• Title, Summary, Keyword: 중등 과학 교과서

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The Cognitive Development of Secondary School Students in the Republic of Korea (한국 중등학생의 지적 발달 연구)

  • Han, Jong-Ha
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 1986
  • 본 연구의 목적은 한국 중 고등학교 학생들의 지적 발달의 특성을 조사 분석함으로써 교과서 및 교육과정의 개발에 필요한 기초자료를 얻으려는 것이다. 지역, 학년, 연령, 성 및 가정의 사회 경제적 지위에 따른 인지 발달 특성을 조사하였다. 연구의 대상은 전국을 대도시, 중 소도시, 농촌으로 유층화한 유층군집 표집방법에 의해 표집한 중학교 1학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 남 녀 학생이었다. 표집학생 수는 중학교가 18개교 54학급 3,164명이었고, 고등학교가 18개교 36학급 1,981명이었다. 가정의 사회 경제적 지위는 가정의 경제적 형편, 부의 직업, 부의 학력, 가정의 수입 정도를 고려하여 4계층으로 구분하였다. 사용된 도구는 지적 영역의 조사에 Piaget의 인지발달이론에 따른 논리발달 검사를 이용했다. 분석된 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 명제논리, 확률논리, 조합논리, 변인조작개념은 연령과 학년이 높아질수록, 대도시로 갈수록, 사회 경제적 지위가 높을수록 더욱 발달하는 경향이다. 둘째, 개념의 발달경향에 있어서 이원추리와 조합논리개념의 발달이 확률논리와 명제논리 개념의 발달보다 빠른 경향이다. 셋째, 한국의 중등학생 중에서 12세의 64.6%, 13세의 58.1%, 14세의 43.8%, 15세의 30.1%, 16세의 22.6%가 구체적 조작 후기에 도달해 있다. 넷째, 중등학생의 학년별 인지발달경향을 보면 중1의 69.8%, 중2의 51.1%, 중3의 47.4%, 고1의 21.6%, 고2의 21.7%가 구체적 후기의 발달수준이다.

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An Study on Plant Classification System as Described in the Science Textbook of Elementary and Secondary School (초.중등학교 과학교과서(생물영역)의 식물 분류 체계에 관한 연구)

  • Yeau, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.635-641
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to suggest a new direction of learning method in botany based on the analysis of a classification system and concepts in Science(Biology) textbooks of elementary and secondary school. Elementary and secondary school textbooks of Biology have been analyzed for plant classification system and concepts. Findings are summarized as belows. 1. In textbook of elementary school, the organization of life is grouped into Plantae and Animalia. Learning contents of plant are divided by the size and habitat. However, this system of classification might cause false concepts. Therefore, learning contents should be organized as whether they are flowering plants or not. 2. In a textbook of middle school, the organization of life is grouped into Plantae and Animalia. For a textbook of high school, it is grouped into three kingdoms; Plantae, Animalia and Prorista. With the idea of new age of Life Science, we should change the standards to 5 kingdoms; Plantae, Animalia, Proristae, Fungi and Monera. Moreover, it would be desirable if the concept of plant classification could be explained with a general outline, not by an individual interpretation focusing on characters of species only. In addition to the above indications, a learning course should provide present a standard classification according to a cognitive developemental level. It also has to teach students how to classify plant, in secondary school. Learning materials focusing on algae of the present system, but should be organized based on Seed plants.

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과학경험 측정을 위한 도구 개발 및 적용 : 고등학생 사례를 중심으로

  • Kim, Nak-Gyu;Ryu, Chun-Ryeol;Lee, Chang-Jin
    • 한국지구과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.17-17
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    • 2010
  • 본 연구는 학생들의 과학 경험의 정도를 정량화 하는데 있어 통일된 측정 도구를 제시하는 것이다. 측정 도구를 구성하는 요인들은 선행연구를 통해 학교 안 과학 경험은 일반 활동 경험, 과학 탐구 경험, 실험 기구 경험으로 세분화 되며 학교 밖 과학 경험은 일반 활동 경험, 취미 활동 경험, 현장 견학 경험 6개의 영역으로 구분을 할 수 있었다. 각각의 요인을 구성하는 질문은 NAEP(1987)에서 사용된 과학 경험 검사 도구와 신영준(2000)의 과학 경험 검사 도구의 문항 중 일부를 발췌하고 더불어 과학 경험에 대한 개방적인 설문지를 통하여 1차 검사를 실시하여 얻은 답변 중 빈도가 많은 답변과 중등 교과서의 탐색적 분석을 통해 영역별 10문항씩 6개 영역의 문항을 선정하였다. 사전 설문조사와 선행 연구를 바탕으로 개발한 검사지를 고등학교 1학년 학생 413명을 대상으로 2차 검사를 실시하였다. 개발한 측정 도구의 타당도는 내용타당도와 구인타당도로 검사하였다. 내용타당도는 2명의 현직 중등교사와 2명의 과학교육전문가가 각 문항이 측정하고자 하는 목적에 부합하는지 심사하였고, 구인타당도는 요인분석을 통해 검사하였다. 신뢰도는 Cronbach $\alpha$를 통하여 문항을 분석하였다. 6개의 영역의 요인에 대하여 타당도와 신뢰도 분석 결과 6개 영역으로 구성된 60문항의 측정 도구는 학생들의 과학 경험을 측정하는 도구로서 적절하다는 결론을 내렸다.

