• Title/Summary/Keyword: 칼럼 실험

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토양의 특성에 따른 토양증기추출법 (Soil Vapor Extraction)의 Trichloroethylene (TCE)과 Toluene 정화 효율 실험

  • 강현민;이민희;정상용
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.191-194
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    • 2002
  • 토양증기추출(Soil Vapor Extraction)법을 이용하여 대표적 휘발성 NAPL (Non-aqueous phase liquid)인 TCE (trichloroethylene)와 toluene을 토양으로부터 제거하는 칼럼 실험을 실시하였다. 토양특성 및 증기추출 조건들이 정화효율에 미치는 영향을 규명하는데, 균질한 Ottawa sand와 실제 오염지역의 토양들을 직경 2.5cm, 길이 30cm인 유리 칼럼이 충진시켰으며, 빨갛게 염색된 TCE 또는 toluene 4 g이 주입되었다 공기 유량계를 설치하여 0.03L/min의 일정한 속도로 공기가 주입되도록 하고, 퍼지장치를 설치하여 주입 공기의 습윤도를 99% 이상으로 유지하였다. 가스크로마토그래피로 유출 가스 농도를 분석하였다. Ottawa sand로 충진된 칼럼실험에서는 매질의 입자크기, 함수율, 토양 내 오염물 체류시간 등을 변화시켜 실험을 반복하였다. TCE로 오염된 세립질 Ottawa sand 칼럼실험에서 유출 공기의 최대 농도는 조립질 Ottawa sand 칼럼의 유출 농도보다 약 20% 정도 감소하였고, 오염지역의 실제토양 칼럼실험에서는 최대유출농도가 조립질 Ottawa sand 칼럼의 농도보다 약 50% 감소하였으나, 20 liter공기 주입 후부터는 모두 비슷한 농도감소 현상을 나타내었으며, 초기 주입량의 90 % 이상이 제거되었다. 함수율증가에 따른 유출공기의 농도 감소는 거의 나타나지 않았으며, TCE 주입 후 7일 동안 방치하였다가 SVE를 실시한 칼럼 실험에서도 잔류하는 TCE의 양이 약간 증가하였지만 20 liter 공기 추출 후에는 초기 주입량의 90% 가, 40 liter공기 추출 후에는 98% 이상이 제거되었다. Toluene으로 오염된 칼럼 실험에서도 TCE와 비슷한 제거 경향을 나타냈으며 200 liter 공기 추출 후에는 오염물 초기 주입량의 98% 이상이 제거되었다. 본 실험 결과로부터 증기추출법을 이용한 TCE, toluene 정화 효율성이 규명되었으며, 휘발성 NAPL로 오염된 실제 토양을 복원하기 위한 SVE법의 적용가능성을 확인할 수 있었다.

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Removal of Organic Matter and Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Effluent through Managed Aquifer Recharge (하수처리수를 이용한 대수층 함양관리 기술(Managed Aquifer Recharge)에서 유기물과 의약화합물 제거)

  • Im, Huncheol;Yeo, Inseol;Maeng, Sung-Kyu;Choi, Heechul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.182-190
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of organic matter and pharmaceuticals and to identify the removal mechanism of pharmaceuticals using sand obtained from Hwangryong River in Jangsung. Batch and column studies were used to simulate managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. All experiments were performed using field effluent containing pharmaceuticals from Damyang Wastewater Treatment Plant as an influent. Based on the removal results of organic matter and pharmaceuticals from the batch and column experiments, soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity were found to effectively remove target contaminants. The removal of organic matter was found to increase under biotic conditions. Neutral and cation pharmaceuticals (iopromide, estrone, and trimethoprim) exhibited removal efficiencies higher than 70% from natural sand and baked sand media in batch and column studies. Carbamazepine persisted in the sand batch and column studies. Anion pharmaceuticals (ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) can be removed under conditions featuring high SOM and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations in the sand surface. Based on the experimental Batch and column results, biodegradation and sorption were found to be important mechanisms for the removal of pharmaceuticals within the simulated MAR systems.

Applicability Assessment of Carbon Nanotube to Slow Sand Filtration for Bacteria Removal (박테리아 제거를 위한 완속 모래여과에서 탄소나노튜브의 적용성 검토)

  • An, Hee-Kyung;Park, Seong-Jik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.873-878
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    • 2014
  • The applicability of carbon nanotube (CNT) to slow sand filtration for the removal of bacteria was studied using scanning electron microscope and column experiments. The morphology of CNT were investigated using scanning electron microscope and the CNT looked like a skein serving bacteria favorable site for adhesion. Column experiments were performed over a range of CNT filter depth, pH, and ionic strength. Bacteria removal efficiency was found to increase from 44.15% to 99.95% as the CNT filter depth increased from 1 cm to 5 cm, and 3 cm of CNT filter depth was required for significant removal of bacteria. pH increase from 5.5 to 8.5 decreased the bacteria removal efficiency, due to the electrostatic repulsion between bacteria and CNT at higher pH. Bacteria removal efficiency decreased from 97.25% to 70.90% as the ionic strength increased from 0 mM to 50 mM. This study demonstrated that the CNT can be applied to slow sand filtration for treating microbially contaminated water.

