Tak, Young-Ran;Sung, Jeong-Sang;Choi, Jong-Hee;Kim, Soon-Ae;Rho, Jae-Hyun
Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
This study attempts to understand and explain how "Directed Attention Restorative Environment (DARE)" is managed and fostered in "Gang-Hak (講學)" and "Yu-Sik (遊息)" spaces both inside and outside of Oksan Seowon Confucian Academy, Gyeongju. Directed Attention is a pivotal element in human information processing so that its restoration is crucial for effective thinking and learning. According to Kaplan & Kaplan's Attention Restoration Theory, an environment, in order to be restorative, should have four elements: 'Being Away,' 'Extent,' 'Fascination,' and 'Compatibility.' We could confirm OkSan Seowon Confucian Academy has an inner logic that integrates two basically different spacial concepts of "Jangsu" and "Yusik" and thus fosters the Attention Restorative Environment. Particularly, the Four Mountains and Five Platforms (四山五臺) surrounding the premises provides an excellent learning environment, and is in itself educational in terms of the Neo-Confucian epistemology with "Attaining Knowledge by way of Positioning Things (格物致知)" as its principle precept, and of its aesthetics with "Connectedness with Nature" as its central tenet. This study attempts to recapture the value of Korea's cultural heritage concerning the Human/Nature relationship; and it may provide useful insights and practical guidelines/grounds in designing today's schools and campuses, where the young people's needs for the Directed Attention- and Attention Restorative- Servicescapes seem to be greater than ever.
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
This paper presents a methodology on the backward path tracking control of a trailer type robot which consists of two parts: a tractor and a trailer. It is difficult to control the motion of a trailer vehicle since its dynamics is non-holonomic. Therefore, in this paper, the modeling and parameter estimation of the system using a real-coded genetic algorithm(RCGA) is proposed and a backward path tracking control algorithm is then obtained based on the linearized model. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of phased horticultural therapy(HT) program on the experience of psychologic therapy and the development of job and social integration in the mentally handicapped persons. In this study, the mentally handicapped persons participated in HT program were chosen in disabled person's welfare institute of Jeonnam. HT program was performed twice a week with 1 hour activity for 4 months. As a results, the mentally handicapped persons participated in HT program showed high interest of horticulture and improvement of self-respect and the high satisfactory degree of HT program. Therefore, the mentally handicapped persons were showed the experience of both physical and mental therapy, improvement of self-esteem scale and sociality in HT program. Also, the application of HT program with continuously interest will be showed high improvement of physical, psychological and sentimental. In the course of this HT program progress, horticultural therapist and social welfare officer were showed the limitation of role. Therefore the leaders of group for successful HT program be required the comprehensive plan of more efficient HT program and induced technique of continuously up-phased improvements in HT program progress.
The current international legal system does not provide a safeguard against the militarization and the weaponization of outer space. Although the term "peaceful use of outer space" in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty(OST) appears in official government statements or in multilateral space treaties, it is still without an authoritative definition in reviewing national practices. The ambiguous ban on weapons in Article IV of the OST allows countries to loophole on the deployment of other weapons other than nuclear weapons. Meanwhile "Draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapon in Outer Space and of the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects(PPWT)" to Conference on Disarmament (CD) commissioned by the UN General Assembly's Special Session jointly submitted by China and Russia in 2008 and later revised in 2014, attempting to define and prohibit the proliferation of weapons in outer space and provided definitions of prohibited weapons, are opposed by the US on the grounds that currently there is no arms race in outer space. Some experts support a hard law approach in which binding laws aimed at ultimately creating integrated and binding legal instruments in all aspects of the use of outer space should be adopted to regulate the military use of space. However as a temporary measure the soft law guidelines should be developed for the non liquiet, a situation where there is no applicable law. The soft law could be used to create support for the declaration of the treaties and to create international customary law. For example, the 1963 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space that regulates the activities of the state in the exploration and use of the universe, and the 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space will illustrated. While substantial portions of the former was codified later in the 1967 OST, the latter which, although written in somewhat mandatory terms, have been consistently complied with by states, have arguably become part of customary international law. On November 12, 1974, the General Assembly reaffirmed that the development of international law may be reflected inter alia, by declarations and resolutions of the General Assembly which may to that extent be taken into consideration by the International Court of Justice.