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Analysis of Elements of Character Education in the Middle School Science Curriculum (중학교 과학과 교육과정에서 나타난 인성교육 요소 분석)

  • An, Youngju;Kang, Eugene;Kwon, Jeongin;Park, Jongseok;Son, Jeongwoo;Nam, Jeonghee
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.167-178
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    • 2017
  • It has been suggested that character education, taught only in ethics and social science, should be integrated into other subjects including science education. In terms of inquiry and the nature of science, science education is related to character education, which is emphasized by SSI (Socioscientific Issue) education. Followed by necessity of character education, the Character Education Promotion Act was established in 2015. To investigate what and how character education is conducting in schools, analysis of curriculums and textbooks is needed in terms of elements underlined in the Character Education Promotion Act. For this purpose, this research analyzed general remarks and science sections in the 2009 revised and the 2015 revised curriculums and science textbooks based on the 2009 revised curriculum with regard to essential virtues in the Character Education Promotion Act. Results showed that parts of essential virtues were included in both curriculums, of which elements were inconsistent with those of science textbooks. Curriculums and textbooks reflecting whole elements faithfully need to be developed.

Analysis of Exam Trend of Earth Science Education in the Secondary-school Teacher Employment Test (중등교사임용시험 지구과학 교과교육학 출제동향 및 개선방안 분석)

  • Kwak, Youngsun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Earth Science Education
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.78-89
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to explore ways to improve developing exam questions for Earth science education by analyzing exam trend of Earth science education in the secondary-school teacher employment test (TET, hereafter). For this purpose, we developed an analysis framework to analyze items of Earth science education in the secondary-school TET, and this analysis framework covers required courses for 'theory of Earth science education' of 'Earth science teaching certificate courses'. The analysis framework consists of big categories, assessment domains, and assessment components. We divided system changes in secondary-school TET into 4 types, and analyzed exams of 2014-2018 school year, which is the existing exam system. According to the results, 22-24 points out of 80 have been allotted to Earth science education. Among assessment domains, Earth science Teaching & Learning domain has taken the highest percentage of scores and item numbers, followed by Earth science inquiry, history & philosophy of science, etc. For each domain, we analyzed exam tendencies in detail. Based the results, we suggested ways to improve developing exam questions for Earth science education in the secondary-school TET, and ways to improve curriculum for Earth science education in the teacher education program.

Analysis and Improvement of Experiments for Electrolysis of an Aqueous CuCl2 Solution in High School Science Textbooks (고등학교 과학 교과서에 제시된 염화구리(II) 수용액의 전기분해 실험의 분석 및 개선)

  • Park, Guk-Tae;Jo, Yeong-Ja;Lee, Ji-Yeong;Park, Gwang-Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.328-337
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    • 2006
  • purpose of this study was to find out problems in experiments for electrolysis of an aqueous CuCl2 solution in high school science textbooks and to suggest an improved experiment considering students' capability of experimenting and laboratory safety in high schools. For this study, the experiments for electrolysis of an aqueous CuCl2 solution presented in 11 high school science textbooks were classified by their experimental methods. After high school chemistry teachers performed the experiments as presented in the high school science textbooks, an analysis was performed on problems of the experiments, and an improved experiment was devised. According to the results of this study, in the experiments for electrolysis of an aqueous CuCl2 solution using a U type tube and a U type tube with branch, reaction velocity of the electrolysis was slow, therefore, a side reaction was generated. In the experiment using a beaker, reaction of each electrode could not be observed separately. And in the experiment using an electrolysis instrument, it was difficult to identify property of the reaction product. In the improved experiment using a reaction vessel of ㅂshape, reaction velocity of the electrolysis was fast, reaction of each electrode could be observed separately, and the side reaction decreased. From these results, it was suggested that the improved experiment would help high school students understand scientific conception regarding electrolysis.

