the industrial waste.

Production of Alternative Coagulant Using Waste Activated Alumina and Evaluation of Coagulation Activity (폐촉매 부산물로부터 대체 응집제 제조 및 응집성능 평가)

  • Lee, Sangwon;Moon, Taesup;Kim, Hyosoo;Choi, Myungwon;Lee, Deasun;Park, Sangtae;Kim, Changwon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.7
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    • pp.514-520
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the production potential of alternative coagulant ($Al_2(SO_4)_3$ solution) having the identical coagulation activity with respect to the commercial coagulant was investigated. The raw material of alternative coagulant was a spent catalyst including aluminium (waste activated alumina) generated in the manufacturing process of the polymer. The alternative coagulant was produced through a series of processes: 1) intense heat and grinding, 2) chemical polymerization and substitution with $H_2SO_4$ solution, 3) dissolution and dilution and 4) settling and separation. To determine the optimal operating conditions in the lab-scale autoclave and dissolver, the content of $Al_2O_3$ in alternative coagulant was analyzed according to changes of the purity of sulfuric acid, reaction temperature, injection ratio of sulfuric acid and water in the dissolver. The results showed that the alternative coagulant having the $Al_2O_3$ content of 7~8% was produced under the optimal conditions such as $H_2SO_4$ purity of 50%, reaction temperature of $120^{\circ}C$, injection ratio of $H_2SO_4$ of 5 times and injection ratio of water of 2.3 times in dissolver. In order to evaluate the coagulation activity of the alternative coagulant, the Jar-test was conducted to the effluent in aerobic reactor. As a result, in both cases of Al/P mole of 1.5 and 2.0, the coagulation activity of the alternative coagulant was higher than that of the existing commercial coagulant. When the production costs were compared between the alternative and commercial coagulant through economic analysis, the production cost reduction of about 50% was available in the case of the alternative coagulant. In addition, it was identified that the alternative coagulant could be applied at field wastewater treatment plant without environmental problem through ecological toxicity testing.

Nutrient Removal Potential of water Hyacinth Cultured in Nutrient-enriched Water and Swinery Wastewater (부레옥잠의 수중영양염 제거 잠재력에 관한 고찰)

  • 전만식;김범철
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1999
  • Nutrients removal by water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms from nutrient enriched waters and swinery wastewater were evaluated. The contents of nitrogen and phosphorus of dried water hyacinth increased from 1.4 to 3.3% and 0.21 to 0.80% when water hyacinth available N and P in the culture medium were increased from 0.7 to 5.0 mgN/1 and 0.06 o 1.5 mgP/l. respectively. Maximum N and P contents were found to be 4.1 and 0.90%, respectively. The significant relationship was observed between the standing crop of water hyacinth and the biomass yield per unit area and time. Biomass yield increased gradually until standing crop reached 15 kg wet wt./m$^2$, and then rapidly decreased. The high biomass yield of up to 0.5 kg/m$^2$/day was obtained in the range of 7 to 20 kg/m$^2$of standing crop. The potential removal rates of N and P by the water hyacinth during summer were found to be 2,250 to 2,710 mgN/m$^2$/day and 570 to 595 mgP/m$^2$/day, respectively, when 15 kg/m$^2$in standing crop and nutrient concentrations of culture medium were ranged from 1.24 to 6.2 mgP/1 and 3.2 to 32.5 mgN/1, respectively, Inorganic N and P concentrations of swinery wastewater were in the range of 82 to 121 mgN/1 and 22 to 79 mgP/1, respectively. Nitrogen and P removal rates of water hyacinth cultured in swinery wastewater were found to be in the ranges of 2,000 to 2,600 mgN/m$^2$/day and 157 to 254 mgP/m$^2$/day, respectively, at 10 times diluted water of swinery wastewater.

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A study on the Degradation and By-products Formation of NDMA by the Photolysis with UV: Setup of Reaction Models and Assessment of Decomposition Characteristics by the Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behnken Technique (UV 공정을 이용한 N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 광분해 및 부산물 생성에 관한 연구: 박스-벤켄법 실험계획법을 이용한 통계학적 분해특성평가 및 반응모델 수립)

  • Chang, Soon-Woong;Lee, Si-Jin;Cho, Il-Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2010
  • We investigated and estimated at the characteristics of decomposition and by-products of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a design of experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behken design in an UV process, and also the main factors (variables) with UV intensity($X_2$) (range: $1.5{\sim}4.5\;mW/cm^2$), NDMA concentration ($X_2$) (range: 100~300 uM) and pH ($X_2$) (rang: 3~9) which consisted of 3 levels in each factor and 4 responses ($Y_1$ (% of NDMA removal), $Y_2$ (dimethylamine (DMA) reformation (uM)), $Y_3$ (dimethylformamide (DMF) reformation (uM), $Y_4$ ($NO_2$-N reformation (uM)) were set up to estimate the prediction model and the optimization conditions. The results of prediction model and optimization point using the canonical analysis in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions were $Y_1$ [% of NDMA removal] = $117+21X_1-0.3X_2-17.2X_3+{2.43X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2+{3.2X_3}^2-0.08X_1X_2-1.6X_1X_3-0.05X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 96%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 88%) and 99.3% ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;190\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.2$), $Y_2$ [DMA conc] = $-101+18.5X_1+0.4X_2+21X_3-{3.3X_1}^2-{0.01X_2}^2-{1.5X_3}^2-0.01X_1X_2+0.07X_1X_3-0.01X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 99.4%, 수정 $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 35.2 uM ($X_1$: 3 $mW/cm^2$, $X_2$: 220 uM, $X_3$: 6.3), $Y_3$ [DMF conc] = $-6.2+0.2X_1+0.02X_2+2X_3-0.26X_1^2-0.01X_2^2-0.2X_3^2-0.004X_1X_2+0.1X_1X_3-0.02X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 94.4%) and 3.7 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;$mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;290\;uM$, $X_3:\;6.2$) and $Y_4$ [$NO_2$-N conc] = $-25+12.2X_1+0.15X_2+7.8X_3+{1.1X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2-{0.34X_3}^2+0.01X_1X_2+0.08X_1X_3-3.4X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98.5%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 74.5 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;220\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.1$). This study has demonstrated that the response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken statistical experiment design can provide statistically reliable results for decomposition and by-products of NDMA by the UV photolysis and also for determination of optimum conditions. Predictions obtained from the response functions were in good agreement with the experimental results indicating the reliability of the methodology used.