Technology valuation refers to the act, procedures, or techniques in evaluating certain technology and its value for commercialization. For this purpose, deadlines and process plans are established based on valuation goals such as technology transfer, investment and financing, investment in kind, and strategy establishment. The technology valuation process involves analyzing and evaluating technology performance, rights, marketability, and business value technology, as well as calculating the monetary value of technology modules based on the results. Analysis and evaluation of each module is performed by a team of experts having knowledge of specific technology. Valuation of technologies is conducted as independent projects by project managers (PM) who integrate and manage modules; they must have expertise in systematic performance of task support and management to ensure objectivity and reliability. Furthermore, the valuation team comprises expert stakeholders having knowledge about each module due to the nature of technology valuation. For smooth knowledge sharing in technology and valuation procedures, communication skills and roles of PMs supporting and managing the valuation are important. Primarily, PMs must resolve conflicts between evaluators participating in different tasks, evaluators and evaluatees, and technology holders and receivers. This study examines technology valuation for four conflicts occurring frequently among stakeholders providing valuation support to PMs, and seeks resolutions. The conflicts and resolutions discussed in this study may lead to more specialized roles of PMs in technology valuation and project management, as well as systemized valuation support and management plans.
Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
In the ship repair market, interest in maintenance and repair is steadily increasing due to the reinforcement of prevention of environmental pollution caused by ships and the reinforcement of safety standards for ship structures. By reflecting this effect, the number of requests for repairs by foreign shipping companies increases to repair shipbuilders in the Southwest Sea. However, because most of the repair shipbuilders in the southwestern area are small and medium-sized companies, it is difficult to lead to the integrated synergy effect of the repair shipbuilding companies. Moreover, the infrastructure is not integrated; hence, using the infrastructure jointly is a challenge, which acts as an obstacle to the activation of the repair shipbuilding industry. Floating docks are indispensable to operating the repair shipbuilding business; in addition, most of them are operated through renovation/repair after importing aging caisson docks from overseas. However, their service life is more than 30 years; additionally, there is no structure inspection standard. Therefore, it is vulnerable to the safety field. In this study, the finite element analysis program of ANSYS was used to evaluate the structural safety of the modified caisson dock and obtain additional structural reinforcement schemes to solve the derived problems. For the floating docks, there are classification regulations; however, concerning structural strength, the regulations are insufficient, and the applicability is inferior. These insufficient evaluation areas were supplemented through a detailed structural FE-analysis. The reinforcement plan was decided by reinforcing the pontoon deck and reinforcement of the side tank, considering the characteristics of the repair shipyard condition. The final plan was selected to reinforce the side wing tank through the structural analysis of the decision; in addition, the actual structure was fabricated to reflect the reinforcement plan. Our results can be used as reference data for improving the structural strength of similar facilities; we believe that the optimal solution can be found quickly if this method is used during renovation/repair.
The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
It can be expected that intelligence and knowledge will be the core of the post-industrial society in a near future. Accordingly, the age of intelligence shall be accelerated extensively to find ourselves in an age of 'Communication' service enterprise. The communication actions will increase its efficiency and multiply its utility, indebted to its scientic principles and legal idea. The two basic elements of communication action, that is, communication station and communication men are considered to perform their function when they are properly supported and managed by the government administration. Since the communication action itself is composed of various factors, the elements such as communication stations and officials must be cultivated and managed by specialist or experts with continuous and extensive study practices concerned. With the above mind, this study reviewed our public service officials law with a view to improve it by providing some suggestions for communication experts and researchers to find suitable positions in the framework of government administration. In this study, I would like to suggest 'Occupational Group of Communication' that is consisted of a series of comm, management positions and research positions in parallel to the existing series of comm, technical position. The communication specialist or expert is required to be qualified with necessary scientific knowledge and techniques of communication, as well as prerequisites as government service officials. Communication experts must succeed in the first hand to obtain government licence concerned in with the government law and regulation, and international custom before they can be appointed to the official positions. This system of licence-prior-to-appointment is principally applied in the communication management position. And communication research positions are for those who shall engage themselves to the work of study and research in the field of both management and technical nature. It is hopefully expected that efficient and extensive management of communication activities, as well as scientific and continuous study over than communication enterprise will be upgraded at national dimensions.