Adsorption Characteristics of Pb(II) by Manganese Oxide Coated Activated Carbon in Fixed Bed Column Study (망간산화물이 코팅된 활성탄의 납 흡착특성에 관한 칼럼 실험)

  • Lee, Myoungeun;Lee, Chaeyoung;Chung, Jaewoo
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2014
  • Effects of operating parameters on the breakthrough properties of Pb(II) by $Mn_3O_4$ coated activated carbon prepared by supercritical technique were investigated through fixed-bed column experiments. The mass transfer zone and equilibrium adsorption capacity were enhanced about 2.8 times for Pb(II) by $Mn_3O_4$ coating onto activated carbon. Increase of bed height enhanced the residence time of Pb(II) in adsorption zone, giving the higher breakthrough time, mass transfer zone and equilibrium adsorption capacity. Increase of flow rate reduced the residence time and diffusion of Pb(II) in adsorption zone, therefore decreased the equilibrium adsorption capacity. The higher inlet concentration of Pb(II) decreased the breakthrough time and mass transfer zone through the promotion of Pb(II) transfer onto adsorbent.

Laboratory Tests for Trichloroethylene (TCE) and Toluene Remediation in Soil Using Soil Vapor Extraction (토양증기추출(Soil Vapor Extraction)을 이용한 토양 내 Trichloroethylene (TCE)과 Toluene정화 실험)

  • 이민희;강현민
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2002
  • Column experiments were performed to evaluate the removal efficiency of soil vapor extraction (SVE) iota TCE (trichloroethylene) and toluene in soil. Homogeneous Ottawa sands and real soils collected from contaminated area were used to investigate the effect of soil properties and SVE operation conditions on the removal efficiency. In column teats with two different sizes of Ottawa sand, the maximum effluent TCE concentration in a coarse sand column was 442 mg/L and 337 mg/L in a fine sand column. However, after 20 liter gas flushing, the effluent concentrations were very similar and more than 90% of initial TCE mass were removed from the column. For two real contaminated soil columns, the maximum effluent concentration decreased 50% compared with that in the homogeneous Ottawa coarse sand column, but 99% of initial TCE mass were extracted from the column within 40 liter air flushing, suggesting that SVE is very available to remove volatile NAPLs in the contaminated soil. To investigate the effect of contaminant existing time on the removal efficiency, an Ottawa sand column was left stable for one week after TCE was injected and the gas extraction was applied into the column. Its effluent concentration trend was very similar to those for other Ottawa sand columns except that the residual TCE after the air flushing showed relatively high. Column tests with different water contents were performed and results showed high removal efficiency even in a high water content sand column. Toluene as one of BTEX compounds was used in an Ottawa sand column and a real soil column. Removal trends were similar to those in TCE contaminated columns and more than 98% of initial toluene mass were removed with SVE in both column.

A Study on Biogas Production from Low Rank Coal in a Column Experiment (저품위 석탄을 충전한 칼럼실험에서의 바이오가스 생산에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Seok-Pyo;Lim, Hak-Sang;Yun, Yeo-Myeong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2017
  • In a column experiment with low rank coal, rice straw was additionally supplied to induce methane gas generation by microorganisms in the state of supplying microorganisms and nutrients, and long-term biogas production characteristics were observed. When the weight ratio of the rice straw to coal was 0.04 or less, there was no significant gas generation. At 0.08, the biogas was generated for about 90 days. However, the methane gas generation was only 5% compared with the vial test result at optimum condition. Therefore, in order to produce biogas in the coal deposit in situ, a reactor that operates at COD concentration of 2000 mg/L or more at a ratio of 1:3 or more of rice straw to coal should be installed on the ground or under the ground. Liquid from the column filled with coal and rice straw and a liquid from vial containing rice straw were analyzed by microbial community analysis using pyrosequencing method, and compared the dominant microbial species among the two samples. In terms of the uniformity and diversity of the bacteria, the coal-filled column showed various species distribution, which has shown to be a disadvantageous microbial distribution to methane production.

Durability Extension of Fe(0) Column with Shewanella Algae BrY on TCE Treatment (Shewanella algae BrY를 이용한 영가철 칼럼의 TCE 처리 수명연장)

  • Chae, Heehun;Bae, Yeunook;Park, Jae-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2007
  • Zevo-valent iron (ZVI) has been widely used in permeable reactive barriers for reducing organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The rapid reaction time, however, leads to decrease in reactivity and availability of ZVI. Shewanella algae BrY, a strain of dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria, can reduce the oxidized Fe (III) to Fe (II) and reduced Fe (II) can be reused to reduce the contaminant. The effect of Shewanella algae BrY on the reduction of the oxidized ZVI column and further TCE removal in the contaminated groundwater were studied at different flow rates and TCE input concentrations in this study. High input concentration of TCE and flow rate increase the amount of input contaminant and make to lower the effect of reduction by Shewanella algae BrY. Specially, the fast flow rate inhibits the direct contact and implantation on the surface of iron. The reduction of oxidized iron reactive barrier by Shewanella algae BrY can decrease the decreation of duration of PRBs by the precipitation of oxidized iron produced by dechlorination of TCE.

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