• Title/Summary/Keyword: 프리캐스트

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Properties on the Strength of Polymer Concrete Using Nano MMT-UP Composite (나노 MMT-폴리머 복합체를 이용한 폴리머 콘크리트의 강도 특성)

  • Jo, Byung-Wan;Moon, Rin-Gon;Park, Seung-Kook
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.26 no.4A
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    • pp.761-766
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    • 2006
  • Polymer composite are increasingly considered as structural components for use in civil engineering, on account of their enhanced strength-to-weight ratios. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin have been widely used for the matrix of composites such as FRP and polymer composite, due to its excellent adhesive. Polymer nanocomposites are new class of composites derived from the nano scale inorganic particles with dimensions typically in the range of 1 to 1000 nm that are dispersed in the polymer matrix homogeneously. Owing to the high aspect ratio of the fillers, mechanical, thermal, flame, retardant and barrier properties are enhanced without significant loss of clarity, toughness or impact strength. To prepare the MMT (Montmorillonite)-UP exfoliated nanocomposites, UP was mixed with MMT at $60^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours by using pan mixer. XRD (X-ray diffraction) pattern of the composites and TEM (Transmission Electron Micrographs) showed that the interlayer spacing of the modified MMT were exfoliated in polymer matrix. The mechanical properties also supported these findings, since in general, tensile strength, modulus with modified MMT were higher than those of the composites with unmodified MMT. The thermal stability of MMT-UP nanocomposite is better than that of pure UP, and its glass transition temperature is higher than that of pure UP. The polymer concrete made with MMT-UP nanocomposite has better mechanical properties than of pure UP. Therefore, it is suggested that strength and elastic modulus of polymer concrete was found to be positively tensile strength and tensile modulus of the MMT-UP nanocomposites.

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Structural Performance of High Strength Grout-Pilled Splice Sleeve System (고강도 모르타르 충전식 철근이음의 구조성능에 관한 실험연구)

  • 김형기;안병익;남재현;박복만
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.516-524
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    • 2001
  • Among many connection methods of reinforcing bar, the grout-filled splice sleeve system is very effective method of precast concrete construction due to its superior construction efficiency, such as large allowable limit to arrangement of reinforcing bars, good application of large sized reinforcing bars. In this study, totally 20 full-sited specimens were made and tested under monotonic and cyclic loading in order to extend the usage range of grout-filled splice sleeve system. The experimental variables adopted in this study are size of reinforcing bars embedded in upper and lower part of sleeve and compressive strength of filled mortar etc. After test was performed, the results were compared and analyzed with respect to previous test of author. Following main conclusions are obtained : 1) The structural performance of splice sleeve system is improved with increasing compressive strength of filled mortar. And also it was verified that the splice sleeve system with over 700 kgf/㎠ mortar compressive strength and over 6.54 development length of reinforcing bar retains the structural performance of over A class(AIJ Criteria). 2) In the case of using different size of reinforcing bars embedded in upper and lower part of sleeve, the result show that splice sleeve matching with large sized reinforcing bar must be used. And also up to 2 level smaller size of reinforcing bar compared to large reinforcing bar embedded in sleeve can be used.

An approach for moment-rotation relationship and bearing strength of segment lining's joint (세그먼트 라이닝 이음부의 모멘트-회전 관계와 지압강도 계산)

  • Lee, Young Joon;Chung, Jee Seung
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.93-106
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    • 2021
  • In general, segment lining tunnel refers to a tunnel formed by connecting precast concrete segments as a ring and connecting such rings to each other in the longitudinal direction of the tunnel. As the structural properties of the segment lining is highly dependent on the behavior of the segment joints, thus correct modelling of joint behavior is crucial to understand and design the segment tunnel lining. When the tunnel is subjected to ground loads, the segment joint behaves like a hinge that resists rotation, and when the induced moment exceeds a certain limit of the rotation then it may enter into non-linear field. In understanding the effect of the segment joint on the lining behavior, a moment-rotation relationship of the segment joint was explored based on the Japanese practice and Janssen's approach commonly used in the actual design. This study also presents a method to determine the rotational stiffness of joint refer to the bearing strength. The rotation of the segment joint was estimated in virtual design conditions based on the existing models and the proposed method. And the sectional force of the segment lining and joint were calculated along with the estimated rotation. As the rotation at the segment joint increases, the joint contact area decreases, so the designer have to verify the segment joint for bearing strength as well. This paper suggests a consistent method to determine the rotational stiffness and bearing strength of joints.