Analysis of secondary curriculum and textbooks for cultural diversity education in China (중국의 문화다양성 교육을 위한 중등교육과정 및 교과서 분석)

  • Zang, Juanjuan;Jeong, Jiyeun
    • Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.833-840
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    • 2017
  • This study was attempted to explore in depth the education of cultural diversity in the curriculum and textbooks of middle school according to [1] As a result, the educational goals in the curriculum emphasized[2] the realization of the meaning and value of cultural diversity education reflecting the global citizen education in various time, space background and socio-cultural context. The purpose of the curriculum guidelines is specified, and the following is given: "To properly recognize the diversity of the world culture; To acquire knowledge on cultural diversity; To grasp important functions in the city life, and to have attitudes and qualities required as members of the world, and to develop a pluralistic literacy ability''. In the textbooks, the subjects of the cultural diversity education are mainly based on the curriculum standards, the education area of the 7th grade is the 'human community life', the education area of the 8th grade is the origin and development of the Chinese civilization, Suggesting the scope of the theme 'harmonious coexistence with the world'. In order to analyze cultural diversity education in response to the demands of the times, we analyzed three factors such as diversity, identity, and interrelationship.

Analysis and Evaluation of the Earth Science Content Relevance in the 7th National Science Curriculum (제7차 과학과 교육과정 지구과학 내용의 적정성 분석 및 평가)

  • Lee, Yang-Rak;Kwak, Young-Sun;Kim, Dong-Young
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.759-770
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the Earth science content relevance of the 7th national science curriculum. For this purpose, we (1) analyzed science curriculum or content standards of Korea, California, England and Japan, (2) compared science textbooks of Korea and Japan, (3) conducted a nationwide survey to gather opinions from students, teachers, professors and textbook authors about the relevance of the science curriculum and textbooks. According to the results, the Earth science contents of the 7th national science curriculum were not appropriate in terms of the objectives of science curriculum and the needs of students and society. The main reasons include the equal division among physics, chemistry, biology and earth science, iack of connection due to fractionation of units, overly strict application of spiral curriculum, and redundant amount of activities and concepts to cover in the textbook. Major suggestions fir securing the relevance of Earth science contents are as follows: First, the science contents and the size of units at each grade level should be determined according to the students' characteristics, not by equal portion rule. Second, the excessive overlapping and repetition of contents due to the spiral curriculum should be avoided. In addition, the number of activities should be reduced and the quality of required science activities should be improved. Third, to raise students' interest in Earth science, real-life applications and real-world Earth science contents should be emphasized including natural disasters, safety, universe and space exploration, and natural resources. Lastly, considering one of the relevance criteria is feasibility, supports for schools and science teachers are needed to realize the goal of the intended science curriculum.

A Study on the Development of Teacher Training Materials for Environmental Education (교사 연수용 환경 교육 자료 개발을 위한 연구)

  • Yi, Bum-Hong;Chae, Kwang-Pyo;Kim, Joo-Hoon;Lee, Yang-Rak
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1987
  • 본 연구는 교사연수용 통합적 환경교육자료 개발을 위해 수행되었다. 기존의 환경교육 관계 자료의 검토 분석, 전문가 협의회를 통한 개발 방향의 검토, 현행 초 중등 교과서 환경교육 관련 내용의 분석을 통해서 통합적인 환경교육자료 개발의 필요성과 방향을 정립하였다. 개발되는 자료는 환경 교육의 기초 부분과 교수 학습 활동 부분으로 크게 나누어서 앞 부분에는 기본 개념과 원리 등의 내용으로 구성하였으며 뒷 부분은 환경교육 각 영역에 관련되는 실제 활동 위주로 구성하는 것이 바람직하다는 결론을 얻었다. 그 주요 내용은 환경의 구성, 환경문제, 환경 교육의 방향, 인구문제와 환경오염, 산업화와 환경오염, 공기오염, 물의 오염, 토양 오염, 그 밖의 오염으로 구성하기로 하였다.

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Secondary School Science Teachers' Perceptions about the MixingPhenomenon Related to Dissolution and Diffusion (용해와확산에 관련된 혼합 현상에 대한 중등 과학교사들의 사고 특성)

  • Hur, Mi-Youn;Paik, Seong-Hey
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.585-608
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to research the characteristics of science teachers' thinking related to dissolution and diffusion. For this study, five science teachers who majored in chemistry or chemistry education were selected and interviewed. These teachers have been teaching on average for 2$\sim$6 years. From the study, it was discovered that the science teachers didn't recognize the necessity of sorting out diffusion from dissolution. The teachers divided in various mixing phenomena with diverse criteria. The science teachers had difficulty in sorting out diffusion from dissolution based on solubility and Gibbs' energy. The teachers didn't see the linkage between the contents that were divided into chapters, and didn't find omitted contents themselves in the chapters that introduced applicable principles. During the interviews, the teachers felt the need to understand the principles for understanding phenomena. But they did not have the ability to teach these principles after learning about the principles themselves. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teacher education programs, as well as a science curriculum, that helps in linking the knowledge between natural phenomena and principles.