Objective : This study was done to identify the status of Spiritual Well-Being in Nursing Students and to investigate the correlation between related various characteristics and Spiritual Well-Being and to provide baseline data for ride school-life and development of Spiritual-education program for nursing students. Method : The data was collected from 188 christian Nursing students by using questionary method. they are all all agreed to participate in this study. Their Spiritual Well-Being were measured using Spiritual Well-Being scale developed by Paloutzian & Ellison(1983) and translated by Choi(1990) and reversed by Kang(1996). Results : The data was analyzed by using SPSS/PC+12.0. The summary of results were as follows; 1. The mean score of Spiritual Well-Being were $63.95\pm10.256$(range from 20-80) 2. There were significant differences between the grade(F=6.101, p= .001), type of religion(F= 17.703, p= .000), In Christian, the level of devotee(F=8.194, p= .000), duration of church attendance(F=7.947, p= .000), regular attendance of chapel(F=4.242, p= .000), regular reading(study) of Bible and prayer (F=5.863, p= .001=0). perceived personal encounter with Jesus(F=4.160, p= .000), religion of parent(F=9.320, p= .000), perceived attitude of parenting(F=4.146, p= .000), hope to admit/transfer to other course or not(F=-2.050, p= .050). Conclusion : Our results were valuable to provide basic guidelines for ride school-life and for the development of Spiritual-education program for Nursing students.
The small and medium sized enterprises (hereinafter SMEs) are already at a competitive disadvantaged when compared to large companies with more abundant resources. Manufacturing SMEs not only need a lot of information needed for new product development for sustainable growth and survival, but also seek networking to overcome the limitations of resources, but they are faced with limitations due to their size limitations. In a new era in which connectivity increases the complexity and uncertainty of the business environment, SMEs are increasingly urged to find information and solve networking problems. In order to solve these problems, the government funded research institutes plays an important role and duty to solve the information asymmetry problem of SMEs. The purpose of this study is to identify the differentiating characteristics of SMEs that utilize the public information support infrastructure provided by SMEs to enhance the innovation capacity of SMEs, and how they contribute to corporate performance. We argue that we need an infrastructure for providing information support to SMEs as part of this effort to strengthen of the role of government funded institutions; in this study, we specifically identify the target of such a policy and furthermore empirically demonstrate the effects of such policy-based efforts. Our goal is to help establish the strategies for building the information supporting infrastructure. To achieve this purpose, we first classified the characteristics of SMEs that have been found to utilize the information supporting infrastructure provided by government funded institutions. This allows us to verify whether selection bias appears in the analyzed group, which helps us clarify the interpretative limits of our study results. Next, we performed mediator and moderator effect analysis for multiple variables to analyze the process through which the use of information supporting infrastructure led to an improvement in external networking capabilities and resulted in enhancing product competitiveness. This analysis helps identify the key factors we should focus on when offering indirect support to SMEs through the information supporting infrastructure, which in turn helps us more efficiently manage research related to SME supporting policies implemented by government funded institutions. The results of this study showed the following. First, SMEs that used the information supporting infrastructure were found to have a significant difference in size in comparison to domestic R&D SMEs, but on the other hand, there was no significant difference in the cluster analysis that considered various variables. Based on these findings, we confirmed that SMEs that use the information supporting infrastructure are superior in size, and had a relatively higher distribution of companies that transact to a greater degree with large companies, when compared to the SMEs composing the general group of SMEs. Also, we found that companies that already receive support from the information infrastructure have a high concentration of companies that need collaboration with government funded institution. Secondly, among the SMEs that use the information supporting infrastructure, we found that increasing external networking capabilities contributed to enhancing product competitiveness, and while this was no the effect of direct assistance, we also found that indirect contributions were made by increasing the open marketing capabilities: in other words, this was the result of an indirect-only mediator effect. Also, the number of times the company received additional support in this process through mentoring related to information utilization was found to have a mediated moderator effect on improving external networking capabilities and in turn strengthening product competitiveness. The results of this study provide several insights that will help establish policies. KISTI's information support infrastructure may lead to the conclusion that marketing is already well underway, but it intentionally supports groups that enable to achieve good performance. As a result, the government should provide clear priorities whether to support the companies in the underdevelopment or to aid better performance. Through our research, we have identified how public information infrastructure contributes to product competitiveness. Here, we can draw some policy implications. First, the public information support infrastructure should have the capability to enhance the ability to interact with or to find the expert that provides required information. Second, if the utilization of public information support (online) infrastructure is effective, it is not necessary to continuously provide informational mentoring, which is a parallel offline support. Rather, offline support such as mentoring should be used as an appropriate device for abnormal symptom monitoring. Third, it is required that SMEs should improve their ability to utilize, because the effect of enhancing networking capacity through public information support infrastructure and enhancing product competitiveness through such infrastructure appears in most types of companies rather than in specific SMEs.
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