Hydration Characteristics according to First Curing Condition in Solid Hydrated by Hydro-Thermal Synthesis Reaction (수열합성경화체의 1차 양생조건에 따른 수화특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Man;Jung, Eun-Hye;Park, Sun-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2008
  • Solid hydrated by hydro-thermal synthesis reaction is cured two times, the first curing is the steam curing at atmospheric pressure and the second one is a high-pressure steam curing, that is autoclaving. Steam curing is to acquire the proper strength for the resistance of treatment in the first curing process, it was not evaluated properly so far. Because of ignorance about curing, some engineers even think that the dry curing is better than the steam curing. The relation between compressive strength of solid hydrated by hydrothermal synthesis reaction and curing condition are presented in this paper. In order to investigate the effect of curing on the strength properties of specimen, the hydration behavior of solid hydrated by hydro-thermal synthesis reaction has been studied over curing condition using XRD, DT-TGA and porosimeter, SEM analysis technique. The results show that the specimens which are cured with blended method of dry and steam curing appear to have better strength properties than that of dry curing and steam curing. Also, there are significant difference of hydration behavior among curing condition in the solid hydrated by hydro-thermal synthesis reaction.

Seismic Performance of Precast Infill Walls with Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (변형경화형 시멘트 복합체를 사용한 프리캐스트 끼움벽의 내진성능)

  • Kim, Sun-Woo;Yun, Hyun-Do;Jang, Gwang-Soo;Yun, Yeo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.327-335
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    • 2009
  • In the seismic region, non-ductile structures often form soft story and exhibit brittle collapse. However, structure demolition and new structure construction strategies have serious problems, as construction waste, environmental pollution and popular complain. And these methods can be uneconomical. Therefore, to satisfy seismic performance, so many seismic retrofit methods have been investigated. There are some retrofit methods as infill walls, steel brace, continuous walls, buttress, wing walls, jacketing of column or beam. Among them, the infilled frames exhibit complex behavior as follows: flexible frames experiment large deflection and rotations at the joints, and infilled shear walls fail mainly in shear at relatively small displacements. Therefore, the combined action of the composite system differs significantly from that of the frame or wall alone. Purpose of research is evaluation on the seismic performance of infill walls, and improvement concept of this paper is use of SHCCs (strain-hardening cementitious composites) to absorb damage energy effectively. The experimental investigation consisted of cyclic loading tests on 1/3-scale models of infill walls. The experimental results, as expected, show that the multiple crack pattern, strength, and energy dissipation capacity are superior for SHCC infill wall due to bridging of fibers and stress redistribution in cement matrix.

Experimental Study on the Precast Concrete Joint using Re-bar Debonding and Cutting Technique (철근 비부착 및 절단 기법을 사용한 PC 접합부의 실험적 연구)

  • Yi, Waon-Ho;Moon, Jung-Ho;Lee, Yong-Jae;Lee, Han-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.131-141
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    • 2002
  • Precast concrete (PC) panels are often used as retaining walls to support soil pressure. In such a case, the panels should be connected at the location where PC panels meet with a buttress. However, it is not easy to provide enough development length for the reinforcing steels due to the limited width of the buttress. If it happens, the width of buttress should be increased as large enough although it is not desirable. The critical section required for providing the development length is always located where the flexural moment is maximum. Thus it is the place the buttress width ends. Also it is the place that the reinforcing steels stressed to maximum. However, it is possible to make differentiate between the maximum moment location and the most stressed location of reinforcing steels. It means that the most stressed location of reinforcing steels, the critical section, can be moved to the other place where the moment is not maximum. New critical location will have less moment than that of buttress width ends. In consequence, the development length would be longer than that of the typical way of construction. Debonding or cutting technique make it possible to reduce the moment strength of a section. Therefore reinforcing steels are debonded or cut to have a desired flexural strength at a desired place. In this study, five test specimens in full scale were erected to examine the effects of critical section movement in PC panel joints. Test parameters were the length variations of debonded and cut reinforcing steels. The test results showed that the debonding or cutting technique could be used to lengthen the development length in the joint of PC panels.

Confining Effect of Mortar Grouted Splice Sleeve on Reinforcing Bar (모르타르 충전식 철근이음과 구속효과)

  • Ahn, Byung-Ik;Kim, Hyong-Kee;Park, Bok-Man
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2003
  • The grouted splice steeve has been applied widely due to its superior construction efficiency, such as the unnecessity of post concrete and the large allowable limit to the arrangement of reinforcing bars. However, studies on grout-filled splice steeve still have not been sufficiently peformed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the confining effect of mortar grouted splice sleeve on reinforcing bar, known to strengthen the bond capacity between grout mortar and reinforcing bar. To accomplish this objective, totally 6 full-sized specimens were made and tested under monotonic loading. Each specimens were equipped with strain gauges at the 12 location of sleeve and reinforcing bar. The experimental variables adopted in this study are embedment length and size of reinforcing bars. Following conclusions are obtained; 1) Under ultimate strength condition, the confining pressure of grouted splice sleeve calculated from measured tangential and axial strain of the sleeve is over $200{\sim}300kgf/{cm}^2$ at any location of sleeve and improved with reduction in embedment length of reinforcing bar. 2) Untrauer and Henry's equation which describe bond strength of mortar as a function of its compressive strength and confining pressure, predicted the measured bond capacity of this test within the 5% limits.

Flexural Experiments on Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with ECC and High Strength Rebar (ECC와 고장력 철근으로 보강된 철근콘크리트 보의 휨 실험)

  • Cho, Hyun-Woo;Bang, Jin-Wook;Han, Byung-Chan;Kim, Yun-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.503-509
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    • 2011
  • ECC is a micro-mechanically designed cementitious composite which exhibits tightly controlled crack width and strain hardening behavior in uniaxial tension while using a moderate amount of reinforcing fiber, typically less than 2% fiber volume fraction. Recently, a variety of applications of this material ranging from repair and retrofit of structures, cast-in-place structures, to precast structural elements requiring high ductility are developed. In the present study, a retrofitting method using ECC reinforced with high strength rebar was proposed to enhance load-carrying capacity and crack control performance of deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Six beam specimens were designed and tested under a four-point loading setup. The flexural test revealed that load-carrying capacity and crack control performance were significantly enhanced by the use of ECC and high strength rebar. This result will be useful for practical field applications of the proposed retrofitting method.

A Study of New Approach on Elasto-Plastic Analysis of shell Structures (쉘구조물의 탄소성해석에 관한 새로운 해석법의 연구)

  • Kwun Taek Jin;Park Kang Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 1987
  • 연속체의 해석에 있어서, 특별한 경우를 제외하고는, 구조물의 개략적인 거동을 파악해야 될 경우가 종종 있다. 이러한 요구에 부응하기 위해서 강체요소법(Rigid Element Method)이라 불리우는 새로운 해석법이 개발되었다. 강체요소법은 원래 평정연구실에서 벽식프리캐스트 철근콘크리트 구조물의 탄소성해석을 하기 위해서 개발된 해석법에 착안하여, 내수벽과 같은 연속체에 적용함으로서 시작된 수치해석법이다. 그 후 저자들은 도통쉘, 구형쉘 혹은 이들이 조합된 쉘구조물에 적용할 수 있도록 개발 확장하였다. 강체요소법의 기본개념은 연속체의 분해된 각 요소를 강체(rigid body)라고 가정하고, 각 요소들은 요소의 강성으로 치환된 가상스프링으로 서로 연결되어 있다고 가정하여, 이 가상스프링의 거동을 평가함으로서 전체구조물의 거동을 파악하는 해석법이다. 이때 요소의 주변에 취해진 스프링은 해석을 단순화하기 위해서 축력, 면내전단력 및 면외전단력만을 전달한다고 가정하고, 요소의 강체변위(자유도)는 요소내의 임의의 한 점에서 취하며, 이 점에서의 강체변위(rigid displacements)는 요소의 주변에 취해진 스프링을 통하여 다른 요소로 전달된다. 상기와 같은 강체요소법의 개념을 연속체의 탄성 및 탄소성해석에 적용하면, 해석적 개념이 단순할 뿐만 아니라 구조물 전체의 자유도수를 대폭 줄여 컴퓨터 계산시간을 절약할 수 있는 잇점이 있고, 거시적인 모델(macroscopic modeling)과 미시적인 모델 (microscopic modeling)의 중간적인 성격을 가지기 때문에 구조물의 파괴상황에 대해서도 그 개략을 파악할 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 강체요소법을 보다 일반화된 해석법으로 개발, 확장하기 위해서 종전에 단층스프링시스템(single-layer spring system)으로 해석이 어려웠던 문제점들을 보완한 복층프링시스템(double-layer spring system)을 사용함으로서 휨, 비틀림의 효과를 파악할 수 있는 이론적 개념을 적용한 새로운 구요소, 원통요소 및 평면요소를 개발하고, 이러한 강체요소들의 적합매트릭스의 유도 및 해석저긴 방법을 정식화하였다. 또 휨, 비틀림 및 전단력의 효과를 고려한 사각형원통요소 및 능형원 통요소를 이용하여 원통쉘의 탄성 및 탄소성해석할 수 있는 프로그램을 개발하고, 이 프로그램으로 캔틸레버로된 연속형철근콘크리트 원통쉘의 탄성 및 탄소성해석에 적용하여 구조물의 거동에 관한 수치해석의 결과, 즉 내력의 분포, 균열의 진전, 파괴의 상황 및 변형의 상태 등을 파악해 보았다.

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Mechanical Properties of High Stiffness Shear Connector (고강성 스터드볼트의 역학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Eom, Chul-Hwan
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.491-496
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    • 2015
  • The headed studs used extensively for steel-composite construction are specified as SS400 in the current Korean Standard specification considering the welding condition. And the corresponding equation for the shear force calculation is limited for the use of compression strength of concrete below $300kgf/cm^2$. However, it is expected that the high strengthening and precasting of both steel and concrete due to the necessity of shear connector or other connecting material for the combination of steel and concrete. Therefore, the experimental results obtained during the development process of high strength stud for the connection of high strength concrete and the steel member are reported in this paper. Also the effectiveness of newly developed shear connector using pipe(pipe stud) to increase the stiffness of a stud is verified by comparing both the stiffness and the strength with common stud bolt through the welding ability, mechanical characteristics and experimental investigation.